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Committee of |)uMicaiicm: 






Pu&lisfreK at tfje £fjarge of tfje ^ppieton jFunti. 






Watts to Monckton 

Colden to the Lords of Trade and Plantations 
Colden to Monckton 

VV UllC 












55 55 

R. Peters to 
Colden to 
Watts to 



























Chief Justice Allen to General Monckton 
Watts to Monckton 

55 55 55 . . . 

W. Smith, Jr., to Monckton 
Watts to Monckton . . . 

55 55 
55 55 

55 55 55 

Smith, Jr., to Monckton 

Three Letters from Justice Robert R. Livingston to General 
Monckton . . . 






Watts to Monckton 567 

Oliver De Lanccy to Mouckton 569 

Smith, Jr., to Monckton 570 

Watts „ „ 572 

Certificate in favor of Jane Thompson 574 

Watts to Monckton 575 

99 99 55 578 

„ „ ,5 m 581 

Lieutenant-Governor Colden's Declaration, &c, about the Stamp 

Tapers 581 

Watts to Monckton 582 

„ „ „ 584 

99 99 99 586 

99 5i >j 588 

n jj » 589 

n »j » 591 

?i >? 5i 593 

Extract of a Letter from Lieutenant-Governor Carlton to General 

Gage 594 

Watts to Monckton 595 

„ „ „ 602 

Adam Hoops to Monckton 604 

„ „ and W. Buchanan to Monckton 608 

Riot at Philadelphia 611 

Governor Eden to Lord Hillsborough 617 

Watts to Monckton 618 

Governor Eden to Lord Hillsborough 619 

5> »>»>>» 5> "Ll 

)» )? v v » b'-O 

)j » jj >» v b-4 

An Abstract of his Majesty's Instructions to Lord Dunmore . . 626 

Instructions to Lord Dunmore 630 

99 99 93 99 bb7 

Additional Instructions to Lord Dunmore 690 

Representations of the Commissioners for Trade and Plantations 

to his Majesty 691 

Governor Eden to Lord Dartmouth 692 

Copy of the King's Order restricting the Governors in America 

from granting any more lands 696 

Governor Martin to Lord Dartmouth 698 

Minutes of G. Chalmers 700 

Extract of a Letter from one of the Galloway delegates . . . 706 



Extract of a Letter from the same Gentleman 708 

Watts to Monckton 710 

Lord Dartmouth to Governor Gage 712 

55 51 55 55 55 ilo 

General Gage to Lord Dartmouth 713 

Extract of a Letter from Hampshire County (from Colonel 

Williams) 715 

Lord Dartmouth to Gage 716 

Articles Extracted — Mr. Agent (Mass.) De Berdt's Accounts . 717 

Papers relating to Virginia 717 

Dartmouth to Dunmore . 723 


55 ?» 55 '^" 

Dartmouth and Penn 729 

to Dunmore 734 


Letter to Colonel Lee 739 

Copy of Letter to Colonel Richard Henry Lee 745 

To Robert Carter Nicholas 747 

Captain Squire to Lord Dunmore 750 

Admiral Graves to Lord Dunmore 751 


55 55 55 55 55 ***** 

59 55 55 55 55 ' * UtJ 

George Montagu to the Earl of Dunmore 754 

[G. B.] to Benjamin Franklin 756 

55 55 55 55 ^62 

To Doctor William Shippen 764 

Robert Crafton to Franklin 764 

55 55 5, 766 

,, ,, ,, James Searle 767 

Substance of Information collected at New York 772 

Captain Hammond to Lord Dunmore 778 


















55 5 

5 55 

55 * 


55 ? 

5 55 

55 .... 



55 5 

5 55 

5) .... 



55 J 

5 55 

55 .... 



55 J 

5 55 

55 .... 



55 ? 

5 55 

55 .... 



55 5 

5 55 

55 .... 



Bellew to L 

3rd Dunmore 





[Hugh Griffith to] Mr. George Findlay 792 

Letter of John Chalmers 794 

[H. Griffith] to Mr. George Findlay 811 

Captain West Campbell to 814 

Statement of Charters to Plymouth and to Captain John Mason . 815 

State of the Charters of North America 817^ 

Doctor Andrew Ross's Letter to William Petrie 822 

George Chalmers to Charles Monroe 824 

Governor Dowdeswell to G. Chalmers 828 

George Chalmers to William Hamilton 830 

Colonel Barclay to illiam Hamilton 840 

Henry Goulburn to George Chalmers 842 

George Chalmers to Earl Bathurst 842 

» ?? ?) >J » 04:0 

Contents of Vol. I. — X. of the Fourth Series 853 

Index to Vol. I. — X. of the Fourth Series 861 





New York, 3 d Sept. 1763. 

Dear Sir, 

My last was 25* ult? to the care of Doct r Catherwood 
through Bristol, I have little to add to it upon business, 
but to inclose our third Bill on the Contractors for £500 
St? I gave Deale a jog lately, but he says, he has not 
been able to collect any good sum together since the last 
& only payment of £1015 17 6 — I have accounted to 
M r Hardy for the post chaise £120 — & paid your subscrip- 
tion to the Greenwich Road £20. which goes on pretty 
well. — By the papers you will see Coll? Bouquet got to 
Pittsburg with the loss of fifty kill'd & as many wounded 
out of about four hundred, his success tho' dearly bought 
enough, put us in tolerable spirits, till last night Capt n 
DalyelFs servant came from Detroit with the following 
very disagreeable piece of news — 

On the thirty first day of July about midnight, he left 
Detroit with two hundred and fifty men to surprize a num- 
ber of Indians who lay about two miles and a half from the 
Fort but before he reached them, they got intelligence of 
his coming & with a much superior number were prepared 
to receive him, the action grew warm & in it he had re- 
ceived already two wounds when a third shot laid him dead 
on the spot, near forty of the party were wounded & twelve 
or fifteen kill'd, the enemy its said lost six or eight kill'd 
and about double the number wounded, Capt. Gray of 
Gage's or rather the 80 th & Lieut. Brown of the 55 th are 
among our wounded but likely to do well — The party 



when they found they had the worst of it retired back to 
the Fort as decently as they could — Cap* Dalyell's death 
concerns us much as his conduct was always very uniform 
& sensible — 

I am always 

D r S r 

Yrs. very truly 


No matters of Government at all transacted since you 
left us except proroguing the Assembly — Things seem 
at present in a deep sleep, the old gentleman still in the 
Country — We cannot make a Council to do business with- 
out a universal summons from all quarters, Jersys, Orange 
& Jamaica — I wish My Beade was in M r Martins room 
& some body else in M r Pratt's — 


New York, 17? Sept. 1763. 

Dear Sir, 

On the 3 d inst. I wrote you by Lieut. Hill who embark'd 
in the Marlborough Transport, & sent our Papers up to 
that time — By Captain Basset who goes in this packet 
I send you the papers by themselves, as I am afraid you 
will think them hardly worth the postage — Mr. Hardy 
& his family & Major Harvey go likewise in the packet, 
but I believe their approaches to London will be but slow, 
the one from their number & luggage the other from incli- 

Deale has yet paid me no more money, I fancy it grows 
a scarce commodity, or he negligent. I will soon know 
which & see to remedy either, as time cannot make matters 
better, it may worse. 

Unfortunately for us at this advanced season, one of the 


vessels in Lake Erie sprung a leak & went down with a 
whole cargo of Provisions for Detroit — The swarthy 
tribe it is said see their error in puzzling about that Post & 
talk of cutting off the communication between Niagara & 
Lake Erie, woe betide the poor folks at the Detroit if they 
are able to carry their threat into execution, 'Tis an ugly & 
a long communication that, both by land & by water before 
you reach the length where the vessels can come to you in 
the Lake — 

No men yet ask'd of the Colonies, nor the transaction in 
Government that we have any hand in except proroguing 
the Assembly & we were forc'd to summon Lord Sterling 
quite from Long Hill down to do that, something ought 
certainly to be done to mend the Council. 
I always am 

Dear Sir 

Y rs - Very truly 


How d'ye to Gates if he is alive & has recover'd his tem- 
per, S r Harry I hope is well, & all the little ones : 

After I had finished my letter Deale brought me £1027 
18 6 balance of the Furniture which I have not time to 
remit you by this conveyance. He sends the Ace' of Sales 
however he tells me now — Some small debts are still 
outstanding which he hopes you will allow, if by chance 
they should be bad, tho' from the face of them I appre- 
hend no danger, he is a timid sort of a body, but seems 

I have paid Oliver De Lancey £16. for your Bill in his 
favour, and quite forgot to mention to you, that Deale 
deliver'd into my care the Silver Urn or Tea thing, it would 
not sell any thing near your price. It shall wait your 

Hon 1 . Gen. Monckton. 



New York Sept r 26 th 1763 

My Lords, 

Since General Monckton left this Government, I have 
seen the copy of a Representation made to him by five 
gentlemen of the Council, relating to the boundaries of 
this His Majesty's Province, which in my humble opinion, 
were it to take effect, would be pernicious to his Majesty's 
rights and revenue ; and therefore as the affairs of the 
Colonies may probably at this time, come under the con- 
sideration of his Majesty's ministers, and this Representa- 
tion may be laid before them, I think it my duty to make 
remarks upon it, to shew the mistakes these gentlemen 
have fallen into. 

Had I been apprised of it before it was made, I presume 
I should have been able to have prevented the mistakes. I 
have been 40 years at the Council Board, and in that time 
have been more conversant in publick affairs than any man 
now living in this Province. These gentlemen, all of 
them, except Mr Horsmanden, have had seats only a few 
years at the Council Board, and it is impossible they 
can be fully informed without the assistance of others. 
They have neglected likewise to consult the minutes of 
Council, when the same matter had been formerly under 
the consideration of the Council, who after long and mature 
deliberation, and after consulting the principal officers of 
government, and every other person who they thought could 
inform them, came to Resolutions very different from the 
sentiments of these gentlemen, as will appear in the 
minutes of Council of the 18 th of October 1751 ; and 
more fully and clearly in the minutes of the 2 d of March 
1753. 1 had likewise the honor to write to your Lord- 



ships predecessors in office on the same subject the 28 fcl1 
February 1761. 

The motives to the Representation are certainly just 
viz. the preventing tumults and disorders on the Borders ; 
and I join heartily in opinion with them, that it is greatly 
for his Majesty's interest, and for the benefit of this and the 
neighbouring Colonies, that an end be put as soon as pos- 
sible to these disputes ; but at the same time, I hope to 
shew by what follows, that this may be done without giv- 
ing up His Majesty's rights, or encouraging intrusions, 
which have been made, or hereafter may be made on the 
Kings lands, and without in the least distressing His 
Majesty's subjects, who have settled on these lands and 
cultivated them. 

That I may not too much trespass on your Lordships' 
patience, I shall pass over several mistakes in this Represen- 
tation, that I may come to the principal error upon which 
the whole is founded with respect to the Massachusetts 
Bay. It is this. 

The Gentlemen, as they say, " have been informed that 
in the Year 1664, Commissioners were appointed by King 
Charles the Second, to settle the Boundaries between this 
and the adjacent Colonies, who determined that a Line 
parallel to Hudson's River, and at twenty miles distant 
from it on the East side thereof should divide the two 
Provinces of New York and Massachusetts Bay from each 
other, to which the Legislature of the latter agreed as 
appears by the Record of this transaction at the Planta- 
tion Office. But this settlement was never carried 
into effect, has been rejected or not insisted on by the 
Massachusetts Bay, is not mentioned in any of the Publick 
Records or Papers here, nor was introduced in the debates 
on this subject at the Congress or Meeting of Commission- 
ers from both Provinces, at Albany in the Year 1754:, and 
till very lately hath been utterly unknown to us," 

In consequence of this new discovery, they conclude, 


that a line at twenty miles distance from Hudson's River 
would be an equitable boundary, not only between New 
York and Massachusetts Bay, but likewise between New 
York and New Hampshire. 

There is great reason to doubt of some mistake in this 
information. That the whole of that settlement of boun- 
dary related to Connecticut only, and not to the Massachu- 
setts Bay ; for as to Connecticut it appears on the Records 
of New York, but in no shape as to Massachusetts Bay. 
It is unaccountably odd, if this information be true, that in 
so long a time, the people of Massachusetts Bay should at 
no time avail themselves of it, unless it be supposed, that 
they are convinced of its being now of no force. 

If the equity be considered, by which the settlement of 
boundary with Connecticut was made, it will appear that 
the equity did in no manner extend to the Massachusetts 

Before the Duke of York received his grant, and while 
the Dutch were in possession of New York, the people 
of Connecticut had their principal towns and settlements 
on the West side of Connecticut River (which is the East- 
ern boundary of the Province of New York) and had 
even extended their settlements on the sea coast within 
ten miles of Hudson's River ; but the Massachusetts Bay 
(as I have been informed and believe) had made no settle- 
ments so far West as Connecticut River. It was in con- 
sideration of these settlements made by Connecticut, that 
the boundary between New York and Connecticut was 
fixed 20 miles from Hudson's River, reserving however to 
Connecticut the settlements actually made though within 
less than ten miles from Hudson's River ; for which they 
were to allow an equivalent in the inland parts where they 
had no settlements. By this equivalent the distance 
between Hudson's River and Connecticut in the upper 
parts is above 22 miles. The not considering the want of 
equity in the Massachusetts Bay, which Connecticut 


evidently has, produced an essential error in the judgment 
which the gentlemen formed of this matter. 

About the year 1675 (if I mistake not the year) the 
charter of the Massachusetts Bay was, by decree in Chan- 
cery declared void. This decree was never reversed and 
remains in force at this day. Thereby the Duke's title to 
the lands on the West side of Connecticut River became 
indisputable ; and this decree put an end to all settlement 
of boundary with Massachusetts Bay, if any there were. 
While the Duke was thus seized of his Province of New 
York, as far as Connecticut River, he succeeded to the 
Crown of England, and thereby the Province of New York 
became part of the Crown Lands, and has ever since 
passed with the Crown. 

After the Revolution, the Colony of Massachusetts Bay 
obtained a new charter from King William, by which that 
Colony is to extend as far Westward as Connecticut As 
it nowhere appears that the King had any intention to 
grant any part of his Province of New York to the Colony 
of Massachusetts Bay, the word Connecticut must mean the 
River Connecticut and if the people of Massachusetts Bay 
had made no settlement at that time on the West side of 
Connecticut River, as I am confident they had not, their 
charter can receive no other construction, either in law or 
equity, than that the Colony of Massachusetts Bay extends 
as far westward as Connecticut River and no farther. By 
inspecting any general Map of the Northern Colonies, it 
appears that the Colony of Massachusetts Bay cannot be 
bounded to the westward by the Colony of Connecticut. 

In my humble opinion no reason of any weight can be 
given, why the King should not affirm his right to the 
lands on the West side of Connecticut River, and to the 
northward of the Colony of Connecticut, unless it be that 
many families who have unadvisedly settled on the West 
side of Connecticut River, would thereby be ruined. But 
if the King shall think fit to confirm their possessions to 


them, on their paying the Quitrent established in his Prov- 
ince of New York, they cannot in any shape be distressed, 
or have any just reason of complaint. 

As the Province of New Hampshire is bounded to the 
Westward by the Eastern boundary of his Majesty's other 
Governments, the Governor of New Hampshire can have 
no pretence for extending his claim on the West side of 
Connecticut River which is the boundary Eastward there 
of the Province of New York, especially after repeated 
remonstrances had been made to him, by the Government 
of New York, on this head. Notwithstanding of this the 
Governor of New Hampshire continues to grant lands far 
to the Westward of Connecticut River, to numbers of people 
who make a job of them, by selling shares in the neigh- 
bouring Colonies, and have even attempted it in the City 
of New York, and perhaps not without success. The 
Quitrents in New Hampshire, as I am informed, are much 
lower than in New York, this is made use of as an induce- 
ment to purchase under New Hampshire, rather than to 
settle under New York grants. 

The most surprising part of the Representation of these 
Gentlemen is that they should propose only a saving of the 
grants in New York which extend above 20 miles from 
Hudson's River and were made before the second charter 
to Massachusetts Bay, when it is clear that the second 
charter cannot extend beyond Connecticut River, and it is 
not so that the first did not. 

In the last place I cannot conceive on what principles of 
justice, policy or public utility these gentlemen advise the 
settling the boundary between His Majesty's Province of 
New York, and the Colonies of Massachusetts Bay and 
New Hampshire at 20 miles East from Hudson's River. 

If all the lands in the Province of New York from 20 
miles of Hudson's River to Connecticut River, were given 
up, the Crown would be deprived of a Quitrent amounting 
yearly to a large sum, in my opinion, greater than the amount 


of all the Quitrents of the whole that would remain and is 
now received. 

The New England Governments are formed on Repub- 
lican principles, and those principles are zealously incul- 
cated on their youth, in opposition to the principles of the 
Constitution of Great Britain. The Government of New 
York on the contrary is established, as nearly as may be, 
after the model of the English Constitution. Can it then be 
good policy to diminish the extent of Jurisdiction in His 
Majesty's Province of New York, to extend the power and 
influence of the other. 

The commerce of the inhabitants on the East side of 
Hudson's River, to a great extent Eastward, probably as far 
as Connecticut River, is with the towns on Hudson's River ; 
it must then be extremely inconvenient to them to be under 
different laws, different jurisdictions, and different curren- 
cies of money. 

I have no objections to the observations the gentlemen 
have made as to the boundary of this Province Westward. 
And I join heartily with them in recommending a proper 
fund to be established for recovering his Majestys rights 
from all intruders. It appears by the King's instructions to 
his Governor of this Province that his Majesty has been in- 
formed of great intrusions on his rights by private persons, 
and the Governor is directed to take a legal means for re- 
covering of the King's rights. But this cannot be done 
without great expense at law, for which there is great rea- 
son that provision be made, because no officer can do his 
duty without incurring the resentment of rich and powerful 

I am, with great submission 
My Lords &c 




New York, October 7 th 1763. 

Since you left this place, I have seen the Copy of a 
Representation to your Excellency by five Gentlemen of the 
Council, in which I have observed several mistakes, which 
I think may be prejudicial to his Majesty s Interest at this 
time, when probably the affairs of the Colonies may come 
under the consideration of his Ministers. I have therefor 
thought it my Duty to put the subject Matter of that Rep- 
resentation in a truer light, as I conceive it, by a letter 
which I write at this time to the Lords of Trade & Planta- 
tions, a Copy of which I inclose, that you may be likewise 
informed & that your Excellency may be more fully ap- 
prized of what may be proper to be done. 

It may not be improper to observe to your Excellency, 
that it has been usual to send over a new Great Seal for 
this Province at the Accession of a New King. It has 
been longer delayed at this time than usual & may be for- 
got. The Kings & Queens Pictures have likewise been 
usually sent at the same time & some other things. 

You know, sir, the State of the Fort, that it is needless 
for me to mention any thing of it, but allow me to put you 
in mind of poor Christopher Blundel, who has lost his pay 
by the disbanding of the independent companies. You 
know him to be an useful & carefull man. There is not 
any person to take care of the stores, Ammunition or of 
any thing else except himself, & he continues to take care 
of them, in hopes of being some how provided for. 

The Assembly meets the 8 th of next month. I shall do 
my self the honour of writing to you, of what ever I think 


you may be desirous to know. At present I have nothing 
to add, but that, I am with the greatest Respect 

Your most obedient & 
most humble servant 


His Excellency Major General Monckton. 

(Pr. Capt. Taylor to London.) 

New York 30*11 Oetob! 1763. 

Dear Sir, 

My last was 17 ult. by the Halifax Packet. When the 
Cumberland sail'd, I was roving in the woods as a Trustee 
about a family law suit, and at my return found your favor 
of 13'S Aug* at home, which gave me great pleasure to find 
you were all got safe & well on t'other side the water — I 
have paid your compliments to all your friends in our 
circle & return'd Mr. Cruger your thanks for his sons 
obliging behavior to your family at Bristol. Napier is well 
& offers his best respects to you, S r Jeffery is just return'd 
from an excursion to Albany for ten or twelve days to meet 
S* William about Indian affairs which dont seem to be 
mended. — You will have seen that they cut off a party 
sometime ago on the Portage between Niagara & Lake 
Erie in consequence of their threats & kill'd about ninety 
men out of about a hundred & fifteen or twenty, these were 
suppos'd to be the Senecas who are now openly declar'd 
against us, & have threaten'd it's said some of the rest of 
the Six Nations, to extirpate them if they do not immedi- 
ately join the Confederacy — Sf William is very appre- 



hensive of his own safety & if he quits, the whole Mohawks 
River they say will break up — Our Assembly meet in 
common course Tuesday next a week — We have heard 
nothing yet of a demand of men nor have we done any 
business of consequence or indeed that deserves a recapitu- 
lation since you left us, I heartily wish some vigorous 
measures may be taken relative to the Boundaries of the 
Colony or we shall be plagu'd to death with intestine dis- 
putes & divisions but in the confus'd situation they them- 
selves are represented at home, we have not appearances 
much in our favor. Some letters from Ireland mention 
Lord Hillsborough's being at the Head of the Board of 
Trade from whence it's inferr'd Lord Shelburne succeeds 
Lord Egremont — Apropos, The College agent, M r Jay, 
writes the Governors that he spoke to Lord Shelburne about 
a grant of land for the use of the College which his Lord- 
ship seem'd to relish very well. If an order could be obtain'd. 
for the Governor to grant it, I should imagine it would 
not be a wrong measure & if you would be so good as to 
countenance it if it falls easily in your way, the Governors 
I am sure would be very grateful for the favor. The quan- 
tity must be submitted to the Bounty of the Crown, as it 
must be taken up at a great distance & will for a long 
time be of little value, about Ten thousand acres has 
occurr'd to me as a seemly quantity enough, however that 
& every thing else relative to it must be humbly submitted 
to the Donors. If the quit rent could be releas'd as the 
distance will render the income for a long time unequal 
to any burthen it would be a very great favor, but this & 
every other circumstance as I have already said, must be 
as it must be — The Governors have thought it Mr. Jay's 
duty to wait on you before he moves any further in it, to 
know your pleasure & pray your countenance which they 
will be very thankful for — I am directed to present to 
you their best respects & good wishes. And now for 
domestic business. The carved work & glass at the Fort I 


believe we shall get the Assembly to pay for, as it would 
be a pity to move it & it will sell for a price far inferior to 
its worth. The Farm Deale says is not in a clever way, 
with respect to the household furniture and implements, 
&c, one claims one thing & another another, till he says all 
will be gone without some directions. — General Amherst 
has made no use of it — The Gardiner has had a pure time 
— Daddy Horsemanden has not yet paid for the chariot, 
you know his motion is slow at best & I don't think matri- 
mony has mended it — John Leary offers £50. for the 
horse & will throw in the keeping which he says is almost 
twenty pounds more, I told him I could say nothing to it 
but would let you know it — I am tired of writing & I 
am sure you must be much more of reading, if you are so 
indulgent as to go thro' this long scrawl at one sitting, I 
shall therefore beg my sincere respects to family Gates, 
S? Harry, Seton & all friends, 

& remain with unfeign'd regard, 

D r S r 

Yy Most faithful & 

Ob* Serv* 


A report spreads very current of G. A. going home & 
G. Gage coming down, I don't know what foundation it 
has — Inclosed is De Lancey & Watts' Bill on S* James 
Colebrooke & Partners Value £400. Stg. 90 p ct. £760 
Currency. Bills are scarce even at that high rate. 


New York 24* Nov. 1763. 

Dear Sir, 

The foregoing long rough scrawl I send you, least the 
original sho'd miscarry, as it relates to some particulars, it 



may not be improper for you to be acquainted with — Not 
one word have we heard from you since your letters of the 
beginning of August soon after your arrival — G. Amherst 
sail'd a week ago in the Weasel, he can tell you the situ- 
ation of affairs in general much better than I can or indeed 
any body else. We all parted very well, C. and he rather 
cool, but I shall always acknowledge and will gratefully 
return his great politeness and civility to me — My respects 
wait on him & Coll Amherst, the Colonel's benevolent 
disposition every body commends & respects. 

What measures will be pursued under the present com- 
mand is not in my power to tell you, but from what I can 
collect without doors the ideas of Indian affairs differ — 
M r A. demanded of this Colony 1400 men, of Jersey 600, 
of the Southward some for their own Frontiers, but now 
its said of all N. England, which these Colonies do not 
relish. Jack Franks has your papers, votes, speeches, and 
addresses, by which you will in some measure feel the 
pulse of the House, they are at present squabbling about 
a Corporation Law that limits the price of provisions at 
market, which does not at all set easy on the voracious 
stomachs of the country people & which to speak with 
strict impartiality, was both very precipitately and unfa- 
vorably made, if it was to be made at all — But their sense 
of the General's requisition from what I can collect from 
some of the leading members is this, that being most 
threatened, they are content to vote & have voted 200 men 
for the Western Frontiers, Ulster, & Orange one hundred 
for Albany to the Southwest & three hundred to preserve 
the communication between Fort Stanwyx & Oswego — If 
it is to be a general offensive war, they say, to do the busi- 
ness effectually, the whole requisition is unequal to the 
work, the troops will be cut piece meal to pieces, the 
enemy will gain confidence and strength by new alliances, 
and therefore all the Colonies at least ought to be call'd 
upon to make the work sure & expeditious, more espe- 

1763.] TH E ASP1NWALL PAPERS. 503 

cially as this kind of savage warfare is in its nature so dis- 
tressing by its protraction. Jersey lies couchant waiting 
to see what this Colony does & then will act in a sneaking 
epitome as they always do — This Colony besides subsist- 
ing the above six hundred men, continues likewise the one 
hundred & seventy two, that you kept in service by advice 
of Counsel, after the expiration of their time so that 
including officers, it has above eight hundred men voted & 
on actual service together — The Committee for Corres- 
pondence told me they intended to send you an account of 
their proceedings with their reasons : &c : — 

We have been teased with Major Sheen's exorbitant 
claim, not having a letter wrote by the Board of Trade to 
Gov? De Lancey that fell into the President's hands dated 
13*u June 1760, he thinks we have trespassed on his rights, 
the Grant to the Artillery Company does comprehend 
some settlements of his, which we have left them to accom- 
modate as well as they can, engaging the Artillery to give 
them the like quantity adjoining their tract — if they do 
consent to resign his absolute settlement & his Honor has 
hinted that unless they do, their grant shall not pass the 
seals, so there is a queer jumble among them. However 
to pacify the Major & at the same time pay a respect to G. 
Amherst's great promise to him, we have advis'd his Honor 
to grant him a Tract of twenty five thousand acres in a 
square comprehending the Falls of Wood Creek where he 
has a Mill, the Creek running pretty near through the 
middle of the tract — The Assembly have yet sent us up 
no Bill, they have voted the three puisny Judges two 
hundred salary each, the old gentleman rests where he 
was & will be pure & gruff about it — Old S. makes no 
figure upon the Bench, he wants his son's able talents — 
An Express they say brings an account of the Moravian 
Mills at Bethlehem being burnt by the Indians, 'tis a pity, 
they were of a fine construction & it will distress the set- 
tlement — I cannot for my life see yet a probable end of 


this infernal war cither by force or treaty — the one is so 
difficult & the other so uncertain & tame. 

My heartiest respects to my friend Allen & his family, 
I rec"! his welcome letter before he set out for the North 
& answer'd it very circumstantially, his family are well — 
They have had a round of dinners, addresses, &c. on the 
arrival of M r Penn, but the addresses of the Corporation 
& Clergy rather seemed calculated for the predecessor 
than the person in possession, how the assembly will incline 
is yet to appear. 

I am very sincerely, 
D r S r 
y r faithful & 

obligd humb! Serv 4 


The 2 d Bill for £400 st g is enclosed. 


New York, 10* Dec! 1763. 

Dear Sir, 

My last was a terribly long one by Jack Franks, not one 
syllable have we had the pleasure of hearing from you 
since your first arrival — The October Mail got here in 
course, but the preceding of September was shipwreck'd 
on the Coast of North Carolina, found very well soaked at 
a great distance from the vessel & is yet on its way — 
hither. Coll° Philips Morris goes home in this packet and 
has your papers, votes, &c, he will tell you personally what 
is doing here. I am sorry the assembly out of dislike to 
the old man have taken off the £200, they added to your 
Salary, it looks too unsteady. Gen! Gage I believe has 


made a requisition of all the Colonies for men to act vig- 
orously in the spring but has got no answer. Jersey re- 
jected Gen. A! moderate demand of six hundred and voted 
only two, with such mean pay as its thought the Governor 
cannot consent to, as it would entirely counteract the ser- 
vice. Philadelphia is doing nothing, Gen! A, ask'd a 
thousand men but the assembly has not since sat. 

I have rec d of the Treasurer £136. 19. 7 for your 
Salary from VS to 25*ft June & £181. 10. 2 J from the old 
gentleman for half the salary from thence to I s * Sep*. r — 
Nothing else occurs to me but to subscribe myself 
Dear Sir, 

Yf M? Faithful H! Serv* 


We are passing many Bills I [was] but sadly puzzled to 
make a Council & after all to have a whole Branch of the 
Legislature trusted in the hands of three men, the major- 
ity of five is too much — Wont Clark resign it does him no 
good, Martin's time is expired, poor Mr. Read again disap- 
pointed by Apthorp's getting in the way. 


New York 27 th Dec! 1763. 

Dear Sir, 

The 10^ inst. I had the pleasure of writing to you by 
the Pitt Packet, which I believe I may venture to refer to, 
as my letter is not to pass thro' the Indian Country. We 
have to this time not heard a syllable from you since your 
first arrival. The Greenwich road is ready & a very 
good one it is. 

The Indians you will see have made a Truce with Major 



Gladwin, with what view or from what motive is uncer- 
tain, this good effect however flow'd from it to that har- 
rass'd garrison, it permitted the Major to collect the pro- 
visions from the adjacent inhabitants & to lay in a stock 
both of food & fuel to l 8 * July next, at a distress'd time 
when he had but fourteen days left & when Major Wil- 
kins on whom his whole dependence lay, by bad weather 
on the Lake had lost above seventy of his party, most of 
the provisions, many of his batteaux, all to a trifle of his 
ammunition and was oblig'd to return back to Niagara, 
from whence he came — Moncrief was upon this jaunt, 
but has brought back his belly as plump & as prominent 
as ever. 

I told you we have about eight hundred men in pay of 
this Colony now, the 172 you continued & the 300, to 
keep up the communication between Fort Stanwyx & Os- 
wego under the command of the General, the remainder 
to guard the Western Frontier, under the command of 
the Governor. My regards to all friends & believe me 

Df S r 

Y r . 8 &c: &c: 



New York, 29* Dec. 1763. 

Dear Sir, 

I have already wrote you by this conveyance but forgot 
to mention that the Assembly were somewhat alarm'd at a 
letter from the agent indicating the danger their act was 
in of a repeal, " For dividing the Great Patents," which 
certainly is a useful act as it answers the purposes of the 
Crown by putting these Patents in a state of settlement, 


which they cannot otherwise do, as there are so many ab- 
sentees, minors & God knows what, besides a present 
repeal wonld injure many people who have been at a con- 
siderable expense & mean I am sure very fairly to the pub- 
lic — The lazy Committee I find have neither wrote to you 
nor the Agent, representing the state of the Colony but as 
the Assembly is just broke up, they propose setting about 
it without any further delay. 

We were yesterday in Council declaring War against 
New Hampshire for scandalously hawking about Town- 
ships to the highest bidders and taking in every ignorant 
Peasant both in this Colony & the Jersys for what money 
they have to spare for Grants its imagined they have not 
the least right to make — the Proclamation is not yet 
printed, you will have one when it is. Mr Colden will 
send another to the Board of Trade — When will they 
make the Colonies so happy as to settle their limits 1 'tis a 
cruel neglect — I forgot to tell you before that the two 
pipes of Madeira lie safe asleep in my cellar. 
I am always 

DF Sir. 

y r most Obd* humb 1 Serv? 


The good folks at home are quite overshooting the mark 
about trade here, little do they think Mother Country will 
pay for it all at last & when that happens commerce will 
be dispassionately consider'd. The intercourse between 
the Dutch &c, & the Colonies (I mean Dry Goods every 
where) ought to be entirely suppress'd, but the rigorous 
execution of the Sugar is injurious, Like ninepins, says 
Hudibras, one merchant knocks down another, the King 
Pins that fall heaviest will fall at home, & manufacturers 
feel the weight of 'em — 




Philadelphia January 19 th 1764 

D E Sir, 

I wrote to you by Mr. Croghan who took his passage to 
London in the Britania Captain Tillet, and sail'd from our 
Capes the 30 th last month, to which please be referred. 
Since then the Connastago Indians were all killed, of which 
affair permit me to give you a Detale. 

About 40 of the Inhabitants of Paxton on some as- 
surance, they had received, that the Connastagoe Indians 
tho under the protection of Pensylvania, had from time 
to time since the commencement of the present war with 
the Savages, not only carryed them all the news they 
could collect, but also great Quantities of Amunition, did 
arm themselves and goe down to the mannor, and there 
killed 6 of the said Indians, this was loked upon by the 
Government as a most horrid action, and not only a vio- 
lation of the laws of Government & society but of hu- 
manity. Therefore the Governor issued his proclamation 
offering a Reward for apprehending any of the Murderers 
and Bringing them to Justice. 

The Magistrates of Lancaster, on the Commission of the 
above affair, for the more effectually protecting the 14 
surviving Indians of the Conastagoe gang, from a like 
fate, order'd them into the Work house of that Burrough. 
But no sooner had the above proclamation appeared, than 
the enraged Inhabitants from all parts of the Frontiers, 
collected together, and agreed on going to Lancaster, to 
finish the 14 Indians, which they accordingly did. 

All this tho' in fact committed by persons of various 
Countries and Denominations, the Quakers alledge was 


done by the Irish, whom they call Eebels, Murderers and 
disturbers of the peace ; recounting the Irish massacre 
which they say was not of a more barbarous nature than 
the present, and threaten them with all the Vengeance of 
Justice. Those Discriminations are very disagreeable to 
the Irish in this City, and am apprehensive will produce 
very inveterate parties in the Government. The Presby- 
terians are kindling fast and considering themselves as the 
only people, at whom those invectives are aimed ; are 
determined to lay aside the Religious animossities subsist- 
ing between themselves, and now unite to make the Gov- 
ernment as Disagreeable to the Quakers as they possibly 
can, and in order thereto will the next Ellection Day, 
choose their Cleargy to represent them ; a thing that I 
believe will prove very disatisfactory to the Friends. 

Every person that Regards the Rights of Society should 
condemn those Rioters, as violators of the peace and quiet 
of the Community ; and because we know not, where or 
how such may end ; every body ought to Endeavour to 
suppress them. But the meathod we take to preserve 
Peace and administer Justice in the present affair, only 
tends to inflame the minds of People and begets a 
Civil War, and tho' the Manner of killing those Indians 
appears dasterdly and savage, yet upon a Recollection of 
the following facts, I think the Horror of the Crime will 
be much extenuated. 

1 st That the Government upon the Commencement of 
this War did not afford to the people that succour and pro- 
tection that was due to them & their condition then 
required, is well known. 

2? That in consequence of this default of the Govern- 
ment many families were drove from Competancy, to the 
greatest degree of want & misery, and that hundreds 
had fallen sacrifices to the Cruelty of the unprovoked 
Savages is a melancholly truth 

3? That the Government tho' affectedly and ostenta- 


tiously Charitable, & tho' very sensible of the number of 
Widows, orphans and helpless Families now naked and 
starving thro the Country, who were drove from their 
Plantations By the Indians ; have not given them the least 
Eeleaf, is a fact that stains their Humanity, and that the 
poor Sufferers can testify. — 

4 e . h That a number of Voluntiers frequently had gone 
out against the Indians, without fee or Reward from the 
Government, and return'd with scalps ; yet instead of meet- 
ing with the Countenance and Encouragement of the Gov- 
ernment, they were discouraged, nay abused for asking a 
Premium for the scalps they produced. This is too well 
known. — 

5 4 . h That the Indians residing amongst the Moravians 
have killed some of the Inhabitants of North Hampton 
could be presumptively proved, and that they had supplyd 
the Enemy Indians with amunition, was fully proved, yet 
those Indians were brought down 155 in number and 
placed on the province Island, there tenderly fed and 
cloathed at the publicks expense whilst the poor Creatures 
that were drove from their habitations by those and other 
Indians have not felt the lest spark of the Governments 
Charity or Compassion, tho in a most deplorable Con- 
dition for the want of the necessaries of Life. This is 
also a fact not to be denyed. I leave to you Sir to infer 
from those truly stated facts, as you please, which when 
done, I dare say will lessen in your eyes, the crime of the 
Paxton Voluntiers. I shall only say, that the Government 
failing to give the people that protection, they were bound 
to do ; the compact between them, is broke ; and that the 
people are then by the Laws of Nature oblig'd to preserve 
themselves ; and that the most effectual way of doing this, 
is to kill those Barbarians wherever they meet them. 
You" 11 say perhaps the Paxton Volunteers ought instead of 
killing those Indians, to avenge themselves of them in a 
Judiciary way, I answer, that to expect this were in vain ; 


because they saw the Moravian Indians, whose villenies & 
treachery to the people on the frontiers of North Hampton, 
were more notorious than that of the Conastoga Indians, to 
the Inhabitants of Lancaster County, yet they were thro 
the influence of the Q. M r cherished and supported by the 
Government. M? Dow is now in town and declares that 
one of those very Indians which I. — P. — hugs in his 
Bosom, was at Bouquet's Action, in armes against us. Is 
not this intollerable. — 

Our assembly is now sitting, what they are doing, I can- 
not tell you ; but that a Bill is preparing to enact a Law, 
that who ever may kill an Indian hereafter, shall be 
brought down to Philadf County, Bucks or Chester ; to 
be tried and if they are Ierish [Irish] hang them right 
or wrong. This is pretty well from a people remarkably 
tenacious of their Liberties. M r . Aliens absence is now 
much regretted. 

When the Indians were killed at Lancaster, those that 
were fattening on the Island, the Quakers apprehended, 
were in danger from the Paxton People ; and thereupon 
got them into Boats with a number of sailors & cannon to 
defend them, & put armes into their hands, desiring them 
to defend themselves, that the Irish were coming down 
to kill them. I. — P. — was Generalissimo on this ocasion. 
They afterwards thought to send them thro' York Govern- 
ment, to their Brethren in the woods. But the Yorkers 
would not suffer them to pass thro that Government, so 
they are obliged to Return and are now quartered on the 
friends thro' the Country. I have tired you with this sub- 
ject so shall desist. — 

Yours &c &c 




New York, January 21 8t 1764. 


Capt n Hawker of the Sardine sloop of War made a 
seizure of a Ship & Cargo, & came to inform me of what 
he had don. At the same time he told me, that he intended 
to claim one half for officers & Crew. I answered him that 
by the statute by which the ship & Cargo are forfeited, one 
third is given to the Governor, & that I could not consent 
to give up the Rights of the Governor, that no part or 
clause of the statute by which only the ship & cargo is for- 
feited is repealed by the late statute under which he claims 
a moyety. However, that without giving myself any trouble, 
I must leave the matter to the Court in which the vessel 
shall be condemned. 

Not satisfied with this, Capt u Hawker went to the Attor- 
ney-General & M r Smith Jun r for their opinion, which they 
gave in writing, a Copy of which I inclose. This not being 
favourable to Cap* Hawkers pretensions, I suppose that he 
informed Admiral Lord Colville of it, who on that occasion 
wrote a warm letter to the Judge of the Admiralty, which 
either intimidated or made him so cautious, that he did not 
as usually decree one third of the forfeiture to the King, 
one third to the Governor, & the remaining third to the 
Prosecutor, but in general terms To His Majesty & -such 
persons as are intituled to the same, pursuant to the sev- 
eral Statutes, in such cases provided, tho' the vessel & 
cargo could not otherwise be forfeited than by the Statutes 
which give one third to the Governor. 

In consequence of this Sentence I am informed the 
money ariseing from the Sale of the Forfeitures is to be 
lodged in the Collectors hands, who it is said, will retain 


the same, untill he shall receive direction from his Supe- 
riors for the Distribution of it. 

As this matter concerns you Sir, & future Governors 
more than it can do me, during the short time I expect to 
hold the Administration, I think it my Duty to inform you 
of it, that you may take such care of your own Interest & 
of the Governors of this Province as you shall think proper. 
I shall only take the liberty to observe, that as the Gover- 
nor is sworn to observe the Laws of Trade, & has a large 
body of directions on that head, this care gives him more 
trouble than any other part of his administration. I pre- 
sume, His Majesty does not intend to deprive his Gov- 
ernor of any reward for this service which the Law gives 
him. Notwithstanding that the Governor retains a third 
of the forfeiture given by law the Capt n Officers & crew of 
his Majestyes ships may receive one Moyety out of the two 
thirds to the King & the Prosecutor, if his Majesty shall 
please to order it so 

I am with great respect 

Your most obedient & 
most humble servant 


Major General 
honourable Robert Monckton. 

P.S. I am informed that in a Similar case the Judge of the 
Admiralty at Boston, has lately decreed one third of the for- 
feiture to the King, one third to the Governor & the re- 
maining third to the Prosecutor. 




New York 212 Jany. 1764. 

Dear Sir, 

Your favor of 10^ Nov? has at last given me the satis- 
faction of hearing from you by the Harriet packet, the 
Halifax that was to follow 26 k u is not arriv'd tho' the 
weather is the finest in the World, perfect Spring. We 
wish the expected packet in, more particularly to know 
what complexion this animated session of Parliament is to 
wear, political painters differ so much in their representa- 
tions that nothing but the life will do — 

Mr. A's friends report that his Mandamus was on board 
the shipwreck' d packet, he talks himself of settling in Eng- 
land soon, & says it is not worth his while to qualify. — 
Mr. Chambers I believe must soon make another vacancy 
these old Dons seem to be but a dead weight at best, they 
may serve in that sense as drags do to a kite to keep it 
steady & from flying too high. 

The five members of Council meant I am sure no prej- 
udice to his Majesty's interest but the old gentleman affects 
much in appearing very profound at home, grant him that 
indulgence & one other, of granting lands & you have the 
man — The case from the beginning as I understand is 
simply this, eternal quarrels subsisted between the borderers 
in which several lives were lost, Commissioners were ap- 
pointed by the different governments to settle a line of 
Jurisdiction or Peace to prevent the effusion of more blood, 
I was one of them myself, but we could agree upon nothing 
their demands were so high. We argu'd for Connecticut 
lliver, they for the South Sea, think how we were to meet 
— afterwards when the quotas of the Colonies were settled 
in a grand Congress at Albany, the thing was then more 


solemnly treated than ever, tho' to as little purpose, they 
would not allow us even the twenty miles so far from ex- 
tending to Connecticut River, the Board of Trade then took 
it in hand & recommended it to the King in Council for the 
present quiet & good government of the respective Colonies 
to settle the line of Jurisdiction twenty miles from Hudson's 
River there it has rested ever since & there the Council 
took it up to preserve peace & good order, not to determine 
property, if this be wrong, they are wrong and the old 
casuist right — I must observe before I leave the tedious 
tale that from whatever we could collect of their statements 
at home, tho' they meant to give us the extent of twenty 
miles, the words did not comprehend it supposing the 
River to run due North & South they divided a due East 
line perpendicular to the River, but its course is North in- 
clining to the East, by which a due East line does not 
intersect it at right angles & reduces the difference to 
something better than eighteen miles — So much for 
Boundaries & Rivers — 

I have told you that I had rec* your salary from 1 st to 
25% June £136 19 7 & from thence to I 8 ,* Sept? am*? 
£181 10 2J. Nothing else yet, the Custom House folks 
have promis'd to settle & pay me your part of the seizure 
soon. The Gardener at Greenwich has had £25, half a 
year's salary, Deale thinks he is an idle dog — You 
seemed to be doubtful when you left us about my remitting 
such sums of money as came into my hands, if I am to do 
it regularly, it shall not by any means be neglected. — 
When the Cumberland packet sail'd I was out of town or 
you should not have been loaded with the postage of a 
bundle of insignificant papers — a Cap* Grant of the 77% 
has 'em this Trip. 

The N. E. Governments seem to sneer at Gen G 8 requi- 
sition & grant no men, but his Majesty's has since gone, 
what they will do with that is not known, they confess the 
cup to be bitter (meaning the Indian War) but add they 


were for a long time oblig'd to drink of it unassisted & 
alone, a Peace at last will I believe be the thing & the 
terrible insults & injuries we have receiv'd be quietly 
pocketted — 

I always am — 

D r sr 

Yf Most faithful 

& Humb! Serv fc 


This minute I rec d Maj. Gates fa! of 10^ Octf with the 
papers for which I pray you'd return him a thousand thanks 
— The packet being on the point of sailing & my hands 
overloaded I sent the letters to Napier to answer, but his 
reply to me was unanswerable by G — however I 

don't think so & if I have a moment left it shall be devoted 
to his service, if not I acknowledge my self his debtor till 
the next conveyance. 


New York, 11* March 1764. 

Dear Sir, 

My last were by Aberdeen, the General's Steward, he 
had the papers, &c. & so had Mf Gibson, M r Aliens rela- 
tion who followed in the Halifax Packet. Lieut. Hogarth 
of the 77u h I propose to entrust them to in this Packet, 
tho' I can't say the trust is very great considering the mat- 
ter they are composed of — 

Mf Colden has paid me £225. the half of a quarter's 
salary from 1?* Septf to 18 Dec! I don't remember to have 
either receiv'd or paid any thing else on your account, the 
Custom House have not yet paid me your proportion of the 


seizure, nor the old man for the Chariot, he seems to be 
rather long winded, shall I give him a jog, the other gentry 
I shan't hesitate about at all. Bunyan says when he settles 
the amount of perquisites he will pay me your moiety — 
the Wine and Silver Urn are safe hitherto from all accidents. 
Greenwich stands still empty as it did, people wish you 
would fill it again, I observ'd before to you that Gen. 
Gage would like to have it, till either you arriv'd or relin- 

quish'dit. 1169698 

The Merchants send you a copy of their memorial on 
Trade tho' I believe it will come a day after the fair from 
what Mr. Allen writes me, 'Tis long and I think rather 
labored but has a tolerable share of matter in it that might 
have been or possibly may yet be of use, a copy goes recom- 
mended by his Honor & the Council, to the Board of 
Trade & now I mention His Honor & the Council, least 
you sho'd hear it improperly represented, I believe it may 
not be amiss to let you know, that they seem to have given 
their neighbors of Philadelphia some umbrage, how justly 
you shall judge. They had voted a thousand men, but dis- 
puted as usual about the mode of raising the money, by 
which the service stops. Therefore wanting men to protect 
about a hundred and forty Indians of all ages, sizes & 
sexes they have among them, from the Paxton Volunteers 
as they are called, who had already kill'd some at Lancas- 
ter ; both to get rid of the expense of maintenance & to 
avoid the imputation, that must naturally fall upon such a 
feeble disjointed Government if the Indians sho'd be mur- 
der'd, they had the conscience to propose to let them loose 
upon our shoulders, provok'd & irritated as they were, by 
sending them through this Province up to Albany to get 
upon the Susquehanna from whence they would cut every- 
body's throat that fell in their way — they had proceeded 
as far as Amboy before the Government was informed of 
it, but the moment it got the notice they were forbid a pas- 
sage & oblig'd to return not to the (Province) Island from 


whence they came, but to the barracks, for the greater 
security. We cou'd not comprehend that because the 
Government of Pennsylvania would not do their duty, that 
we were to have a parcel of irritated savages, at present 
in our power, turned loose upon our Borders to destroy the 
innocent and defenceless settlers — If murders must be 
committed let them fall on those who deserve it, the 
Quakers or Indians or rioters or any body but the innocent 
peasant, who is guilty of no iniquity, nor concerned in any 
party to prevent the public good — I have mention'd all 
this to Mr. Allen I have wrote him — Franklin has wrote 
a pamphlet against the Paxton people & towards the con- 
clusion gives this Colony a stroke for not permitting the 
Indians a passage, but unluckily a few lines further, as 
an argument against the rioters confesses the very rea- 
sons that govern'd us viz : that it was infinitely better 
maintaining them at some small expense than let them 
loose to cut our throats on the Frontiers. 

Upon Gen! Gage's succession to the command he per- 
mitted Sf Will. Johnson to accept of the Indians offers of 
services in consequence of which several parties were fitted 
out against the Delewares & Shawanese, a day or two ago, 
the Lieut. Governor receiv'd a letter from him of which 
the enclos'd is a Copy, there is also added the copy of a 
paragraph from Major Hogan, as the one throws a light 
upon the other — If the Five Nations are in earnest these 
vermin will be soon either quieted or eradicated — at 
Pittsburg they have renew'd hostilities & killed one man 
out of a dozen of a wood cutting party near the Fort. 
If Philadelphia continues in dissentions & raises no men 
the Frontiers may smart most terribly & that will cer- 
tainly drive the Paxtoneers to commit farther violences, 
perhaps in some striking instances too, the answer of 
the Quakers to their remonstrance is esteemed false & 
evasive. Peters is like to die at Philadelphia. Mr. 
Chambers will hardly outlive the month here I believe, 
no great loss is either to the world. 



Coll? Robertson & Mallet are return'd, 'tis but a very 
indifferent country they have been visiting, particularly 
the Spanish part of it, they seem to be well rid of a for- 
midable expense, without one earthly benefit attending it, 
the Indians will be extremely difficult to manage & must 
be very expensive if we keep well with them. — I have not 
been favored with any letters from you since the 10*u Novf — 
The January packet not arrived tho' a report prevails that 
she is below — By one Capt. Fell I receiv'd a Bill of 
Lading for a keg at large, who it was for I did not know, 
but order'd it at a venture to be open'd, the contents were 
above the skill of my people, they judg'd Salmon had been 
in it, but nothing but pickle and some lumps like bits of 
fish remain'd — I sent Deale his letter — My compliments 
to S? Harry, Mf Porter Gates & all friends — Coll Barre 
I find has fallen as fast as he rose, Dame Fortune is some- 
times very capricious, still we woo her — Will they never 
have done with Wilks & think of the public good. 
I always am with great truth 
D r S? 
Y r Faithful Humb! Serv* 

jno WATTS. 

Nothing transpires of Offices here, Elliot is said to be 
Collector, Mf Eead I believe thinks it long, as from age 
his days are like to be short. Morris has left a will, tho' 
an old one, and a handsome estate to his natural son and 
daughter of eight or ten thousand pounds a piece they 

The Hon ble Gen. Monckton. 



New York 14!? April 1764. 
Dear Sir, 

I am very much oblig'd with your favor of 9*u Feb* by 
this Packet, it was pretty long a coming but it made ample 
amends when it did come. 

I thought our Committee of Correspondence would have 
wrote very copiously to the agent by this conveyance, but 
as the Assembly meets on Tuesday they chose to have 
their opinion & weight go along with it & therefore have 
only wrote in general terms — The forbidding Paper 
money to be a legal tender would in my opinion take away 
what little energy it has & subject every Debtor with a 
real estate to the mercy of his creditor. Not having a 
legal tender to unburthen himself, the creditor must com« 
mand his estates upon his own terms — to suppose we can 
keep either silver or gold in the Colonies while our Mother 
Country will trust us both for necessaries & for luxuries 
is entirely ideal & destroying the intercourse between the 
Mother & her offspring may be very injurious to both — 
that it has had no ill effect in N. England, I mean destroy- 
ing the tender of paper money, cannot be allow'd, Mf John- 
son of Connecticut one of the first men there, says he has 
known it taken in execution & sold at outcry to the great 
grievance of Debtor, who had money that would neither 
save his person from a gaol nor his property from his 
Creditor. Limiting a certain sum may do if the Govern- 
ment at home never again intend to call upon the Col- 
onies for assistance, for it would be an excellent pretence 
for doing nothing, and evidently cuts off all resources from, 
Paper Money being the only means of an immediate exer- 
tion. But why would they punish the Colonies indiscrim- 
inately, parents seldom do so, good ones at least, with their 


children, We have been faithful to our trust, in sixty seven 
all our emissions will be sunk, except about forty thousand 
pounds emitted on loan for the support of Government 
continued from year to year more at the instance of the 
Government itself than at the request of the people. — 
We sink forty thousand pounds a year which makes the 
tax very heavy for a new country, it falls near four shil- 
lings in the pound on houses in the city — Virginia money 
has fallen a little. And what then, has not war evil effects 
all the world over] see the stocks and credits at home where 
thousands of innocents suffer under faith or having faith 
in Government more, than a few pedlars do trading to Vir- 
ginia, that makes such a mighty disturbance as to shake 
all the mother colonies. The loss on Virginia paper was 
honestly acquir'd by the Governments exerting itself in the 
common cause. Had it look'd on tamely as Maryland did 
like an unnatural offspring, it had not been blam'd, per- 
haps commended. Maryland is happy because it has been 
disobedient and neglect'd her duty — When the Assembly 
meets, they will be more explicit, & either the Committee 
or myself will send you a copy of their letters to the Agent 
— they are call'd together upon account of the troops they 
have in pay — the Provision for the three hundred on the 
Western Frontier paid and fed by the Colony expires 
Itt May, so does the one hundred & seventy continu'd by 
advice of Council. The three hundred exclusive of officers 
last rais'd for the service under Gen! Gage are provided 
for till November. Connecticut has at last voted two hun- 
dred men, Jersey between three & four hundred, all to the 
Southward a clear blank — [At] Philad a [they] are still 
quarrelling sadly, you have inclos'd the paper that contains 
the pith of their controversy, the Assembly appears to be in- 
disputably in the right. We to lose Napier in five or six 
days with Davis, he will furnish you with some more of 
their pamphleteering — 

I am glad they have laid aside the thought of repealing 



the Act for dividing the great Patents, the alarm came from 
the agent himself. 

I sent you before the intelligence of 41 Indians being 
taken fourteen of 'em are here kept quietly in prison upon 
good hard meat, better than ever they had. Sf John Sin- 
clair has your papers, you will see by them another small 
party fell in with the enemy, scalp'd one, took three pris- 
oners, three escap'd. S r William likes this as its drawing of 
blood, tho' not a great deal, he says to me of "29^ ult. 
" Yesterday my son set out with a party of 110 Indians & 
some white men to be join'd by as many more of the former, 
so that I shall be able effectually to beat up our enemy's 
quarters — There are here (meaning his house) above four 
hundred Indians at present & among them several Deputies 
from the Chenusies & other Seneca's who have made offers 
of peace & friendship which will not be accepted but on 
terms of concession advantageous to our future security & 
such as will leave on their minds a deep sense of the ill 
consequences which must attend their making War on the 
English" — 

It gave your friends a very sincere concern to hear of 
your indisposition, as a perfect recovery did as sincere a 
pleasure — for my own part I am really sorry to see from 
your letters the time so melancholly — Neither virtue re- 
garded nor vice punish'd but as it is convenient to Party, it 
is much to be hoped this distemper may abate, or a con- 
firmed madness may succeed. 

Among the other papers enclos'd you will observe Billy 
Smith's account of My Pocklinton's case which is a very 
sensible one, and Doctor Bard's, who was the chief mana- 
ger of the late sale & was very glad to bring it about as 
a beneficial one — My advice would be to sell for the 
most it would fetch, for there never was a title I believe 
involv'd in more perplexities — 

Leary has got the horse but when he will pay for him 
God knows. You must come over & take it out in his way. 


The woman has played the Devil at Greenwich & run 
away, they say she went over with Aberdeen, I cannot 
have a good opinion of the Gardiner suffering it without 
complaining — Enclos'd is his account of the matter as it 
now stands, I could have wish'd you had said something 
about the house. 

The Lieut I believe will do right, the Custom House 
has paid me your third — £124. 1. 1 pr ace* enclos'd — I 
gave Dad. H — a jog to-day, what effect it has we shall 
soon see. 

If Jarvis finishes the Coat in time I will send it by 
Napier he says he could not work at it in the Winter — I 
deliver'd your message to Mf Lot. Your friends are all 
tolerably well. M r Chambers quite cured, we buried him 
yesterday, now or never for My Read surely & My Ap- 
thorp I hear has got an exemplification of his mandamus 
come over, the original being lost — 

In settling with the Scotts men for their land, there was 
as usual much honor & sweet blood but mickle siller, so all 
hands were content to take their obligation. Yours is in 
my possession as half Governor amounting £293. 15. 
Currency which I take to be very safe — I owe Major 
Spital £5. 12. 10 this Currency which I beg you will pay 
him if you see him with my hearty compliments — Be so 
good as to remember me to Major Gates too & tell him we 
are sending Napier over to give him a fill of American 
Anecdotes, by Napier I will write to him again — 

And now my dear Sir if you can comprehend what I 
have been writing I shall be happy, the day light & my 
eyes are failing together I must bid you Adieu & with my 
unfeign'd regards to the family subscribe myself always 

Dy s r 

Yy Most faithful Humb! Serv* 


I shall write to Sy Harry, Seton Collo. Amherst & Collo. 
Barre by our departing friends, o the shop how we shall 
miss it — 



New York, 20S April 1764. 

Dear Sir, 

I wrote you a lamentable long letter by the Packet 14^ 
inst. & now shall endeavor to make amends. Our friend 
Napier has your Papers & some other of the trifling scrib- 
blings of Philadelphia. 

You will have heard S r William Johnson has concluded 
a peace with the Chenusies & other Senecas upon terms 
called advantageous if to be depended on. They cede 
the free navigation of the Lakes without molestation, the 
Portage from Niagara to Lake Erie on both sides the 
Straights, deliver up the two murderers of Mf Michal an 
Irishman that began the War, take the hatchet against the 
De Lawarrs & Shawnese & give three chiefs as hostages for 
the performance of these articles. 

Mr. Apthorp's copy of his mandamus is come over cer- 
tified by one Larpent that [is] in Lord Halifax's office. The 
old Gentleman took the opinion of Council upon admitting 
him. All but old Smith thought there could be no room to 
suspect an imposition from a gentleman of Mf Apthorp's 
character & therefore as the Council wanted members was 
for his admission, especially as it could be attended with no 
dangerous or hurtful consequences; but the old man is con- 
foundedly wary, boggles much, is afraid of burning his 
fingers & I believe will not admit him, the Council trouble 
their heads very little about it as it rests at present. 

Jarvis will have the Beaver Coat finished in ten days or 
a fortnight, have patience with me a very little longer & I 
will form a state of your ace' & make a further remittance 
unless you countermand it — Napier will inform you of 
every thing, my loss in him is irreparable, but time and 


vicissitudes have made a piece of a philosopher of me — 
My respects to your family & all friends & still believe me 

D5 Sir. 

Yf Most Faithful & 

obl d Humb! Serv* 


The Honbl Gen Monckton. 


New York 2^}< May 1764 — 

Dear Sir, 

I wrote you by Jacobs on a few days ago & sent the 
Beaver Coat fabricated by Jarvis. 

I come now to perform my engagement of sending your 
ace* which is enclos'd & still leaves a balance of £71. 3. 
8. in your favor after charging the four sets of Bills now 
transmitted, all drawn by James Parker on Arnold Nesbitt, 
dated 2? 6^ T£ 8*ft inst. for £100. £100. £200. & £100. 
sterling at thirty days sight & 82| \ & ct. exchange am* to 
£912. 10. — Currency — these are among the few Bills that 
have sold at this Exchange and I believe will be among 
the last. 

The Detachment under Major Loftus destined to Fort 
Chartres on the Mississippi are return'd to Mobile or New 
Orleans I forgot which, nor does it matter much — About 
seventy or eighty leagues on their way, they were fired 
upon by the Indians & lost six men, this probably, with 
fatigue & some other unpalatable circumstances, fae'd em 
about — They were its said three & twenty days going 
this distance, what then must have been their Journey to 
the Illinois which is call'd four hundred leagues — This 


[1764. I 

country will very likely in process of time be found most 
accessible through some good river that heads near a 
branch of the Ohio & falls into the Atlantic. 

The Philadelphia Assembly some letters tell us have 
wisely determin'd for the public service to give up the 
point of taxation they were contending & will by raising 
the thousand men formerly voted, enable Coll Bouquet to 
act offensively, he had leave (& intentions too 1 imagine) to 
go home, but this change of measures so much for the 
better and so unexpected will require his service another 
campaign — the side that gave their point up for the pub- 
lic good I always thought had the most merit & won- 
dered how either could hesitate a moment about it — But 
party rage is a sad fury. 

The Connecticut men, never in a hurry, are now passing 
by water to join Coll? Bradstreet, who is still himself at 
Albany — All the other troops have been up some time — 
Every thing is quiet at the Detroit & Niagara. 

With my hearty regards to all friends I remain 
Dear Sir. 

Y r Most ArF Humb 1 Sertf 


I give Cap* Bayard your Papers. 

The Ilonb! Gen Moncktox — 


New York 11* June 1764 

Dear Sir, 

Since I wrote you 24« h ul* by Harriot Packet, I am 
favored with yours of ll^! 1 & 13h h April by the Halifax, 
the first delivered me by M? Hassenclover whom we have 
initiated into our Sod & shall make a good American 
enough, if talk will do, upon the treatment the Colonies 



have received and are like to receive from their kind* 
Mother, he says they have quite mistook the matter & that 
their laws will in the end operate more against themselves 
than against us. May God of His infinite mercy grant it. 

Was I to have been simply govern'd by Major Campbell's 
written exhibitions against you I should have thought our 
Governor stood a chance of being exalted indeed, but your 
indifference & the informations of my other friends, have 
given me great confidence in his safety & innocence, but 
after all 'tis an infernal way of treating a man of character. 
I can't see thro' it for my life. Your old World is too 
mysterious for us short sighted inhabitants of the new. 

Leary has won a bowl in truth & I asked for it gravely in 
your name but he laugh'd at me. I own I would compound 
to resign the cup, if he would but pay for the horse, which 
I believe will be long enough first, unless as I before said, 
you come over & take it out in his way, which every 
body wishes you would do, we will club for the bowl. 

Enclos'd are the second Bills for £500 St? the originals 
of which were in my last — I have not rec'd any money 
since on your ace* nor paid any that I recollect. The 
Warrants were sign'd the day before yesterday for another 
quarter and MCready qualified after all his disappoint- 
ments My Compliments to S? Harry Seaton. I thank 
him for the Claret, 'tis just arriv'd — 

Bradstreet has left Albany on his expedition Coll Bou- 
quet its said will have above sixteen hundred men under 
his command & goes down the Ohio with the greatest part 
of them, this must be against the Shawnese if true — 

My regards to all friends & believe 

D? Sr 

Y? most Aff fc Humb! Serv* 


The old gentleman has not paid for the Chariot, I sent 
him a card that I was sending your ace* & desir'd to know 



what I must say about it. He euquir'd very obligingly of 
your health, but no cash, he really whisper'd he did not 
happen to have so much in the house. 

I believe I shall send you no Papers, not a passenger 
goes in the Packet, the Captain says he dare not take them 
over open & Postage they are not worth. 

Honb! Gen. Monckton. 


New York, 30\ h , June 1764 
Dear Sir, 

I wrote you every thing I could recollect ll* Inst, by 
the Halifax Packet — With this you will receive the third 
bills for £500 — Sterling drawn by Parker on Nesbitt, the 
chances are great they will not be wanted, but 'tis a Mer- 
chantman carries 'em & the expenses small — To Mr. 
Myers who goes with his family home by the same oppor- 
tunity I shall recommend your Papers, the Packet I told 
you could carry none. 

The old Gentleman call'd upon me the other day & paid 
for the Chariot £60. with many hearty wishes for your 
return, a good deal I am sensible out of regard to you, but 
a little too out of disregard to his old antagonist, as a cor- 
dial antipathy has long subsisted between them, which 
even the grimaces of old age can't smother — I believe it 
wont be long before the Bench will require another ap- 
pointment, between him and your favorite Presbyterian 
Judge who declines fast too & never at best was worth any 
thing — Never poor Colony was worse provided for in gen- 
eral — nor do I see any probability of an amendment. 
The salaries as they are will not tempt an able Lawyer to 
leave his practice & if they should be rais'd some scurvy 


fellow its son to one like Jones, would be cram'd upon 
the Colony, because his Patron did not know what else to 
do with him. 

Since Paper Money makes such a needless racket, I 
should be glad to know what is the Lord's of Trades opin- 
ion about the £40.000 — emitted on Loan, for the support 
of Government & has been continued from year to year this 
long time as a useful fund in the Treasury, not to be dis- 
pos'd of but by an Act of the Legislature. As we sink 
about forty thousand pounds a year by tax on real and per- 
sonal estates all our Paper Money will be at an end in 
sixty seven, unless this useful emission sho'd be continu'd as 
it hitherto has been, which I think would be very proper, 
if any Paper Money is at all to be permitted. However 
that is as our superiors please. For my own part if no 
directions are transmitted for our Government, I believe I 
shall vote according to conscience & venture my honor & 
glory, in a matter I conceive for the good of the public in 
general, without any inconvenience whatever attending it. 

July 3* The Packet arriv'd three days ago & tho' I have 
not a line from one of my friends I have the pleasure of 
seeing the honorable sentence of your Court Martial in the 
Papers which tho' not unexpected, is vastly heighten d by 
being so strongly drawn. I think Secretary of W — don't 
shine in it & so much the better, Providence often works 
good out of evil. 

No business of Government is going on, but the com- 
mon routine the old gentleman resides entirely in the 
Country & begins I believe to imagine he shall spend all 
his days in office. 

I am with great truth 

D* Sy Y? most Aff 5 Hutnb! Serv fc 


My regards to all friends. 

The Hon! Gen! Monckton. 




New York, 11JS Aug* 1764. 

Dear Sir, 

My last were by the ship York, Capt. Barton of 30^ 
June & July 3 d I am still without any of your favors but 
my good old friend tells me you are well which I am glad 
to hear. Another correspondent says it is reported you 
have directions to repair to or quit the Government. The 
first of these we should aH like, but 'tis probable the old 
Gentleman would like neither as equally fatal to his reign. 
He resides entirely in the, Country, but at the instance of 
some of the members, who are incens'd at what has been 
done & is like to be done at home, as well as (unreasonably 
I think) with their Agent for speaking too much truth to 
them, he is to meet the Assembly on the 4 4 u Sept! next. 
Nothing else that I can recollect is doing or to be done, if 
I have forgot the papers will tell you, Coir? Goodwin has 

I have receiv'd from his Honor another moity of a quar- 
ters salary ending Iff June, he tells me the seizures are 
given in favor of the Governors — My sincere compli- 
ments to M r Porter, Sf Harry, Gates & all friends, I write 
Napier & remain always 
D r S r 

Yf Most Am Humb 1 Serv' 


If the Gov* at home dont settle the Boundaries of this 
Colony & New Hampshire soon we shall have rare work, 
four people are in Jail at Albany now belonging to that 
Colony for driving off settlers of thirty years standing at 
Hosuck & seizing their cattle — What is this same new 
Lord doing, can he stir about nothing but harmless Paper 


Money — New England men are a great deal worse — M. T . 
Allen not arriv'd nor Elliot. Tell Coll? Amherst we have 
passed a vote against his doing duty in the Guards as ille- 
gal, dishonorable, & prejudicial to his Maj s Services & of 
ill example. 


New York, 22 d Sept. 1764. 

Dear Sir, 

On the lPu ult. I did myself the pleasure of paying you 
my respects by the Hide Packet — I am since favored 
with yours of 14*u July p! the Harriot Packet, but prior to 
the Receipt of it I had paid a visit to our friend Allen & 
got some leaves out of his political volume, among the rest 
the attempt his Lordship made upon you which I was glad 
to find you had parry'd so well, but I dont find either from 
your letter or from Collo. Vaughan the same encourage- 
ment of your coming over again to the Government, that I 
got out of our friend's budget. He seem'd to be thoroughly 
convinced of it, as indeed he generally adopts with great 
zeal any circumstances he likes & wishes to happen. The 
old gentleman here took lately high pet at the Assembly's 
address., which it must be own'd was rather ill digested — 
Both address and answer you will see in the Journal of the 
House. Had not the Council interpos'd the breach would 
have run much higher & probably a dissolution follow'd, 
which they were of opinion would only have added fuel to 
fire, in the uneasy temper of mind the Province is. His 
answer soften'd as it was, they think severe enough & I 
believe will make reprisals when an opportunity offers. 

I have receiv'd no money on your Ace* since my last. 
When another payment is made which probably must be 
soon, the balance I have in my hands shall be remitted — 


I thank you for paying Coll Spital my debt & heartily con- 
gratulate him on his promotion, I was going to say may he 
long enjoy it, but I don't know whether it would be grate- 
ful to keep a man down that chooses to be climbing. 

Yr. friends are all well & remember you with the greatest 

The Major & his brother have lately suffered by the 
French which I am desir'd to mention to you & to beg you 
would countenance Mr. Charles if it be necessary, to whom 
they have sent their proofs, &c. I cannot doubt but their 
vessel & cargo was taken very unjustly, as they have de- 
clar'd it on oath & it certainly would be wise to nip these 
freedoms in the bud, lest a repetition should forcibly bring 
on a rupture as it did heretofore with the Spaniard — Men 
will complain when they are injur'd & numbers must be 
heard — These restless people have lately by force dis- 
possess'd us of Turks Island too, the greatest resources the 
Colonies have for salt, without the least ceremony, after 
being in possession of them they tell me half a century & 
more — These are notable instances of a cordial affectionate 

My compliments to S? Harry Seton. I rec d & would an- 
swer his kind letter by Collo. Vaughan, but by the tenor 
of it am doubtful whether mine would find him at home — 
The Colonel no doubt informs you that he embarks to- 
morrow for Niagara, & both tells you & will tell you what 
Indian news there is — Coll Bradstreet has been treating 
at Presq' Isle, but I believe his conduct is not approv'd of 
at H — Q rs . Bouquet goes on, so do the savages scalping 
& butchering poor innocent defenceless people — The 
more we experience their vile warfare, the more perplex'd 
& burdensome we find it, the enemy are by land what the 
Algerines are at sea, a kind of people that must be paid not 
to rob & cut your throat. gave me your 

letter with his note, times are so dull I was oblig'd to lend 
him money to pay his freight. He is going he tells me 


with Coll Vaughan, Suttler to your & his Keg* — He 
says he will come & secure your debt before he goes, I 
shall refuse no money he offers, nor neglect any mild steps 
to secure the debt — I hope he is honest & I imagine all 
will be well. I write to Napier, my regards to all the 
family & believe me with great truth, 

Y r . faithful & Ob* Serv*. 


Pray remember me to M? Boone, I owe him a letter 
which I really did not advert to till it is too late. 


Phila. Sep*. 1 26* 1764. 

Dear Sir, 

The bearer, Mf Phillip Livingston, has desired me to 
introduce him by Letter to you — I beg leave therefore 
to say that he was an intimate acquaintance of my sons, 
while he, and two of them, were at the Temple, and was 
constantly our fellow Traveler to the different publick 
places I and my family visited while we were in England — 
and since that time we have had frequently a mutual inter- 
course both here and at New York. 

He very deservedly has, from all who have the pleasure 
of his acquaintance, the character of an agreeable and 
worthy, Honest man, and as such I beg leave to recomend 
him to your countenance, favor, and friendship ; And shall 
esteem myself very particularly oblidged to you for any acts 
of kindness, and civility you shall be pleased to favor him 

He held the offices of Surrogate and private Secretary to 


the late Sir Henry Moor, who, just before his death, spoke 
of him to me in the most favorable terms with regard to 
his abilitys and integrity. From these offices he was re- 
moved by Mr. Colden, the next day after Sir Henry died, 
notwithstanding a positive promise from Mf Colden that 
he should continue, except his own son should incline to 
accept the offices — I depend on your goodness to excuse 
this freedom in, Dear Sir, 

Your very Affectionate friend & 

most obedient Humble Servant 


To General Monckton. 


New York, 11* Oct! 1764. 

Dear Sir, 

If Offices are as harmless as the sea I may venture to 
refer you to my last of 22 d Sept r by the Harriot packet — 

I have acknowledged your favor by who is since 

gone with Coll" Vaughan, but in so much hurry that he has 
not done any thing towards the discharge of your debt, still 
I hope & believe he will do it soon, as he would never for- 
feit your friendship, nor put himself under the Colonel's 
patronage if he meant otherwise knowing your connections 
— He has carried William Adams tells me a consider- 
able adventure with him. Some goods he sold here & said 
he would order the money into my hands when due. 

I am now to thank you for your favor of 24 fc u July. His 
L — took unwearied pains indeed to make a G — vacant, 
its pity he would not take as much to mend a bad H — but 
don't let friendship excite me to speak treason — Gen! 
Gage will order the clothing to be delivered to me, but 


they will sell for little or nothing, however we will at least 
attempt a sale. Montgomery's went so low as Is 6d curr 3 ^ 
a Coat — Could you not find some old stingy Colonel who 
owns a Regiment in America that would disguise his men 
with them to save half a crown a head, this would do nicely 
and what signifies the color of a Lappel in a wood — green 
is the most natural of any. 

Major Gorham, is one of the Commissioners sure enough 
for settling our boundaries nor one of the worst neither. 
When such a distant scatter'd tribe will assembly together 
God knows — No body hears from S r James, the sooner 
the order comes the better for the land, they are granting 
away so lavishly at home that in order to make room N. 
Hampshire is it seems to be shov'd back to Connecticut 
River, The old gentleman plumes himself much upon this 
as owing to his information & discernment. He may prob- 
ably upon this encouragement take a touch at the Massa- 
chusetts too, but then he will have a tougher bone to pick, 
a charter is stubborn, not an acre of land has been granted 
but to reduc'd officers since his Majesty's proclamation & 
many of them cannot find a spot free from Indians or paten- 
tees claim. N. Hampshire must bring em up. 

Gov. Gage will no doubt let you know his resolutions 
about Greenwich. Oliver wants it much for his friend 
David Johnson when you have done with it. I have lately 
rec*! no money on your ace* nor paid any but the Gardiners 
quarter, & to the Printer 36s — Davis has the two hats 
they cost £5 13 — The Madeira softens of course but not 
half so much as it would have done had you not tinn'd it 
up so securely. 

Now Mr. A. has got his mandamus he will not qualify, 
as he says he is going home soon. We cannot make a 
council of five to pass laws & the Assembly setting. The 
old Judge Oliver, Mr. Reade & myself the only members 
in town. If they continue to appoint as they have done, 



the public business must stand still. What can Mr. Clark 
keep his seat for. 

My regards to all friends & believe me ever 
Df S r 

Y? Most Aff? Humb 1 Serv< 

jno WATTS. 

One of the several officers going in this ship shall have 
your papers in charge. 

The Honbl Gen. Monckton. 


New York, 6S Nov. 1764. 

Dear Sir, 

I did myself the pleasure to write to you by Davis 11*« 
Oct. & deliver d your Papers, &c. to Maj r Duncan. 

I have heard nothing from Pollard since he left this 
place, you must have a little patience with him I believe, 
Coll Vaughan was by the last intelligence on his way from 
Oswego to Niagara, under whose wings he is gone. 

Gen. Gage has not yet order'd the clothing into my 

Mr. Apthorp has qualified & M r Surveyor Gen 1 , of the 
Customs too who is of course appointed a supernumerary 
member, but we are like to have a disagreeable job pro- 
ceeding from the old I/ s thirst of wrangling & the folly of I 
his family & Irish connection together — The Jury 
brought in fifteen hundred pounds damages for Forsy 
against Cunningham, you know the case for pursuing & 
stabbing him naked, Five hundred pounds real damage 


Forsy proved, so the smart money is but a thousand currf 
this the knot think exorbitant & have upon an old instruc- 
tion the 32^ I think, countenanc'd by the L* Gf appeal'd 
to the Gov* & Council to try the cause De Novo & thence 
if they don't like their decision to appeal to King in Coun- 
cil, an instance never known before & so unconstitutional 
that not one lawyer not even their own would draw the 
writ of appeal. They were forc'd to have recourse to old 
Nicolls & one Coghill Knapp a transport. If the appeal 
had been by writ of error there are precedents in abundance, 
but to have facts taken out of hands of a Supreme Court & 
a Jury & from them transferr'd, first to the Council here 
then home, the lawyers say, is so absolutely unconstitutional 
that I begin to apprehend we don't construe the meaning 
of the instruction right — They argue if a verdict at Court 
by the subjects peers is to be over rul'd when there is 
neither error, nor what they call matter of equity in it, what 
use is there of Court or Jury at all % They are a mere matter 
of empty form. What ever be right I wish the old fellow 
dam'd & the Knot too, before they brought such a critical 
thing into dispute in these sore times, when it could easily 
have been avoided & when there never was a precedent of 
it before, since the Colony was settled, but like Satan he 
would damn himself & his posterity to appear great, which 
he thinks such controversies make him, having an un- 
bounded opinion of his own parts & being on the side of 
prerogative for which he would sink all America right or 

I am now to thank you for your favor by Lady Susan 
who has brought her pigs to a fine market to be sure & he 
seems to be no less out of his way than she is, a poor devil 
marrying above himself without independency is a toad 
under a harrow, when before he might have ap'd Caesar 
himself, had a merry light heart, & have got six or seven 
hundred a year by it, independent as a prince — Nothing 
30uld be more romantic than this heterogeneous match, 



except the manner they are dispos'd of to settle lands, the 
Lord knows, where among woods, savages and wild beasts. 
The family his honor tells us however are not so much 
absorb'd in grief as to forget the main chance, the adven- 
turers forty thousand, L d J. twenty, L d H. twenty, & a My 
Upton twenty ; a pretty little patch of a hundred thousand 
acres. This if true will be doing business indeed, 'tis well 
we have been combatting the old man about his thirst for 
granting, or not an inch would have been, left, but as it is 
I believe it will be a pretty distant settlement, for several 
of the reduc'd officers as sharp as hawks, have not known 
where to perch, the new scheme for N. Hampshire Bounds 
may indeed help — Your friends, tho' it is much against 
the grain, will give no unnecessary delays you may be 
assur'd tho 1 they begin to think, as matters are going at 
home, they might as well have been a little more bountiful 
to their poor countrymen and neighbors who wanted and 
would have settled it. But terns passe 

The old gentleman tother day sent me £746 1 10 \ pur- 
suant to the inclos'd ace* for the moity of a quarter's salary 
and sundry douceurs of land which hits his taste exceedingly. 
When an instruction starts that feeds his ambition & vanity, 
he is as tenacious as a girl of her virtue. — But those 
against land, that is, against his interest weigh about as 
much as an old Almanac. By these two poor ingredients 
only, the poor old soul is kept alive, its a pity the nostrum 
is so efficacious — 

I did intend to have sent you a Bill of Exchange, by this 
conveyance but we cannot draw & the Navy Agents tell 
me they do not — By the Packet I hope to do it on Sun- 
day next — 

They are all in a flame at Philad a Franklin is sail'd 
agent again & Hamilton treading on his heels, so M r Tem- 
ple the surveyor tells me, who is just come from thence. 

I would advise their going in the same ship, who knows 
what a months passage might do coop'd up together. Pray 


tell Napier I wrote him 28*« ult. by a Bristolman in answer 

to his from Scarbro' & sent History of B ts expedition 

from old hard faced Barr — and if you should see Coll"! 
Amherst tell him the Byrds are not cook'd, when they are 
I shall pay my respects to him — I begin to see Land on 
tother side 'tis time to bring too & to finish my Journal — 
I am always very faithfully 

Df sr 

Y5 Aff* Humb. Serv* 

J 1 *. WATTS. 

My respects to all friends — and the family, little & big. 

The Hon. Gen! Monckton. 


New York, 5 th November 1764. 


I now take the liberty you was pleased to allow me 
of writing to your Excellency, whenever any thing oc- 
curred of importance to the Colony. 

You know, Sir, that one of the King's instructions 
directs the Governor to permit appeals from the Com- 
mon Law Courts to the Commander in Chief and Council, 
and thence to his Majesty in Privy Council. Our law- 
yers have hitherto interpreted the Instruction to mean, 
that the cause upon the removal to these superior judi- 
catories, comes up only upon a Writ of Error, and is to be 
tried as causes in error are in England. 

Upon this principle the security of trials by Jury remains 
unshaken, because matters of fact are left to the Jurors, 
and are never unravelled on Proceedings in Error. 

I wish this interpretation was as well grounded, as it is 


salutary to the rights of the people : But I have long sup- 
posed that the aim of the ministry, was to make Plantation 
decisions both with respect to law and fact, upon the whole 
merits, reversible on an appeal to the Crown as the dernier 

Several reasons induced me to be of this opinion. It 
increases the power of the Crown, and the dependency of 
the Colonies. It falls in with the ministerial principle 
that the King's will is law in the Provinces. The King in 
Council has received and determined upon such appeals 
from the New England Colonies. The instruction was 
formerly by express words confined to cases of Error, 
and was first altered in those given to Sir Danvers Osborn, 
after the acquiescence of the Eastern Colonies had given 
the Crown a sort of possession. The term ; ' appeal " is 
borrowed from the Civilians, and I suppose those who in- 
troduced it, intended to give it a Civil Law operation, and 
render the administration of justice amongst us, controlable 
by the King, as that of the Praetor in the Roman Provinces 
by the Emperor, on the appeal to Caesar. 

What construction the Government will adopt is a mat- 
ter of anxious expectation. I have for many years been 
fearful of the day in which the experiment will be made. 
A late verdict will now bring it on.* 

In our last term (26 th of October) the jury gave £1500. 
damages, for the plaintiff Thomas Forsey against Waddel 
Cunningham, for an assault and battery. The defendant's 
agents offered an appeal to the Judges of the Supreme 
Court and security to prosecute it. They rejected it and 
refused an entry, the Chief Justice declaring (which might 
have been omitted) that it was an impertinent apjrfication, 
and that if he did not think it imputable to ignorance, he 
would take further notice of those who applied for the 

* See letter of Justice Livingston, 26 January, 1765, infra. 


Since that the affair has been laid before the Lieut. Gov- 
ernor, who forced from the attorney general an opinion 
against granting the appeal and then called the Council. 
The Board as I am informed observed that it was not ripe 
for their cognizance, upon which he sealed a writ in the 
nature of a civil law inhibition, which has been served upon 
the Judges and parties. Mf Horsmanden ventured not- 
withstanding to tax the costs and sign the judgment. The 
Clerk of the Supreme Court has been since formally re- 
quired to seal the Execution. But at the request both of 
the Clerk and Chief Justice, it is not to be issued till the 
return of the inhibition, 14 days hence, it being given to 
the Plaintiff to understand that the Lieutenant Governor 
and Council will then reject the appeal, and so all impedi- 
ments will be removed. If I was to advise in this business, 
as I shall not, having absolutely refused to be concerned, 
it would be to recommend a suspension of all proceedings 
till the case was laid before his Majesty and an explanation 
solicited for, consistent with the safety of the people and 
the old course of the law. 

Be the issue as it will here, the matter will be imme- 
diately transmitted for the ministerial comment, and at such 
a juncture I could not avoid writing to your Excellency, 
lest the people submitted to your government, might 
lose your assistance, so necessary for their security and 

They are the more anxious to maintain their privileges 
now, as they have fearful apprehensions of being soon bur- 
dened by internal taxes. On this subject they have 
prepared petitions to the King and both Houses of Par- 
liament. The Agent is directed to prefer them imme- 
diately after they come to his hand. They are nearly alike. 
A copy of that to the Commons, I take the freedom to en- 
close, because it may be in your Excellency's power on 
that occasion also to be of service to a province, already 


sensible of your favor and confident of your aid and pro- 

I have the honor to be 
Your Excellency's most faithful & obedient ser* 


His Excellency General Monckton. 


New York 10*15 Nov! 1764. 

Dear Sir, 

By Jacobson 6^ past I wrote you in great wrath till I 
was out of breath. 

On Wednesday next the old gentleman is dragging us 
into this same unconstitutional ill understood appeal, I 
hope they may bring Knapp the convict to support it, no 
body else will, My Nicholls I am told declines — This in- 
struction I find is not the same as former Governors had, 
as far down its thought as My Clinton. M r Crosby's we are 
sure was not. My Clinton's are not to be found. It is 
suppos'd to take its rise with Sir. Danvers Osborn, with 
the 39S which they immediately took back when they 
came to cool. M r Clinton's representations fomented & 
drawn by this very old mischief maker, had suggested the 
Colony in a state of Rebellion, because it would not be 
govern'd by his mere will & pleasure, so that this evil 
genius is now only supporting a brat engender'd by his 
own brain. When S r Charles Hardy came over the 
39"! inst" was quite alter'd & so would this 32* have 
probably been, had it struck the eye, but as it was 


only an alteration in part, the same sense was thought 
to remain & could fairly be inferr'd from it, which 
made the appeals, appeals of error, not a trial de novo, 
by which three or four councillors could overset, the 
solemn determinations of the Supreme Court in point of 
fact, tried by a Jury, which the law calls the subject's peers, 
& in truth entirely destroy the use of juries & Court too. 
But as a nose of wax, people are extremely incens'd & 
alarm'd at it. The old body was always dislik'd enough, but 
now they would prefer Belzebub himself, to him. 

The Colony is so chagrin'd at the treatment of their 
paper money, considering how dutifully they have obey'd 
the requisitions of the Crown, that brought it all upon 
them, that they would not hear of so much as offering the 
forty thousand pounds Act to the Lieu? Gov., of course it 
goes on sinking & the Government loses the fund. You 
mention My Penn's being an advocate for this doctrine, the 
reason is plain, he is an enormous land holder, too much 
for any one subject, and if his tenants have nothing to ten- 
der, silver & gold they cannot have, they become in a 
measure his slaves instead of tenants, because they lay at 

I saw my friend Allen with pleasure & us'd all my might 
to keep him cool, he promis'd it but I am afraid the frenzy 
has seiz'd him, by the lengths they are running — Franklin 
will be with you probably ere this & Hamilton is at his 

I got our house to order, a hundred dollars to be paid 
for your ginger bread thing in the Fort & to let it remain 
as an ornamental fixture there. What shall I do with the 
fine silver vessel, 'tis nobodys pin'north here, I whisper'd to 
Gen. G. but he did not hear. Wont Drury Lane want it, 
I believe I must try, or suppose the old F — x was to make 
Madam a present of it towards house keeping among the 
Mohawks — I wish to hear from you about the Clothing, 
but your bargain- must be conditional we will try a sale — 



To comfort you for this heap of rubbish, I enclose the 
second of Gov. Fitche's Bills on M r Jackson for £255. 10. 
5 st g & De Lancey & Watts on the Contractors. Sf Sam 
Fludyer & Partners of this date for £150 st g both at 85 
<p ct. charged to your ace*. 

I don't know how to deal with Leary, I believe he is as 
poor as a sinner need be. 

My respects to all friends, I don't remember that I am 
indebted any letters or commands except Coll? Amhersts 
birds which are not yet ready. 

The Surveyor General has appointed poor Blundell 
Land Waiter instead of old Mf Nicolls who has resign'd 
in his favor. I don't suppose such a trifling appointment 
will reach you but if it should you know Kitt to be an 
orderly sober fellow & he makes a fine reverend bow in 

I always am 

My D r S? 

y r afT Humb 1 Serv fc 


I wrote Napier 28^ ult via Bristoll — 
Cap* Legg of 46*^ has your papers & knows more than 
I do, tho' he may'nt say half so much. 


New York, 10$ Dec! 1764. 

Dear Sir, 

As you had receiv'd my Letters no farther down than to 
11*£ Aug* by the Hyde packet, acknowledg'd by your favor 
of 13'u Oct r I will recapitulate the Catalogue wrote since, 
not for the importance of them, but to know what becomes 
of ones paper & wax, & if any should go astray to supply 


the defect, if they chance to contain some anecdote of your 
affairs, it may be necessary to repeat — My next in order 
then was 22* Sept. by the Harriot packet, folldw'd by the 
11*!! Octy p Davis, the 6*1? Nov r by Jacobson, the 9^ Do. via 
Liverpool & 10*!] Do. by the Cumberland packet — 

The Packet sails the day after to morrow, and tomorrow 
is our final hearing about the interpretation of this same 
32* instruction. You'l remember another instruction, the 
40*« if I recollect right, absolutely forbids the Gov* con- 
stituting any New Courts- — this is constituting a New 
one with a witness, or at least giving an old carcass of a 
Court such a power as no Court ought to be possess'd of 
where the Liberties of Englishmen take place. I told the 
old gentleman a Jury was the bulwark of English Freedom, 
he coldly answer'd & with seeming indifference " that there 
were no Juries in Scotland & he did not see but Justice 
was as well administer' d as in England." This was a doc- 
trine tho' that we did not relish or admit at all — Tis 
strange how few of these people have a true sense of 
Liberty, tho' they generally take enough in conscience 
when they have power, and upon the same principle too ; 
give & take — 

I shall deliver to [] Major Small] who commands a party 
of the 55*S going home in this ship a large packet of the 
printer's stuff & I shall inclose three or four of Judge 
Horsmanden's printed case in a separate printed cover, 
which may be made any use of that is proper, pray let 
Coll Barre have one — It is to be hop'd if they do really 
mean to cram the old man Scots unconstitutional doctrine 
upon the Colony, the Parliament may interfere & preserve 
to it those liberties they themselves so much revere & for 
which their fore fathers have sacrificed so much generous 
blood — 

I cant see that our situation will be one jot better than 
the most despotic states in Christendom, if two or three 
Councillors holding their seats at pleasure here, can reverse 




the facts found by a Jury & afterwards their determination 
again be turn'd topsy turvy at home, by a few people hold- 
ing their offices at will & who have too many avocations of 
their own as constant experience shows us, to enter into 
the merits of our little, unaffecting distant American dis- 
putes, upon which however the destruction or welfare of 
numbers of his Majesty's good subjects depends. 

On Thursday I shall write to you again, & close this 
subject with the opinion of the rest of the Judges & answer 
more fully your favor of 13*11 Octf The old man who has 
not a soul to support him but G. Harrison & two or three 
other such characters, I have been told thinks to supersede 
the Chief Justices & our worthy Att y Gen! for giving such 
honest opinions as the law directed & they were bound by 
oath to do, but was says Hudibras of oath taking, a great 
deal too much melancholy truth. 

God preserve us all, that he may long & happy you & 
yours is the very unfeign'd wish of 
Dear Sir 

Y? Most Aff* Humbl Serv* 


Oliver says he sends you apples or I would do it. Say 
something about Greenwich — I shall write to my friend 
Napier by the packet not now, tell him evil communication 
corrupts good manners, no bad company. As Major Small 
goes home in the packet, I shall give all the papers &c : to 
him & a letter from Daddy Ch. Justice — 

12 fc u Council just broke up, nothing conclusive yet, Justice 
Livingston gave his opinion at large in writing corrobo- 
rating old Daddys. 



New York, 10*£ Jan y 1765. 

Dear Sir, 

My last was of 13^ ult. by the Hide Packet, Major Small 
took charge of a letter &c : from His Hon r the Chief Jus- 
tice, who hopes for your friendship & support in doing what 
he conscientiously thinks his duty — The Council have 
unanimously given their opinion, that as all the Judges & 
the whole body of the laws, without one exception (unless 
Coghill Knapp, a transported convict may be called an 
exception) have declar'd that no appeal by law can lie upon 
the whole merits of the cause from the verdict of a Jury — 
1 that his Majesty must intend by his 32 d instruction an 
appeal in error, as has been practic'd invariably ever since 
the Colony existed when appeals were brought — Besides, 
as his Majesty in another instruction has directed in these 
strong words to his Gov. " You are to take care that no 
mans life members freehold or goods be taken away or 
harm'd in the said Province otherwise than by establish'd 
or known laws, not repugnant to, but as much as may be 
agreeable to the laws of this Kingdom," the Council could 
not conceive his Majesty meant to introduce a practice not 
known in England, & absolutely stripping the whole Colony 
of the birth right of every Englishman, as Trial by his 
Peers in matters of fact, from whence no appeal can lie, 
but where there are errors in the proceedings — But I 
shall leave the disagreeable subject. 

Marsh, the Clerk of Albany & Secretary to Indian affairs 
died yesterday, if you have no thoughts of any body else, 
it would be a most benevolent action to get it for a branch 
of a most worthy family of this place, who once liv'd in 


the first rank, but have for some years past felt a severe 
reverse of fortune. The family I mean is M r Moors & the 
persons I would take the liberty to mention are either 
Thomas or Stephen. They nor no body else knows I have 
said one syllable about them so that the freedom I have 
taken brings you not under the least necessity of so much 
as hinting the thing unless it be perfectly agreeable to your 
disposition of aiding the distress'd — If it should require 
some money I would willingly advance it. They have two 
Uncles I believe living in London, one of them Daniel, was 
a member of the late parliament & got another of these 
brothers a place in the Custom House. Napier loves doing 
good, may be he would help. I should think the offices 
had better be divided, let S r William do as he likes about 
his Secretary, they have no connexion. Who My Colden 
will appoint to act I know not, but most likely one of his 
own members — a son of his formerly was Clerk of Albany 
& died — Excuse my freedom & I have done troubling 
you at least on this head. 

has sent me tw T o small Bills of about £4:0. value 

on Barnsley which I have sent to him for payment at 
Philad la — He says he will soon make a handsome remit- 
tance — I hope & believe all is well — Coll Robertson 
has paid me £59. st? at 4s. 8c/. equal to £100 9 10 currf 
no other money rec* on your ace* 

Inclos d is my Bill on G. Amherst for £46 Stg. drawn by 
the Colonel's order for Wines. &c : sent him — Also 
Coll Bird's Bill on Bogle & Scott for £175 St g .— If the 
latter should be refus'd please to return it me protested on 
my ace' I will make the value good. 

Coll Bane's money I will remit by this conveyance if 
time is permitted me otherwise by the next packet, the 
Nov? mail not arriv'd. Snow & slei^hinsf in abundance 
more than has been known for this twenty years. Be 
pleas'd to tell my friend Napier his Corps is redue'd, Barr 
& Mallet both here. 


My respects & compliments to all friends & believe ever 

Y? Aff* Humb! Serv fc 


If the Gov* will pay Coll . Byrd's Bill at any rate I would 
not have it return'd, 'tis ugly work contending with friends 
about mammon. 

The Hon 1 . Gen Monckton. 

As I find M!" Colden proposes to appoint Step. De 
Lancey, oldest son of Peter, Clerk of Albany till the King's 
pleasure is known, & has recommended him to Sf William, 
I would do nothing to hinder his confirmation at home, 
on the other hand I would forward it to oblige the family 
as much as lay in my power — there is a prodigious brood 
of them & it becomes a kind of duty in us who are so nearly 

Our old Ruler pretends to be very angry with his Coun- 
cil for a particular he calls breach of confidence — the case 
is this. He read a long dissertation on Law of his own com- 
posing to a public audience of a hundred or two people, 
that his prejudice lead him to think was a notable per- 
formance, for you must know he is persuaded a few week's 
reading will make an old man of eighty a greater adept in 
Law than the whole community put together, this he has 
clearly prov'd by opposing & even rudely treating, the 
whole Bench of Judges, his Maj? Atty. General, the whole 
Council, & the whole body of Law down to the lowest prac- 
titioner, except John Coghill Knap the Convict, before 
mention'd, but to my point — After he had done reading, 
tho' he had behav'd like a profess'd party thro' the whole, 
more than like a Judge, he declar'd himself ready to be 
convinc'd with many other professions of candor, &c : the 


Council answer d as most of his propositions were points 
of Law which they did not understand, they hop'd he would 
give them a copy of his argument, that they might take 
advice upon it & either be convinced by or refute it — He 
promis'd, & sent them, a copy annex'd to a letter with 
another reason and stronger, he thought, than any he had 
mention'd, but with this sophistical restriction, that as the 
argument he had compos'd were his own private thoughts 
he meant them for the Council's private use, tho' he had 
read them with amazing self applause to a whole Court 
(for the Council sat as a Court) of a hundred or two people 
who had brought away the substance of every thing he had 
said — This the Council thought such unfair childish 
treatment & such a restraint as he could have no right to 
lay he might as well have sent it to the pastry shop espe- 
cially after his first promise which did not contain it, that 
they took the advice of the ablest Council in the Law & 
just answered his speech as he had made it, before the 
whole Court. The truth is there was not one word of Law 
or precedent in any of the propositions he had advanc'd, 
tho' the composition altogether read smooth enough, & it 
tortur'd his vanity to be thus laid open. We shall send 
you the whole as soon as it can be transcrib'd, but like all 
other law matters 'tis too long. Morris writes to Lord Hills- 
borough & C° Conway. All we ask is the Justice of being 
heard before we are condemned. 

The good old gentleman wanted to put it on a footing 
that we were opposing prerogative & the Kings Instruc- 
tions. We answer'd no ; the point rested upon the true 
legal meaning of an Instruction, which we had taken as 
solemn advice upon, as if, our lives & fortunes were at 
stake & more it was out of our power to do, either for his 
Maj s service or the conscientious discharge of our own duty, 
besides it could not injure his Maj! service, to let things 
flow a few months longer in the same channel they had 
done, ever since the Colony existed. 



New York, 25 th Jan. 1765. 

Dear Sir, 

The Council with their very sincere respects to you, beg 
that you would be so good as to read, seal, and deliver or 
send, as you see best, the inclos'd Letter to Lord Hills- 
borough — 

They are very apprehensive of a misrepresentation of 
their conduct, they desire nothing but an impartial relation 
of the affair. Nothing has been omitted to set them right 
if they had been wrong, but the more they enquired, the 
more they became confirm'd in their opinion. Besides the 
whole- body of the Law here, they have been supported by 
the opinion of the Chief Justice & the Lawyers of both 
Philadelphia & New Jersey. Greater testimonies were not 
to be obtained on this side the water. If you should con- 
verse with Lord Hillsborough on the subject, which would 
be a great favor done us, it would be very satisfactory to 
me, to know his general sentiments of the matter, in as 
private a way as you please, by the very first opportunity 
or two, & to give you as little trouble as possible, no mat- 
ter how short, or let any body else write. 
I ever am 

D? Sf 

Y r Most Ob* Serv* 

Honb 1 . Gen. Monckton. 




New York, 25 Jan? 1765. 


The importance of the point lately controverted in the 
Government submitted to your care, seems in some sort to 
oblige me to inform your Excellency of what has been 
done since my last letter of the 3 rd of December. 

All the rest of the Judges having reported the reasons 
of their conduct, and declared that the Appeal was illegal, 
and the writs, issued by the Lieut. Governor, an obstruction 
to the course of Justice, commanding both what they were 
obliged by their oaths and their Commissions to disobey, 
M r Colden then delivered a written argument to induce the 
Council to go into the contrary opinion. As they sat as a 
Court, the doors were open, and a numerous auditory at- 
tended, for it was supposed, that if it was determined that 
the appeal was right, the Judges were wrong, and that they 
would all be displaced. The Council asked him whether 
he intended to enter his argument upon the minutes ; and 
were answered that he was not resolved, but would, if he 
saw fit, after they had declared their own opinions — Upon 
which they pressed him for a copy and desired time to con- 
sider it. 

At the next meeting, they unanimously adjudged, that 
the Appeal could not be received, and the Clerk read the 
reasons upon which it was grounded.' Here a scene opened 
which gave pain to me and I believe to all who are con- 
cerned for the dignity of the Government. The Lieutenant 
Governor abandoned himself to the most evident partiality 
and rage, and fell upon the Council and the Judges charg- 
ing them with indecency, want of respect to the King's 
authority and with unwarrantable freedom. Whether there 
was any just cause for this violence, I must submit to your 
Excellency, for all this wrath was excited or pretended to 


be excited only by their reply to his argument. No degree 
of patience could submit to all the abuse offerred, and many 
sharp things were retorted both by the Council and the 
Judges. Upon his saying that the latter had mislead him, 
M r Livingston replied " I gave you good advice which had 
you followed you would not have gone wrong " and Col? 
Morris declared u that if the Council were to be thus used, 
he did not care how soon he was relieved from such a ser- 
vice " adding " if it was M r Colden in another place " and 
then stopped. This may suffice to shew the spirit of these 
disorderly transactions, and to answer my aim of informing 
your Excellency of the true state of your Province. All 
ended in threats of a proper representation to the King's 
Ministers which go by this conveyance. Both parties, I 
suppose will transmit copies of the proceedings, and the 
Council now write to my Lord Hillsborough, to vindicate 
themselves, and prevent any imputations to their prejudice 

In short, this unseasonable effort of Mr Colden to intro- 
duce an innovation, which he conceives will recommend 
himself at home, has inflamed the whole country, and it 
spreads a jealousy that the Crown is aiming to deprive the 
subject of his most valuable rights even in the neigbouring 
Provinces. I think it easy to be foreseen, that unless the 
Government disavows the attempt, the interest of the Crown 
will suffer greatly from a want of confidence on the part of 
the people and I am persuaded that at the next convention 
of the Assembly, the Representatives will set their faces 
against every measure, recommended by a person, in M r 
Clinton's time voted to be an enemy to the Colony, on this 
occasion recollected and spoken of with all the freedom and 
acrimony of the most unreserved disgust. 
I am Sir, with the highest respect 
Your Excellency's 
Most faithful obliged & Obedient servant 






New York, 26 Jany. 1765. 


Ever since I had the Honour to be distinguished by your 
Excellency's appointment to one of the most important 
posts in your Government, I have, by a diligent attention 
to the duty of my office, endeavoured to justify your choice. 
How I have succeeded belongs to others, not to me to 
determine. Notwithstanding this, I have reason to expect, 
from what has dropped from His Honour the Lieutenant 
Governor, that a complaint will be lodged against me and 
my brethren in office. 

As this arises from an affair very interesting to this prov- 
ince, I beg permission to lay before you a short account 
of the whole. I shall not, endeavour, by any palliation, to 
excuse myself. I think upon a fair hearing, which I hope 
will be allowed, I can justify my conduct, and am only 
afraid of misrepresentations. 

An action of Battery was commenced by one Forsey 
against Cunningham,* both merchants of this place. Upon 
a difference between them, Forsey had been wounded by 
Cunningham very dangerously. Ike manner of kis doing 
it kad greatly raised tke resentment of tke people, for ke 
concealed a sword under kis coat for tke purpose, and tho' 
upon Bight of it, tke Plaintiff ran from kim as fast as he 
could the Defendant pursued him and beat him with his 
sword till he provoked him to turn about and strike at the 
assailant with his whip ; on which, the last stabbed him 

See Justice W. Smith, Jr's., letter, 5 Nov. 1764, p. 640, and 25 Jan. 1765, p. 552. 


in the breast through his lungs, in such a manner, that his 
recovery afterwards was thought very singular. For this, 
the jury gave £1500 damages, about which there were 
various opinions, some imagining the damages excessive, 
while others conceived, that a great deal more ought to 
have been given. No exceptions were taken to the regu- 
larity of the proceedings by either party. On this, a new 
trial was moved for, which the Court refused to grant ; for 
besides the pain the Plaintiff underwent during the cure, 
much actual damage was proved by losses in his business ; 
and there was not the least probability, that another jury 
would have assessed the damages at less ; nor did it appear 
that they ought. On this an appeal was offered to be 
entered to the Lieutenant Governor & the Council. This 
was not permitted, and the party was told that a writ of 
Error was the only method of bringing his cause there. 

Some time after this, when the other Judges were gone 
into the Country and none but the Chief Justice in town, 
two writs were procured addressed to the Judges of the 
Supreme Court commanding us, to desist from all further 
proceedings, and to bring up the whole before the Lieu- 
tenant Governor & the Council. This the Chief Justice 
refused, and bringing back the writs on the next Council 
day, declared that he could make no return to them, 
because he considered it to be illegal, & desiring a time to 
reduce his reasons to writing, he produced them a few days 
after ; on which the Lieutenant Governor proposed that 
they should be entered on the minutes ; which was ordered 
by the Court. An order also was made, that the other 
Justices of the Supreme Court should give the reasons of 
their conduct ; which I was informed of, as soon as I came 
to town. That the parties might not be delayed, I gave 
them as speedily as I could ; and having read them next 
Council day, they were also ordered to be entered on the 
minutes. I gave them with a freedom & unreservedness, 
which I thought became my station, and without fearing 



the resentment of any person on that account; but I found 
that his Honor the Lieutenant Governor was not a little 
offended, and, in his attempt to answer what I had said, 
mentioned the gentlemen of the Bar with great disrespect, 
and spoke of trials by juries with the highest contempt, 
asserting that trials before the Council were much to be 
preferred — that no part of the Statute law extended [1 to 
the Colonies] — that the King, for that reason, might insti- 
tute what Courts he thought proper. Afterwards, he pro- 
duced a long argument in writing, which he read to a very 
numerous audience, and which was received by them with 
great indignation, as containing principles, on which the 
most arbitrary Government might be grafted. In this, he 
said that Judges who endeavored to raise the passions, for- 
got the duty of their office. As the insinuation, this carried 
with it, I thought very unwarrantable, from any thing we 
had said, I thought myself obliged to take some notice of 
it. In what manner I have done this, in some additional 
reasons, which I afterwards gave, your Excellency will see, 
when you receive a copy of the whole proceedings, which 
is now printing, & I shall take the liberty to enclose to you 
by the next opportunity. 

That in this whole affair, we have made the Law our 
guide, I am confident ; and this we must do, if Ave make 
the least pretence, either to honour, or conscience. From 
so much of the Royal Instructions, as I have seen, I have 
not the least doubt, but that it was always the intention of 
the Ministry, that we should be governed by the Laws of 
England ; and in this Province these are better known, and 
more strictly adhered to, than in any other ; and therefore 
I cannot imagine, that any practice, so unwarrantable, by 
any law, or custom in England, as an appeal from the ver- 
dict of a Jury, will be countenanced here. Had this been 
admitted either by the Judges, or the Council, it would 
have created greater uneasiness in the minds of his Ma- 
jesty's subjects here, than can well be imagined. I should 


be extremely glad that as the country has shewn, that your 
appointing me to the office of fourth Justice was not dis- 
agreeable to them, by their doubling the Salary, my conduct 
met also your approbation. 

Your Excellency's return to your Government would 
tend much to the tranquillity of the Province, and be ex- 
tremely agreeable to the people in general, but to none 
more, than to him, who has the honor to subscribe him- 

Your Excellencys 

most obedient 

humble Ser* 




New York, 23 d February 1765. 


I took the liberty by the last Packet to write your 
Excellency a long letter on a subject very interesting to us, 
which the Pamphlet herewith sent will fully explain. I 
hope it will appear, that we have not mistaken his Ma- 
jesty's Instructions, and that we shall be allowed to go on, 
dispensing justice agreeable to the settled practice, both at 
home & in this Province. If this should not be permitted, 
I foresee the greatest inconveniences without the least 
advantage accruing therefrom to His Majesty. My short 
experience fully convinces me, that if appeals from Ver- 
dicts are allowed, there will be hardly a single cause of 
moment, in which an appeal will not be demanded ; for 
few are satisfied with a Verdict that goes against them. 
Parties will generally reserve their strength for the second 
trial before the Governor & Council, and the Supreme 
Court will only be an expensive door to let the Parties into 
the Court of Appeals, as the first Trial now is in Connec- 




ticut. What advantage the Crown can receive from this 
irregular practice, I can't imagine, for it is certainly better, 
that Causes should be determined before those, who make 
the Law their study, than that the time of the Governor 
and Council should be taken up with private concerns. 

The whole affair might have been managed with much 
less noise, if his Honour the Lieutenant Governor's fond- 
ness for shewing himself in Law matters superior to the 
whole body of the Law, had permitted it, for after the 
Chief Justice had given his Reasons, there was no necessity 
for obliging him to enter them on the Minutes, but this 
being insisted on by his Honour, the Council thought 
proper, that we might all be on a footing, — to desire that 
the other justices should give the reasons of their conduct, 
and this has given rise to the publication of the whole 
thing. If your Excellency should in reading these Reasons, 
judge that some things might as well have been omitted, I 
beg you would consider, that through the whole of this 
transaction Juries were spoken of with the highest con- 
tempt, Lawyers represented as regarding only their own 
interest, Judges declared to be fond of power, and the 
Council were treated in a very indecent manner, for no 
other reason, but because we widely differed in our opinion 
from the Governor. This your Excellency will find every 
body here ready to testify. 

If it was agreeable to your Excellency's inclination to 
resume the administration, nothing would be more agree- 
able to the wishes of every body here ; for a Gentleman, 
who would make it his business to promote the prosperity 
of the colony in every thing, in which its interest and that 
of Great Britain coincide, is most ardently desired by every 
body, but by none more than by 
Your Excellency's 
most obliged 

Humble Servant 





New York, 8 th November 1765. 

Your Excellency's esteemed favour of the 12 th of May, 
which I had the great pleasure of receiving some time ago, 
would not have emboldened me so much as to be trouble- 
some to you again by another long letter, (tho' I am 
greatly Honour d by such a correspondence) if events of the 
most extraordinary nature, and such as, I believe, you 
would chuse to receive a full information of, had not lately 
happened. They were such as had liked to have reduced 
this City to a State, the most deplorable & shocking imag- 
inable ; and God only know r s, how dismal the consequences 
yet may be. At present, it bears the face, rather of a 
Comedy, than of a Tragedy. Your Excellency will doubt- 
less hear, long before this comes to your hands, with what 
a general disgust the first Act, imposing Internal Taxes on 
the Colonies, was received. The distributors appointed 
for all the Colonies have resigned their offices, or have 
been obliged to desist from all attempts to carry the Act 
into execution. M r M c Evers appointed for this office, 
finding it odious to his fellow-citizens, resigned early ; and 
by that means, prevented those compulsions, which were 
made use of in the neighboring Colonies. In this, we 
thought ourselves happy & those, who were fond of peace 
& were real friends to the prosperity of the Country hoped, 
that we should be free from all further disturbances and 
remain in perfect quiet ; but when the stamped paper 
began to be expected, about the beginning of September, 
the Lieut-Governour ordered a Man-of-war to guard the 
Ship, in which they were to come, and began to fortify the 
Fort for their reception. These proceedings (as every 
thing done by this man has long been odious, from an 
excessive personal hatred to him) very much irritated the 



minds of the Citizens, already too much inflamed by a 
number of Publications in the Newspaper, which the 
Government did not dare to punish, for fear of adding still 
more fuel to a very dangerous Fire. When the Ship with 
the Stamps arrived, which was the 23 d of October, it was 
announced to the City by the firing of several cannon from 
one of the Men-of-war, at about 10 o'clock at night, and 
the next day the ship was convoyed into the harbor by 
a Man-of-War and a tender, with great parade. A vast 
number of people beheld this sight, and, it is said, appeared 
most furiously inraged. In the mean time the Fort was 
constantly endeavoured to be rendered more & more re- 
spectable by additional preparations for defence, which the 
citizens continued to look on as an Insult. Whether this 
put it in the heads of some rash men to form a design of 
attacking the fort, I know not, neither is it absolutely cer- 
tain, that such a design was formed. About a day or two 
after Davis's arrival with the stamps, Papers were posted 
up in the night in several parts of the Town, entitled Vox 
Populi, bidding the persons who first made use of Stamped 
papers, to take care of House, Person, & Effects, which 
appeared by the hand, tho' a disguised one, to be written 
by a person not very ill educated. A number of such pub- 
lications followed this and threatened vengeance, in terms, 
the most terrifying imaginable, till the first of November 
approached ; which was termed the last day of Liberty. 
On the day preceding it, the Merchants of the City met at 
Barns's Tavern, the House of James Delancy (well known 
to your Excellency) and came to a Resolution, to send for 
no goods from England, and sell none, should they be 
consigned to them, except the Stamp act was repealed. 
At the door of this house, a number of boys & sailors ap- 
peared, imagining that there was a design to execute some 
foolish ceremony of burying Liberty ; which it seems had 
been talked of; but when they found that the Merchants 
peaceably separated, aud that there was no shew to be 


exhibited, they proceeded through the streets, in a mobbish 
manner, whistling and hurraing. This ended without mis- 
chief, except the breaking of a few glass windows. On 
the night of the first of November, there passed through 
the streets a mob, the most formidable imaginable. The 
Mayor & Aldermen had met at "the City Hall, in order to 
prevent any thing of the sort, and at its commencement, 
endeavored to oppose it with their Constables, & threw 
down the Effigy they were carrying, but the persons at- 
tending ordered it to be taken up again in the most Magis- 
terial manner, and told the Mayor &c a , they would not hurt 
them, provided they stood out of their way. They were 
obliged to yield, and the mob proceeded, — the numbers of 
the Actors and Spectators were inconceivably great, — and 
they went on with the greatest order, carrying candles and 
torches in their hands, and now & then firing a pistol at 
the Effigy, which was carried in a chair. As I was con- 
vinced no good was to be done by going out, (for it was 
supposed to design no more than to expose a man univer- 
sally odious, nobody would have assisted in suppressing 
them), I saw no more of all this nights transaction, than 
their passing twice by my door. The second time with the 
Governors Chariot, taken out of the Coach house at the 
Fort. While this was doing, a number of other men were 
employed in making a gallows and hanging thereon the 
effigy of the Governor and the Devil. This they went 
from the common to the Fort with, and there placed it, as 
the Lieut. Governor has since told me, within ten feet of 
the Fort walls. Here it is impossible sufficiently to admire 
and commend the patience & temper of the officers and 
soldiers. The Populace knocked at the gate, placed their 
hands on the top of the Ramparts, called out to the guards 
to fire, threw bricks & stones against the Fort and notwith- 
standing the highest provocation was given, not a word 
was returned to the most opprobrious language. From this 
description, you will perhaps conclude that it was the de- 



sign of the people to provoke a fire. I must leave you to 
judge from appearances. I can do no more. 

After this, the gallows with the Effigies were carried 
into the Bowling Green, where they were burnt with the 
Chariot* & chair, belonging to another person, and almost 
every moveable, they could find in the Stables. The fire 
was kindled with the boards of that part of the Fort fence, 
which faces Broadway. This had been broke down before 
by the Garrison in order to expose the Assailants to the 
fire of the Fort, and was a new cause of dissatisfaction to 
the People. From thence, after the Execution, they went 
to Major James's house, who was become an object of their 
hatred for having said, as was reported that he would cram 
down the Stamp Act upon them with a hundred men. 
They brought out of his house all they could find, drank 
his liquors, and burnt and destroyed every thing else before 
the door. I hear he computes his loss at Fifteen Hundred 
pounds sterling. Thus, with an attack on some bawdy 
houses, the mischief ended for this night. And here we 
hoped all farther designs would have been dropped. But 
the next day, it was publickly reported, that an attack 
would be made, at night, on the Fort, and that nothing 
would satisfy them, but the delivery of the Stamps. This, 
I own, surprized me much. I heard the Mayor and Alder- 
men were met in order to consult the peace of the Town, 
at the City Hall. Thither I went a volunteer, sent for the 
Mayor out, and told him that if they were on that business, 
I came to offer them all the assistance in my power. He 
received the offer with great cordiality, and immediately 
introduced me. I found the whole body extremely dejected, 
and I could not find, that they had formed any one design, 
except that of waiting for a message from the Council who 
were to tell them what concessions the Governor would 

* Lieutenant-Governor Colden's loss was sworn by his son to be £195 3s. The 
Assembly refused to indemnify him, on the ground that he had brought the loss upon 
himself by his own misconduct.— Prior Documents, pp. 100, 124. 


make, to quiet the minds of the people. Proposals were 
then made, to draw out the militia, and to form an Asso- 
ciation. But despondency and irresolution prevailed over 
all, and the power of the Magistrate was sunk. At last 
came a message from the Governor, acquainting the Cor- 
poration, that he would distribute no Stamp papers, except 
they were called for, and was willing to put them aboard a 
Man-of-War, if Capt. Kennedy would take them ; and this 
was all he would condescend to say, in order to quiet the 
Ferment, he had been so imprudently instrumental in rais- 
ing. He has since told me, in the presence of several other 
gentlemen, that he had wrote to the Ministry a fortnight 
before, that he should not meddle with those papers, till he 
received farther directions. Had he condescended to say 
this, in time, all would have been quieted, and he would 
even have acquired some degree of popularity, instead of 
those gross and mortifying affronts, he has received, and 
the City would have continued in peace, at least till a new 
Distributor was appointed. However, this being all he 
condescended to say, we agreed to put it in as favorable a 
light, as we could, and to endeavor, with this, to quiet the 
people ; and also, by shewing them the folly of attacking 
the Fort, if such a thing was really intended. For this 
purpose, M r Duane put me I think, on the most prudent 
measure, and what contributed more than any other thing 
to success. He observed, that as the disturbances had & 
would probably begin amongst the Sailors, the most likely 
method would be to apply ourselves to those captains that 
had commanded privateers. This we immediately put in 
execution and with good success, tho' we found the minds 
of several much inflamed. One came immediately into our 
measures. With him we went round to every part of the 
Town, spoke to many persons, found the highest resent- 
ment against the Lieut. Governor every where prevailing, 
and every now and then had hints of the intended design, 
tho' we could no where find any number assembled. The 



party, however by many gentlemen's taking the same meas- 
ures, speaking to and persuading all they met, was cer- 
tainly divided. After patrolling in this manner for some 
time, seeing no collection of men any where we supposed 
all would be quiet. At last resolving to go to Major 
James's house, where the mischief ended, out of one of 
the houses on the Church ground, facing the Commons, 
we saw seven or eight men issue, with candles lighted, 
and a Barbers Block, on a pole, dressed up with a parcel 
of Raggs. We immediately ran up to them, and soon 
prevailed on one half of the number to desist. The 
others continued obstinate and in a very short time, a 
strange sett poured in, from all quarters, so that we soon 
had about us above two hundred men. We divided them. 
Some were for going on, others for desisting as the Gov- 
ernor had now given satisfaction enough. Thus we con- 
tinued a long time prevailing with some, while others made 
attempts to proceed. Expressions dropped, which shewed 
but too plainly, they had all met to execute this mad proj- 
ect. Never before this, could I think that this was really 
intended. While we remained in this suspense, at last 
came from the Governor a Declaration of his in Council, 
that he would not meddle with the Stamps at all. This 
divided them in such a manner, that we at last defeated the 
purposes of the most turbulent. During all this time it was 
not thought advisable to exert the authority of the Magis- 
tracy. The next day, being Sunday, a letter was wrote to 
the Custom House officers, threatening destruction, if they 
did not clear out vessels as usual, deliver up all the money 
& notes, they had taken for duties. Another was put up 
at the Coffee House, telling them they must not mind the 
peaceable orators, who had prevented them on Saturday 
night, that they should be resolute, they would be com- 
manded by men, who had given proofs of their courage, in 
the defence of their country. This was subscribed The 
Sons of JSTepiune, and plainly fixed the time for the assault, 


to the fifth of November, which was Tuesday. It was high 
time, now, for those inclined to keep the peace of the City, 
to rouse their sleeping courage. A meeting was appointed 
for that purpose, to be on Monday, and all the Citizens 
were invited to be at the Coffee House at about ten o'clock. 
There tho 1 all came to form a union, few cared openly to 
declare the necessity of it ; so intimidated were they at 
the secret unknown party which, had threatened such bold 
things, and had put the Fort in such terrors, that every day 
new measures were taken to put it in a posture of defence. 
This continual adding to the strength of the Fort kept up 
the dissatisfaction of the people and made every report of 
the strength and preparations of the party who, it was said, 
designed to attack it, more credible. I ventured however, 
to tell them that it was high time to form a resolution to 
keep the peace, and to enter into an engagement for 
that purpose, and set before them, in as strong a light as I 
could, all the terrors of a Mob Government, in such a city 
as this. All agreed to this, tho' some dreading the secret 
party, who called themselves Vox Populi, thought I de- 
clared my sentiments too freely. I soon after heard I was 
threatened. However, what was said made its due impres- 
sion, and that evening many of those that determined to 
keep the peace met and went out into the Common to quell 
any new disturbances and at night several Captains of Ves- 
sels and others met together at a tavern, and sent word to 
the Mayor and Corporation, that they were resolved to join 
in the design to keep the peace, but hoped the Governor, 
for the quieting mens' minds perfectly, would execute his 
first purpose of putting the Stamps on board a Man-of-war. 
They, to whom these cruel papers had occasioned so much 
uneasiness, had sent to Capt. Kennedy, to desire him to 
receive them ; but he refused ; and the next morning, being 
the 5 th of November, the day, which all feared, as we did 
not know, but, by an attack on the Fort, an open Rebellion 
would be commenced, tho' we could not tell by whom or 



how formidable this Vox Popidi was. The Corporation 
met, and proposals were made in writing to the Governor, 
to take the Stamps into their own custody, in consequence 
of a question he had asked the Mayor, to wit ; whether he 
would take them and a desire at the same time that pro- 
posals might be made him in writing. And tho' the Gov- 
ernor has since confessed to me, that the proposal was 
agreeable to him, and all the inhabitants were collected at 
the City Hall, at 4 o'clock, in the afternoon, to know 
whether tranquillity would be restored by his agreement, 
yet he would not signify his consent till the evening, nor 
then, till he had got the General* to signify his assent to a 
matter, he had nothing to do with. This the General how- 
ever readily did, for he knew the security for them by the 
Corporation was quite sufficient ; for all agreed to protect 
them in their hands, and the Government would have got 
more by their destruction, than by their preservation. 
Thus at last, tranquillity is restored by the humanity of one 
gentleman, which was so unnecessarily disturbed by the 
perverseness of another. As many different accounts of 
this matter will go home, I thought it necessary to be thus 
prolix. Your Excellency will see by this account, that the 
enforcing the Stamp Act will be attended with the destruc- 
tion of all Law Order & Government in the Colonies, and 
ruin all men of property, for such is the temper of people's 
minds, from one end of the Continent to the other, that 
whoever carries his opposition to this Act, to the greatest 
excess, will be most followed, and will force the rest into 
their measures. Therefore, we beg, as for life and all its 
comforts, from every person that can aid us, that this Act 
may be repealed. If it be not, it is impossible for the 
wisest man on earth to tell how far its mischievous con- 
sequences will extend. Britain will suffer more by it, in 
one year, in her trade, than this tax, or any other, — should 
others be imposed, — can ever recompence. Merchants 

* Gage. 



have resolved to send for no more British manufactures, 
Shopkeepers will buy none, Gentlemen will wear none, — 
our own are encouraged, all pride in dress seems to be 
laid aside, and he. that does not appear in Homespun, or 
at least a turned coat, is looked on with an evil eye. The 
Lawyers will not issue a writ. Merchants will not clear 
out a vessel. These are all facts not in the least exager- 
ated ; and it is of importance that they should be known. 
But the worst of all is this ; that should the Act be enforced 
there is the utmost danger, I speak it with the greatest con- 
cern imaginable, of a civil war. I have in great haste 
scratched off for your Excellency this account and am 
obliged, for want of time, to make use of an amanuensis to 
copy it ; for I have hardly had time (having so much of 
publick, as well as private business, on my hands) to revise 
it ; therefore beg you will excuse such slips as I must have 
made ; and one thing more, before I conclude, which is 
this ; that since it has been justly observed that none can 
give an impartial account of his. own times, without expos- 
ing himself to the resentment of many persons, you will 
make such a use of this, as will not tend to lead me into 
any inconveniency. 

I shall ever remain, with the greatest respect, 

Your most obedient 

& obliged Humble Servant, 

This letter was without 


New York, SO'} March 1765. 

Dear Sir, 

My last was 16** inst. via Bristoll p the Grace. Harry 
Cruger had the news papers recommended to him to save 



expense on such lumber. — A M? Molisson to be landed 
from this ship at Dover has the succeeding papers to 
deliver to you, he is I am told an intelligent man & can if 
you choose it give a detail of what American anecdotes are 

Inclosed is the copy of an acc f from Oliver, the balla : I 
paid him £120. 19. Cunf , if any thing is wrong, you'l be 
pleas'd to set me right. I have paid too to your Gardiner, 
two quart r . s salary £25 — this is all that has been trans- 
acted since my last — the old gentleman must have money 
of yours in his hands. I shall give a hint to Banyar, but I 
must be tender, the times are sore as a bile, 'tis impossible 
so many poor mortals can dislike one another more cor- 
dially than he & the council do one another, he treats 
them certainly most abominably & they can't help kicking 
— Since they would not allow him appeals in his own way, 
he will admit of none at all & has now dissolved the Court 
of Error, which was always admitted as an established 
Court. Skene complains wofully & is sending his case 
to L d Hillsborough. He & the old man scold like two 
Butter Women. They make him pay above £700, patent 
fees, Gov! £312, 10 — Secretary's Off £100. Sur. Gen 1 
£175. &c : and all this for his 25,000 acres tract only — I 
wish you was here. Government it self really suffers a 
disreputation in such hands. Nothing minded but accumu- 
lation of money here, without regard to the rights or honor 
of the Crown, while such great pretentions are made at 
home of supporting these very rights so shamefully pros- 

My regards to all friends & believe ever 

D r Sf Yf Am Humb le Serv* 

JX° w. — 

They have paid M r Allen off in a pamphlet at Phila da 

suppos'd to be Govf F s, as gross as gross can be. 

Jan y mail not arriv'd — 

Ilonl) 1 Gen! Moxckton. 




New York y e 20 th April 1765 

Dear Sir, 

I had the honor of your letter of y e 9*. h Feb 7 last for 
which I am obliged to you. I read your letter to Jno. 
Watts with many others relative to affairs of America. I 
am truly concerned that the present ministry have such 
despotic influence in Parliament as to carry measures that 
must bring immediate distress on this country and conse- 
quently so on our mother country. 

I am concerned that it is still uncertain what you are to 
do, as the situation we are in with M r Colden cant last 
long, and I most sincerely wish for your coming. The 
condition Greenwich is in and will unavoidably grow 
worse, the Gardener besides being very insolent to me does 
not take care of any one thing, and the last servants that 
were in the house have left it in worse condition than you 
found it, for which reason and the uncertainty of your 
coming over has laid me under the necessity of getting 
another tenant, and as I did not expect to hear from you, 
as I had no letter by the Cumberland packet Capt. Davis 
or Jacobson, I ten days ago wrote to H. V. David John- 
ston to acquaint him I would let him live in it. Had I 
then rec d your letter by the Hyde packet, I should have 
waited some time longer, but I cant take back now, which 
I humbly hope you'll excuse. My duty to the family I 
represent as attorney makes it necessary. 

I am obliged to you for your attention to my boys who 
are to stay one year longer in England. When I sent 
them I did intend to let them stay long enough to com- 
plete their education, but the new regulations of the 
Colonies has so much taken me down that I am obliged 




to give them an education suitable to what they may 
expect which is much altered. 

I am glad to hear of the health of your family who have 
always my best wishes. 

I am truly, Dear Sir 

Your most humble ser* 

The Hon"! 8 Genl Monckton. 


New York 30* May 1765 


Give me leave to trouble your Excellency with my most 
grateful acknowledgements for your Favor of the 9 th of 
February, and the kind regard you are pleased to express 
for me. I wish it was in my power, in some measure to 
merit these marks of your consideration. 

The intimation of your opinion that the Appeal Instruc- 
tion will be explained to our wishes, is no inconsiderable 
alleviation to the distress occasioned by the imposition of 
the stamps. As yet we have not a syllable from the Trade 
upon this subject ; the Lieut. Governor nevertheless is, or 
affects to be sanguine, that the Crown will support his 

The new tax gives the highest disgust — considered in 
itself the duties are thought to be beyond all reasonable 
bounds. The poverty of our people, and the frequent 
transfer of lands in this Country, extendable also by Act 
of Parliament even for simple contract debts, 'tis imagined, 
were good reasons for lower duties here than in Great 
Britain : And the restrictions upon our Commerce, as they 
shorten our purses, ought to have reduced the Stamps to 


so small a duty, as to be inferior to the first impositions of 
that sort in the mother country. These now enacted, 
unless a freer vent is given to our staple, I am persuaded 
will soon draw out all the little silver and gold we have 
or can procure, distress us to an extremity, and frustrate 
the very end of the law. But when the Americans reflect 
upon the Parliament's refusal to hear their Representations 
— when they read abstracts of the speeches within doors, 
and the ministerial pamphlets without, and find themselves 
tantalized and contemned, advantages taken of their silence 
heretofore, and Remonstrances forbidden in time to come ; 
and above all, when they see the prospects of innumerable 
loads arising from this connection with an over-burdened 
nation interested in shaking the weight off of their own 
shoulders, and commanding silence in the oppressed Beast 
on which it is cast ; what can be expected but discontent 
for a while, and in the end open opposition. The boldness 
of the Minister amazes our people. This single stroke has 
lost Great Britain the affection of all her Colonies. And 
now the redress of the grievances of the Provinces in all 
other respects, the commission of them to the law of such 
as will govern them with spirit, mildness, dignity, and 
generosity, and a Ready, able upright administration of 
justice, by such whose experience of their peculiarities will 
inspire confidence in the Inhabitants, are become absolutely 
necessary. This will sweeten the late unpalatable draught, 
and Art may prevent the evils which Force must inevitably 
bring on. 

But I shall not trouble your Excellency any further upon 
this subject, I mean only to give a hint of the temper of 
this country, where many thousands claim an interest in 
your Patronage, and would rejoice in the return of their 

I am highly obliged by your condescension respecting 
the message my polite friend M r Boon was pleased in my 
behalf to render acceptable to your Excellency. When 



ever you think me able to serve his Majesty and the Pub- 
lic, your call will be one of my greatest inducements to 
contribute my mite. And whether in or out of Imploy- 
ment I shall always be glad of an opportunity to shew that 
I am with undissembled sincerity 
Your Excellency's 

most faithful, obliged & 

obedient servant 



New York, June I?. 1 1765. 

Dear Sir, 

The Hide Packet carried my last dated 16!! 1 April — 
with an addition of the 27*« — I am since oblig'd to you 
for your favor by the April mail which arriv'd before the 
March — Old St. John got here before either in Boston 
in a short passage from Dover, he seems sadly shrunk & 
weather beaten, but Madam as full as she can hold. 

I can easily conceive the business of the wise ones, in 
establishing turnpikes, draining marshes, dividing com- 
mons, &c : &c : I paid for it last Winter. My friend 
Napier sent me the votes and proceedings at large and 1 
read them fairly through, but if I ever do it again, I'll 
give them leave to convert me into a Turnpike. 

The Colonists have no doubt of the Billeting Bills pass- 
ing or any thing else that is brought in, whether just or 
no their apprehensions I shant pretend to say, but they 
seem convinc'd that not only doing the thing itself is meant 
at home, but an air of both severity & contempt is de- 
sign'd to go along with it, & it has its effect to the full — 
I could wish to see Squire Pownall's performance, but if 
he intends to turn Author General he should not be so 


prolix, he is said here to affect being the patron of the 
Billeting Bill from his great acquaintance with & experi- 
ence of America, I believe there are many such, who make 
America by falling into the humor of the times, the handle 
for their own dirty purposes, not caring one farthing so 
they do but succeed, what is the consequence either to the 
mother country or the Colonies. 

I took it for granted Gates was done with this part of 
the world & with the army, as to service, but since he does 
go out, it's a pity Sy Harry could not step in, we know 
something of him the other is new to us & perhaps we 
shan't tally so well. 

Inclos'd I send you a letter from , he sent me an- 
other order on Forman of the Artillery for £164. 5. 10. 
but he won't pay it. The Niagara man of the Artillery is 
got out of his head & thrown things into confusion, how- 
ever Coll Vaughan, no doubt will set all right. My Lord 
Adam Gordon is here & goes up in a few days to see M? 
Falls, &c : he appears to be very communicative & easy, 
his plan is to proceed from thence to Canada & to return 
here through Boston to take his passage in a packet about 
August next, but I should imagine it will be October — 

Leary does not come down from Smoaker, he wishes you 
back most cordially — Your Wine is special good, I had 
a sip of it tother day, it has contracted both the old tart 
& look, About the fall I believe you may think of moving 
it & introducing it into good company. Pray let Coll . How 
know if he is not come abroad, that I send by this con- 
veyance a letter for him from Niagara. 

The old man has paid me a quarter's salary £225. to 
March, & £156. 5. some other perquisites which shall be 
explain'd in your ace* when render'd. This & some other 
money I have converted into a Bill of Exchange drawn by 
De Lancey & Watts on the contractors for four hundred 
pounds sterling now sent you of this date N° 110. 

The old Gentleman is retir'd to Long Island, if he has 



any inuendo's he keeps them to himself, he never sees any 
of us but in Council & then reluctantly enough, 'tis strange 
doing buiness when all confidence, harmony & real respect 
is banish'd. 

Gen! Gage desires me to pay his compliments to you, he 
has nothing particular to write — My friend Napier will 
forgive me my neglect by the Packet you mention when he 
receives my following letters which make ample amends. 
I beg you will pay my regards to all our friends — I wrote 
by Davis to most of them. 

I am with very great truth. 
D r S r 

Y r . Most Oblig d Humb 1 Serv! 


The Noble Lady & her Lover are going up to S r Will 
Johnson's in a day or two, to observe orders I suppose — 
Strange inconsistent plan, 'twill be just going up the hill 
& coming down again. 

The Papers shall be given to some passenger, but whom 
I don't yet know. 


I do hereby certify that while I commanded at Fort Pitt 
and the Communication, I gave leave, with General 
Monckton's approbation to the late Anthony Thomson, a 
Tanner, to establish a Tan Yard near Fort Pitt, for the 
advantage of the Troops, & Traders ; and that the said 
Anthony Thomson, was besides allowed to cultivate as 
much Land about the said Tan-yard as would be necessary 
for his own use & Family, and as his Widow Jane Thom- 
son has been intirely ruined by the Indian War, & lost all 
the Improvements her late husband & herself had made 


upon that Place ; I do hereby recommend her to the Offi- 
cer commanding His Majesty's Troops in that Department 
to be permitted, as far as will be found consisting with his 
orders & the good of the Service, to rebuild the said Tan 
Yard & have the use of the adjoining Land in prefer- 
ence to any other Person : Given under my hand at Phil- 
adelphia the 20 th June, 1765. 



New York 24 th Sept* 1765. 

Dear Sir, 

Permit me to tell you that your friends on this side the 
water, & the Colony universally like your farewell less 
than anything you ever did, tho' not so much as in the least 
to lessen, I believe as sincere a regard as people could en- 
tertain for a Governor. You are a little tho' obliged to his 
honor too, tho' perhaps it may have escaped your observa- 
tion, he has I believe without designing you any favour 
made such a lively contrast, as will be remembered as long 
at least as this generation lasts and probably much longer. 
You will also have another undesigned obligation to him, 
for I am much mistaken if he leaves his successor much to 
do about the Loaves and Fishes that can be cleared off, 
this is a matter they must settle. It is whispered as if this 
almighty charge would affect the new appointment, but I 
should imagine things are gone too far for that, nor is it 
an object important enough, to be considered when the 
waters are so troubled, the ship must be first laid to, and 
the waves a little smoothed. M r Moore may be a very 
good man, but I cannot think still the appointment wise, 
the northern colonies have always considered the planters 



of the southern their enemies from self interest, and if 
ever there is the least occasion will be more uneasy under 
such a ruler, whose heart naturally will be where his 
treasure is, than under a person they judge unprejudiced 
and disinterested. 

I cannot send you the papers by this packet, as no pas- 
senger is going, but Richards follows in three or four days 
and shall carry them. You will think the printers all 
mad, Holt particularly, who has been cautioned over and 
over again, and would have been prosecuted, but people's 
minds are so inflamed about this stamp act, it would only 
be exposing Government to attempt it ; what will be the 
end of all this bitterness on both sides, I own I cant see. 
The task may seem easier in theory than it may prove in 
the execution, for I cannot conceive there will be silver or 
gold enough to carry this Act and the high duties that are 
laid, through, and what shall people then do in a new 
country where property so frequently changes hands, must 
everything stagnate, and will not a universal discontent 
prevail. Man is man, and will feel and will resent too, even 
in little matters that may prove in their consequences essen- 
tial. The very article of wearing what plain cloaths the 
country affords and being content with a plain frugal dress 
must affect the British manufacturers Exceedingly and will 
raise a riotous mob as soon as anyone thing. But I've 
done, I am sure you must be weary of the subject. 

The Mayor has received your letter, and the Speaker shall 
soon have his ; The Assembly meets 15 th Oct r , to the great 
terror of the old gentleman, who sincerely, if ever he was 
sincere, wishes for the arrival of the new Governor, since 
he must come. The Colony is now more incensed against \\ 
him than ever ; conscious of its dislike and terrified at 
mobs, which to be sure are wretched masters, he has got 
the Fort armed beyond whatever you saw it in the height 
of the war ; howitzers on the curtains, cannon facing the 
gates and the Broad Way, as if poor Montcalm was at 



King's Bridge, besides every other apparatus of battle in a 

foolish ostentatious way as can be conceived, tho' G 

has I believe tho' of late checked it, for the old man him- 
self said with a seeming pleasure that the guns were shot- 
ted with grape " but that it was none of his doing " which 
nobody believed. Only think what Government is come 
to and laugh at us. 

You will hear from the corporation and from the As- 
sembly in due time. I fancy they will contrive to get your 
representation since they are not to have the Life. I saw 
plainly the effect letting Greenwych would have, if done 
by your own approbation or order, but in the way it was 
conducted, the consequences were not quite so evident ; 
how nicely tho' it tally'd by entire accident, no astrologer 
could have divined it better with all his art. 

The bill remitted on Duncan is not paid nor, I am 
afraid, will be, I gave Coll Vaughan and him all the 
necessary notice and caution. 

I wrote you 11 th Aug* by the Cumberland packet, and 
the 19 ttl following by a ship of M r Hassonclover's, Capt. 
Hunter, since which I have neither rec*! or paid anything 
for you. Should any hints occur to you in settling by 
and by with the old Gent, please to communicate them ; 
I shall follow your directions strictly ; you will be pleased 
to think how I am to dispose of your things in my cus- 
tody. I have mentioned them to you all repeatedly, they 
wait your commands. The wine is very good. I dont 
mention this as a discharge from your service for I flatter 
myself you will still favour me with your friendship and 
with the direction of what little you may have to do in 
our part of the world. I mention it as a thing that may 
be done now without any discovery. I shall always retain 
a grateful sense of your many particular favors and shall 
always resent them as far as my mite will extend. I will 
learn too not to persecute you with such long letters, for I 
am really often ashamed to look over such an immense 



tract as I have filled up. My respects to the family and to 

all friends, and believe me with the greatest truth 

D r S r 

Y r most faithfull 

& ob ld Humb. Ser< 

J. w. 

Inclosed is the Post Office Ace' amounting to £67. 1. 5 
a lumping matter. 

We have not met to receive a communication of your 
letter to the Council, 'twill come with an ill grace for he 
says he has neither Council, Assembly, or Corporation, 
neither has he, to his mind — and the devil of a condition 
the Colony would be in, if he had, and the interests of the 
Crown in the bargain. Gov r Barnard vou will see in the 
papers, has made a most ridiculous declaration to his Coun- 
cil about the stamps. There is a parody of it in yester- 
day's paper well enough. 


New York, 12 t . b Oct! 1765. 

Dear Sir, 

I have none of your favours to answer nor anything to 
add on business since I wrote you the 24 th ult. by the 
packet — For fear any objections should be started tell me 
whether you have not a right to the half of the salary and 
of all the emoluments of Government as usual, till S r H. 
M. qualifies here, for as it is the inheritance of an English- 
man to intermeddle in every body's business more than his 
own, I have already heard it questioned, whether the ap- 
pointments to this Government did not stop upon your 
removal to Berwyck. How the old man understands it I 
dont know, but you understand the old man, and if he once 



construes it in his own favour he will be bloody tough. 
He communicated your whole letter to the Council which 
was very gratefully received. Yesterday the Assembly 
was prorogued from 15 th to 29 th inst. tho' they were by their 
former prorogation to have met on business ; so determined 
is his Honor to avoid meeting them, but pay day will nev- 
ertheless come, and the heavier by being put off. Yester- 
day we were summoned among other things too, to consider 
of Cunningham's famous appeal. His majority in Council 
26 th July directs the Commander in chief and Council to 
receive and hear his appeal with liberty for him to appeal 
still farther to the King in Council if he dislikes the deter- 
mination here ; how it will end God knows, but the meas- 
ure is so unconstitutional and unprecedented that neither 
the lawyers or judges know how to act or how to bring it 
properly into Council by way of appeal as is directed. 
This fell like a thunderbolt upon us, we had all the en- 
couragement in the world to hope the contrary. Even M r 
Thurlow one of the King's own Counsel at law had given 
his opinion to M r Charles in writing that it was unconsti- 
tutional, which we have now before us ; still this unex- 
pected direction is come upon us, not to the Governor, he 
has not a line, but thro' the hands of an Irish boy Cun- 
ningham's attorney. It seems as if everything conspired 
to make bad worse. This is more detested than the S. — 
A. which has made the Colonys mad already. The order 
is quite silent about what has passed in America on the 
subject, makes no distinction on the points we were con- 
tending, but as if nothing had happened, merely orders 
the Governor or Commander in Chief to admit Cunning- 
ham's appeal &c. Tell our friend Coll Barre, our appre- 
hensions are better founded than he imagined and that 
doctrine of this kind can as yet be adopted in England. 
Committees are met from Boston, Rhode Island, Connecti- 
cut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Lower Countys, Maryland 
and South Carolina, at this place to confer on a dutiful 



representation to his Majesty " for averting the evils al- 
ready brought upon and still impending over America." 
To do 'em justice, I believe they have deputed some of 
their best people, and I imagine the fruits of their delib- 
erations will be sensible and moderate enough. Brig r 
Kuggles is Chairman, Otis aimed at it and would have 
succeeded but they thought as he had figured much in the 
popular way, it might give their meeting an ill grace, but it 
is observed Otis is now a quite different man, and so he 
seems to be to me, not riotous at all. 

My regards to all friends, pray tell Col 1 Amherst when 
you see him, with my compliments, the Indian Corn he 
wrote for went in Richards the latter end of last month. 
I wrote my friend Napier about the same time by the 
Hyde packet, I have not one line from any of my friends 
by this packet, the Harriot, that sailed in August and ar- 
rived about a week ago. I give this to Sir William John- 
son's son whom Lord Adam Gordon takes under his wings 
to pass a twelve month at home. He has our absurd ridic- 
ulous papers too, I wish they may do no harm, complain- 
ing of grievances and running stark mad are two different 
things. I dont find any body who so much as suspect the 
authors of them. If it should not be disagreeable to you 
to extend a small portion of your usual civility to this 
young gentleman I am sure the father will bear a grateful 
remembrance of it. And pray if it falls occasionally in 
your way be so kind as to introduce him to my friend Na- 
pier: I have not time to write him. O how we pant for 
the new Governor's arrival, even tho' he should be as hot 
as pepper pot itself, 'tis better than the venomous stream 
we at present drink from. 
I remain, Ever, 
Dear Sir, 

Y r faithfull & Af l Humb 1 Serv fc 


Ilonb 1 Gen. Monckton. 




New York, 26 th Oct 1 1765 

Dear Sir, 

I wrote you 12^ inst. by Sir Will. Johnson's son who 
sailed in the Harriot packet and carried the (wild) papers. 

The Congress is broke up, their transactions not pub- 
lickly known, as decency forbids they should. How their 
addresses will be received, you are the best judge. I take 
their resolves to be pretty much upon the Philadelphia 
plan, with some elucidations. I mean the resolves of that 

People here are kept quiet, but are thoroughly dissatis- 
fied, the stamps are safe in the Fort, that came by Davis, 
If they are issued, confusion will ensue, I am afraid. 
If they are not twill be as bad if not worse, so you see our 
unhappy situation. The Government wants weight, and 
the good folks at home may thank themselves for it ; 
where there is neither love, fear, or common confidence 
to bind, what must be the consequence I 


The Lieutenant Governor declares that he will do nothing 
in relation to the Stamps but will leave it to Sir Harry 
Moore to do as he pleases on his arrival. Council 
Chamber New York November 2 d 1765 
By order of his Honour 

W. BANYAR D. D. Con. 



The Governor acquainted Judge Livingston, the Mayor, 
M r Beverly Robinson and M r John Stevens this morning, 
being Monday the 4 th of November, that he would not issue, 
nor suffer to be issued, the Stamps, now in Fort George. 

Rob t R. Livingston 
John Cruger 
Beverley Robinson 
John Stevens 

The Freemen, Freeholders and Inhabitants of this City, 
being satisfied that the Stamps are not to be issued, are 
determined to keep the peace of the City, at all events, 
except they should have other cause of complaint. 


New York d* Nov! 1765. 

Dear Sir, 

I desired our friend Napier by Davis two days ago to 
acquaint you that I had wrote the 12^ ult. by Sir Will. 
Johnson's son, and the 26 th by an ordinary transport, desir- 
ing him at the same time to deliver you the 2 d of the sett 
of Bills I then enclosed for £150. st g drawn by Colin 
Drummond on L* Sam. Hudger and Gartners indorsed for 
your use. Davis carried with him a half a dozen barrels 
of pippins for yourself Coll. Amherst and Napier which I 
recommended to the Doctor's care — hush what have I 

No money received from Pollard for you, neither the 
bill on Forman of the Artillery he remitted for £140. odd 
pounds nor the other on Duncan for a hundred and ninety 
odd pounds paid, though neither have been neglected. I 
am apprehensive he has not talents for business, too soft 
or too compliant, equally bad. 


The old gentleman has had no time if he had inclination 
to pay me any thing for you, his hands have been so full, 
owing to his own impolitick conduct, which is bred in the 
bone, but allowing that a more conciliating temper and a 
less ungracious character would have prevented half the 
confusion, the state of the Colonies in general, and this, 
(now) in particular, is become very serious, of which the 
stamp act is the foundation, and that once removed would 
calm the storm very soon, but while at home so little atten- 
tion is paid to their interests, so little delicacy or regard 
in filling the offices, wherein life property, and good 
government are concerned, such strokes, as the appeal, at 
the most essential libertys of a subject, carrying their 
estates from Juries to a submissive Court of Admiralty, 
they never can or will be easy, till they are either per- 
suaded or compelled to forget they are entitled to the 
rights of Englishmen. The injudicious question about the 
power of parliament, no prudent man would meddle with, 
but among friends as a mere matter of speculation, rash 
conceited prigs and printers have done it, but are blamed 
by all men of reflection, yet it has become so general, 
notice probably will be taken of it, and the more the pity 
there should be any occasion, the less is said on the subject 
the better on this side, tis too delicate if not presumptuous. 
For my own part I really believe some new constitution will 
be formed in time between the mother country and the 
colonies, nothing similar to the present states offers in his- 
tory. That there should be a supreme power lodged some- 
where seems reasonable, but as the colonies, before a great 
number of years are elapsed, will exceed the mother country 
in numbers, would it be equally reasonable the property of 
the majority should be disposed of by the minority at mere 
will and pleasure, especially when it is their interest to 
throw the burthen off their own shoulders upon those of 
their absent, unrepresented, and of course unheard fellow 
subjects, must not, unless the nature -of man is changed, 



such a government end in oppression, then what follows 
— 'A propos, M r Delancey of Maryland has printed a 
pamphlet here much admired, it will be reprinted at this 
place next week, and I will send you one ; I never saw it 
myself, but others tell me tis the best performance of the 

My compliments to M r Charles, I thank him for his 
letter, and shall soon answer it, at present there is no 
occasion, the Committee writes him fully, to him I there- 
fore beg to refer you and to Sir Harry Seaton for the par- 
ticulars of our late violent commotion. Sir H. M. cannot 
think when he arrives of enforcing the stamps and what 
can be done without them is equally perplexing. 

Col! Vaughan desires me to inclose you this letter to his 
brother. The old gent, has sent circular letters to call the 
Assembly 15 th inst. but I am persuaded he is determined 
not to meet them. How he will dispose of himself when 
he leaves the Fort he best knows, I should not like his 
situation. You cannot conceive how much the people are 
incensed at his administration 

I am with great truth 
D r S r 
Y r Obl d & faithfull H! Ser* 


Ilonbl" Gen. Monckton. 


New York 22? Nov! 1765 

Dear Sir, 

I wrote you by an ordnance store ship to London 26^ 
ult. and by the Halifax Packet the 9 th inst. Nothing new 
in your affairs, no money either receiv d or paid. 



I have sent by this ordnance transport two barrels of 
pippins, two kegs of pickled peppers, and a pipe of your 
Madeira cased, to the care of M r Bard an officer in the 
22 d . I have many reasons for sending the wine and wish 
you had ordered both pipes away while our port was open 
and it could be done safely, at present nothing is done in 
the Commercial way, the stamps cannot possibly be dis- 
tributed and if vessels should be permitted by this and the 
other governments to go without them 'tis uncertain what 
treatment they may receive abroad, and yet go they must 
at all hazards or Ireland must be without its necessary 
supply of food, the West Indies without their food, His 
Majesty's fleets and garrisons without their supplys &c &c. 

This, I am informed is a safe and good conveyance, the 
wine will be subject as usual to the duties and every other 
circumstance easy, which chiefly tempted me to send it. 

Sir Harry seems to be an easy sensible well bred man 
and experienced in business ; every body likes the change 
extremely, indeed nobody could come amiss, so they were 
but rid of the old man. The first question put to the 
Council was, whether it would be practicable to issue the 
stamps, answered unanimously, no ; the next, whether they 
approved of reducing the Fort to its old state, it seemed, he 
said, to carry too hostile an appearance in a friend's country, 
he further proposed to throw open the gates as usual, and 
to give everybody free access, all unanimously consented to, 
and the old man at his elbow among the rest, who had 
been at the bottom of all these hostile preparations and 
unfriendly measures, the consequence is, that every body 
is happy and quiet, and love the one, and detest the other, 
to be sure the old gentleman fortified as if he had been 
at Bergen-op-Zoom, when the French besieged it with 
a hundred thousand men, which gave more offence and 
made people's blood run higher than any one thing that 
had happened. Not a cannon on the Battery, or in the 
fields, whether publick or private property I am told, but 



is spiked as if it was to be useless to the day of judgment. 

Lord, what strange scenes we have had, madness and folly 


Sir H. Seaton sends you the papers, all but the speech 

and council's address which are not with them. You will 

hear soon from the Assembly, I believe, they are sitting, 

and must be moderated, if they should prove too warm. 

I find you had a detail of our late disorders, by the packet, 

wrote by our Law gentleman, which I did not then know 

as we were all in confusion. My regards to Napier, Col 18 

Amherst, Barre &c &c & believe me still 

D r S r 

Y r Most Af fc Humb 1 Ser* 


The things are all directed for you in writing. 

Honbl 6 Gen Monckton. 


New York 30? Dec r 1765 

Dear Sir, 

I neither heard from nor wrote to you by the last packet, 
but I inclosed to my friend Napier to deliver you the first 
Bill of which you have now the second, drawn by Delancey 
and Watts on S r Sam 1 Fludyer and Gartners for £100. St g 
dated 21 s . fc inst at 75 per ct exchange. His honor lately 
sent me the moiety of a quarter's salary to the l s . fc of June 
£225, and said he would settle the whole as soon as he 
got M r Banyar's rec ts , but how he explains the whole, a 
little time will show, he is in the country. 

The Assembly are broke up, but have taken no more 
notice of him or the salary, from the l s . fc Sept. when the 
last support ended to 12 th Nov r when Sir Harry qualified, 



than if he had been in tother world (where they heartily 
wish him) and wanted no salary. We talked to some of the 
members gravely abont it, they acknowledged the reason- 
ing, but could not be persuaded to carry it into practice, 
the prejudice was so great, they seemed only to lament 
more was not in their power I proposed giving it to you, 
they said with all their hearts, not a dissenting voice, but 
they were afraid of the impropriety of it, still I believe it 
may be brought about one time or other, when people 
cool, for he and the Stamp Act at present are exactly alike, 
without a single friend. 

The Custom Houses clear vessels out, certifying there 
are no distributions of stampt paper, which is literally true 
enough, all of them having resigned, and no others to be 
found hardy enough to accept, but in this port alone the 
men of war stop the shipping, unless a few that steal out 
by night, this sours the inhabitants greatly, and its to be 
feared Capt. Kennedy and they will be at odds soon, if they 
are not put upon a footing with their neighbours. You 
are happy out of the Colony, and out of America too from 
the ill boding aspect of things, cramping of trade, suppres- 
sion of paper money, duties, courts of admiralty, appeals 
internal taxes &c, have rendered people so poor, cross, and 
desperate, that they don't seem to care who are their masters, 
or indeed for any masters. I expect to see this City go one 
day or other, it has looked extremely like it once already, 
contending for the stamps in the Fort. 

I believe I may, for fear of accidents, as well send you 
M r Drummond's third Bill on the Contractors for £150. 
St? I sent you by an ordinance store ship called the 
Eaven Capt. Scott 22 d ult. to the care of M r Bard an 
officer in the 22 d . Reg*, a pipe of your Madeira, two barrels 

Pippins, and two kegs pickled peppers. has paid 

nothing since I last advised you. The Bill upon Duncan 
is, I think, made good by another on the Paymaster of 


Works, who is expected every day from Fort Pitt : we 
shall know when he gets here. 

My regards to the Family and to all friends, and still 
believe me ever 

Dear Sir, 

Y r Af fc . & Humble Ser* 


Pray tell Col. Amherst with my compliments the stamp 
act prevented his rough rice going from Carolina ; I hope 
he received the corn by Eichards the value Lord Holder- 
ness's steward may pay to yours if he pleases, to make 
short work on't. 

Honb e Gen. Monckton. 


New York, 30* Jany. 1766. 

Dear Sir, 

This Packet has been so long ice or wind bound, she 
gives me an opportunity of answering your favour of 9 th 
Novf, when she might otherwise have been far advanced 
on her passage. Poor Duke, his death is much lamented 
in America, more than if half the rest of the gang had tipt, 
all the good ones are called away, and the bad ones left 
behind, as if it was designed to increase the measure of their 
vengeance, but pay-day will come. 

By the Hope Davis, 6^ hist. I sent your Account. I 
shall settle your affairs, all of them, as well as I can, with 
the old Highlander who loves pelf dearly, if possible, better 
than power or a ministerial smile. The man of war, in 
which the counter order on the appeal is supposed to be 



coming does not yet make her appearance, though she 
sailed before this packet. We are come to that pass to be 
surprised at nothing, but the eera has come when a whole 
continent must be better used, or endless distractions will 
ensue, no attention is paid to them but when a job excites 
it. Kenmore going to govern Jamaica for robbing at the 
Havanna. Rogers sent to face a gaol here he just broke 
out of with a proclamation still open against him. Who 
governs our neighbour provinces. Lord have mercy upon 
us, as our friend says, when things are at the worst, they 
will mend, which I think, cannot be, till next spring, or 
perhaps Summer or year is over. 
I always am 
Dear Sir 

Y r faithfull and 

Obliged Humb 1 Ser< 


We are just come from Council. The Govf behaves 
sensibly and coolly, he lets the stamps sleep till he can hear 
from home. Secretary Conway by his majesty's order has 
wrote a most excellent letter on the confusions of America, 
wise, mild, and just. 

Honb le Gen. Monckton. 


New York, 22* Feby. 1766. 

Dear Sir, 

My last was 8* inst. via Dublin with the first Bill on 
Treasury for £128, St g drawn by Gen! Gage, the 2 d is en- 
closed. Your Account will show you how far Pollard has 




gone in his payments. I took this Bill on settling the 
order he sent on Duncan for £196 9 1 Curr y . Forman 
says he will pay sixty or seventy pounds of the old con- 
tested Bill Pollard remitted on him, these two sums are 
since the Account, and £60. for the Gimcrack at the Fort 
I received of the Treasurer. 

I have punctually delivered all your messages, Col. 
Vaughan and Sir Harry Seton are here well. M r Moore 
has received the counter order to the appeal, which is very 
full and does no great honor to his Honour which must 
chagrin him much, as applause and ministerial approba- 
tion is the balsam of his soul — next to pelf. 

We have been warm and disorderly here indeed, but it 
is our misfortune as much as our fault, no such things 
would have happened had you been here, but the extreme 
aversion to the old man's person and character rooted at 
the very heart, was a noble stock to engraft the stamp act 
upon, and it flourished accordingly. 

The very great regard the people of this Colony universally 
profess for you, seems to inspire them almost as generally 
with an idea of having a filial title to your protection and 
good offices as if you was still their benevolent Governor. 
In this light Col! Vaughan and I have been applied to for 
your kind intercession in their favour, by M r Lot Low (the 
former Clerk of the Assembly) with M r M c Lean, who, they 
think, has used them rather hardly. The general state of 
their case is inclosed, the particulars and vouchers lay with 
Mess" Sargent & Co., if, they say, any facts 

should be , if it is not disagreable to you to 

interpose, and you think their complaint just, they with 
many of their friends will acknowledge themselves highly 
obliged to you for any countenance you show them in the 
affair. They dont, and I am sure I dont, mean to be for- 
ward in the matter: it is just putting it in your power, if 
the thing is not disagreeable to you, to offer a few good 


words in their favour towards the settlement of a perplexed 
affair by which they have suffered greatly. 

My regards to the family and all friends and permit me 
still to remain 

Dear Sir, 

Y r most Af Humb 1 Ser? 


Honb le Gen. Monckton. 


New York, 12* May 1766. 

Dear Sir, 

I have your favors to acknowledge of the 10^ March by 
the same packet that carries this, these swimming Posts 
have been pretty well work'd of late — 

I shall not fail to make use of your name with the Gov- 
ernors of the Colonies in favor of Doctor Clossy whenever 
it is seasonable to do it. At present it is not, there is no 
opening for Anatomical Lectures, the students are so few 
& the funds so overcharg'd, besides we have so many of the 
Faculty already destroying his Majesty's good subjects, that 
in the humor people are, they had rather one half were 
hang'd that are already practising, than breed up a new 
swarm in addition to the old. You'll say 'tis the way to 
have able practitioners, it will help 'em no doubt, but bad 
enough of conscience are the best we breed here. Another 
obstacle stands in the way too, Sy James who is their Men- 
dicant at home & has been very successful, propos'd a 
Branch of this kind of Education, but I don't find it rel- 
ish'd at all, & tho' it might not serve him, it might dis-serve 
another, by throwing his name & pretensions in the way, 
however we shall not be unmindful of the Doctor, when 
any mail will go — I have a letter from Coll Barre & 



would serve him with pleasure both for his public & pri- 
vate virtues, but times and seasons must be minded or we 
do nothing — The Colonies are extremely incensed at 
the treatment they have received from the Mother Country 
& tho' it has not had effects in one sense, it has in another, 
which I believe will soon be obliterated. They seem to 
wish Canada again French, it made 'em of some conse- 
quence, which in consequence they lost when it was con- 
quer'd, if their reasoning be just — They certainly would 
not grant a man for that or any other use was it to be done 
over again & I had so much of it in conversation, I have 
no stomach left to write upon the subject. 

Jarvis has at last finish'd the Beaver Coat, Jacobson of 
the ship Hope will deliver it to you, it cost with the case 
£36. 5. this Currency. 

Mf Coldon tells me he has wrote to & sent you an opinion 
relative to the dispute subsisting between the Governors & 
sea officers about mercantile plunder, there is an incon- 
sistency it seems committed at home, which it behooves 
each side to see clear'd up in their favor — Another late 
opinion has been given & printed at Boston in favor of the 
Governors, that I imagine Mf Barnard must be at the 
bottom of, it speaks so feelingly & no wonder, 'tis a pretty 
feather enough in the Cap of Government — they won't 
suffer My Coldon to touch a shilling now. The matter 
is determin'd, in which you are involv'd the one moiety. 

I have deliver'd the papers & notes to Capt? Jacobson & 
remain with great regard 
Df S r 

Yy Most Faithful 

Humb! Serv* 


Bradstreet is preparing to go on with some regulars, 
Jersey men, New York, Connecticut & Canadian Troops. 
Moncrief I suppose will be particular. 

To the Honl) 1 . (Jen! Monckton. 



New York, ll tb Nov r 1766 

Dear Sir, 

On the 12^ ult. by Capt. Corner a short lived Com- 
mander of his Majesty's ship Coventry, who tacked about 
in the Hyde packet, I sent your Will left in my hands, 
which I hope he has delivered safe. This our friend Has- 
senclover, who no doubt you'd recollect to have recom- 
mended to me, will deliver to you, with the newspaper 
trumpery, which you will not inhibit. M r Hassenclover, if 
you have curiosity to listen to a tale of his important visit 
to America, will be more able and full as much disposed 
to communicate it in person as I could be to write it, was 
I master of the Subject, which happens not to be the case. 
All I know is, that he has laid out by all accounts more 
than any other man that ever came among us, perhaps some 
forty, fifty, or sixty thousand pounds, has answered his 
engagements, well behaved very sociably and like a gentle- 
man, and I hope has laid a foundation that in time may 
bear a finer superstructure, though I must in confidence 
own to you, I doubt it. 

Davis of the ship Hope carried your ancient pipe of 
Madeira 3 d October — I have employed a person to see 
what can be done with the old gentleman about your far- 
ther rights, but I never had any great opinion of lenitives 
with him. He has lived too long in this world. 

My regards to all friends, I have a letter from Col. Barre, 
which I propose answering by this packet, if I can. 

The Assembly begins upon business to day. We are 
tried in Council about lands worse than ever. The Crown 
has thrown into this Colony a vast tract from New Hamp- 
shire from the banks of Connecticut westward, without 




determining property as well as jurisdiction. New Hamp- 
shire had granted a prodigious deal of it, some I believe 
ill, some well enough. The proprietors think altering 
jurisdiction, neither should nor can alter property, those 
who are to obtain an emolument by regranting think other- 
wise. Some to secure a title at all events renew their 
grants, some are sulky and will not. Many are poor and 

Adieu Dr Sir, 

Yrs ever 


RUARY, 1767 (PLANT. GENERAL T. 40). 

The forts of Crown Point, Ticonderoga and Fort George 
are in a very declining condition, of which I believe your 
Excellency is well informed. Should you approve of keep- 
ing up the posts it will be best to repair them as soon as 
possible. As you have been pleased to desire my opinion 
of this measure, I must freely say, that the more I consider 
the state of affairs on this continent, more and stronger 
reasons present themselves ; and I am the more convinced 
it is not only expedient, but indispensably necessary for the 
interest of Great Britain and his majesty's service, not only 
to keep them in good repair, but to erect a proper place 
of arms, near the Town of New York and a citadel in or 
near the Town of Quebec. These with temporary works 
thrown up occasionally, at the other places of landing and 
embarking will secure the communication with the mother 
country, and will link these two provinces so strongly to- 
gether, as will add great security to both. They will facili- 
tate the transport of ten or fifteen thousand men at the 



beginning of a war from the one to the other, as the cir- 
cumstances may require. The natural and political situa- 
tion of the provinces of Quebec and New York is such as 
must for ever give them great influence and weight in the 
American System : Therefore no pains address or expense 
can be too great to root out faction or party : To establish 
tranquillity and a firm attachment to his majesty's Govern- 
ment, at the same time it is equally essential to establish 
that security and strength as can properly curb or over- 
come, should such ever arise, who by the tyes of loyal 
subjects and honest men, are not thoroughly bound to their 

This communication so established will give security to 
the King's Magazines, till then precarious and doubtful, 
will separate the Northern from the Southern Colonies, 
will afford an easy and advantageous opportunity of trans- 
porting his forces into any part of this continent, and may 
prevent the greatest of all inconveniences, delay and loss 
of time at the beginning of a war. 


New York, 23 Feb y 1767. 

Dear Sir, 

I am glad to find by your favour of 13 th Dec! that the 
Madeira and the will got safe, and that your account 
proved all very right. I have charged you for the amount 
of Lord Holderness's corn, paid by Col. Amherst. Napier 
writes me all the slippery changes, there seems to be no 
end to 'em ; stability has forsook the land. It gives me 
pleasure even to hear of the meeting of our old friends 
♦at your table, but I must own it would heighten the 
relish very sensibly, to recover my old station, and make 



one of the party, but before that happens, I believe I 
must prepare to make one of a party to another country, 
where I know much less of the hospitality than I do of 
your table, and where by all the stories we are told, the 
shadowy inhabitants are not very jolly. 

His Lordship would have been happy in a solicitor, if 
the point could possibly be yielded up, with common self 
justice to the parties concerned, but they think themselves 
so violently aggrieved, that should it cost half their for- 
tunes, they are determined to pursue it, as far as the law 
will carry them. If you choose, my dear Sir, to see the 
proofs they are at home in M r Hammersly the solicitor's 
hands. Kennion would have been despised, but his Lord- 
ship's thunder was irresistible, nay the sufferers were put 
in mind of the gallows for complaining. On a summons 
before his Lordship to receive his dictates, they attempted 
to reply, but were silenced with these words " You were 
called to hear not to speak." Never were British subjects 
so treated before especially in the fair generous way they 
were embarked. Gen! Amherst you will remember and 
you yourself encouraged adventurers to go that the fleet 
and army might have provisions at command, the instance 
being so recent in which you was reduced to eleven days. 
Your encouragement we took formally in writing to show 
we were upon a fair foundation but little expecting at that 
time to be plundered by a fellow subject, Kennion or 
any body else. Our vessel got before the port e'er the 
place surrendered, but was not suffered after it did sur- 
render, to come in, for God knows how long, till the plan 
was formed. Some of the masters submitted from neces- 
sity, to the oppressive terms, others refused and would 
have gone away (particularly M r Walton's) but were denied 
the liberty. Had these lawless oppressors been generous 
even in iniquity, it might have been forgiven or at least 
overlooked, but they were so cruel as not to allow at an 
average, the very cost and charges of the goods. M r 


Walton's vessel and Mess r ! Cruger's and mine met with 
pretty much the same treatment and I believe are the only 
suits that are yet commenced. They allowed us seven 
dollars a barrel for flour, when the Spaniard offered fifteen 
and upwards ; nay, we prove the identical flour sold by 
them at that or some such price, I forget exactly, and to 
sum up the folly and the iniquity together they wisely 
allowed the master, as if to be an evidence against them, 
the same price for his personal adventure the Spaniard 
gave them, which was about the double of what their 
generous hearts imparted to us. Mess rs Cruger's and my 
loss on the single cargo of the Brig* Pompey Capt. Culgar 
as appears by proofs in M r Hammersly's hands amounts 
I think to about nine thousand dollars still we declare for 
our parts, though not in the least doubting the justice and 
righteousness of our cause, we would rather put up with 
one half than be thought litigious, but reparation in some 
degree we must have, if there is justice in the kingdom. 
"We recommended our master to Col! Hale's good offices, 
the Colonel wrote me a letter, I could not interpret, till the 
vessel returned and the mystery was unfolded. " I be- 
lieve " says he " you make but an indifferent voyage with 
your flour, but I can assure you none of it sticks to my 
fingers." * 

The affair of the duties bears the same complexion 
though not so dark, nor half so important. Our money on 
which we could have made a considerable advantage laid 
out in goods and brought home, is extorted from us and 
kept out of our possession, to the best of my remembrance, 
two or three years, and for the favour done us, we must 
discount seven and a half per cent, instead of receiving 
damages and interest. We may say of these wages as 
South says, " of the wages of sin being death " " poor 
wages indeed a man cant live by ", I am sure a trader 

* I could not devise, what joined the ideas of his fingers and my flour together, but 
a bitter exposition soon taught us to our cost. 



could not live by these. Upon the whole, my respected 
friend, as his Lordship's power and authority was unde- 
niably the means of taking our property from us, it cannot 
be taken amiss if we think justice, reason, and good con- 
science require that the same influence should be used in 
restoring a part of it at least back to us. No fault lays at 
our door, we were fair honest traders, countenanced by 
government, to be of use to his Majesty's arms, if his 
Majesty's arms required our property, if they did not, 
we were no tax upon the publick, we bore our own ex- 
penses. Under these circumstances to be plundered and 
oppressed is an instance I believe hardly to be equalled 
in the English History. It might have told well enough 
in a Turkish government, if some dry morality had not 
stood in the way. 

I have warmed myself, and, I am sure, tired you. My 
regards to all my friends within your sphere, I am always 
glad to hear of Col 1 Hale. I wish entre nous, he or some 
other person I could name, had been conqueror of the 
H. — ; we should not have such cause for loud complaint. 
Moncrieff will tell you everything passing here which is 
trifling enough. It remains with me, only to beg your 
wonted forgiveness for any inadvertences I may have com- 
mitted and to assure you that I shall always think it a 
happiness to subscribe myself 
Dear Sir, 

Your most Ob fc 

AfP Humb 1 Ser* 


I send you Mr Walton's Answer to your letter respect- 
ing his case. 

Honb 1 ' Gen! Monckton. 




New York, 23? Jan y 1768. 

Dear Sir, 

The lazy packet a day or two ago brought me your 
favour of 10 th Oct. after the November mail had been here 
almost a week. My kinsman James De Lancey carried, I 
think my last, I hope he is improving his time seriously, a 
great deal of the future importance of his life depends upon 
it, with due attention his father's character and memory 
will be a rock he may build upon all his life. Even now in 
his absence the people are proposing him for a member at 
the ensuing election, and I have no doubt but that he will 
be chosen unless some unforeseen cross grained turn of 
popular humour should cast up. The old mayor, and Lis- 
penard decline, Livingston stands, Billy Bayard has halted 
between the two, but I believe will determine for the affirm- 
ative when he knows two of his potent colleagues resign, in 
such case I am apt to think he may come in again, with 
Lawyer Scott, a new candidate, I mean new in this elec- 
tion, for now I recollect he was up before, but all this 
depends on popular breath, and you know how uncertain 
that is. The present Assembly have been frightened out 
of their senses. The poor old Treasurer lately dropt, 
whom they have indulged so long, and by examining into 
the finances, they find all his estate will not pay the demand 
due to the Colony. Happy for the family, the mother's 
estate remains in herself and may be a provision of about 
fifteen thousand pounds, when she dies, which must be 
very soon, as she stands upon the very threshold of tother 
world. The estate is supposed to be confounded by the 
oldest son, who has been a most rash, wilful, injudicious 



Our Council now makes some figure, and has its due 
importance, Billy Smith in the room of his father, who 
was you know what, and Harry Cruger in the place of M r 
Clark, who never appeared, so that we have the whole 
body politick w T ell collected together. M r Cruger was 
recommended by Sir Harry, but it faultered till his Lord- 
ship of Trade, discovered that his son was Sheriff of Bristol, 
then it cut immediately. 

Oliver has had a good knock, but seems to be doing well 
again ; it has made him a piece of clock work ; Macgra 
says he must lower his topsails or the vessel will overset. 
Your old friend and obligee does nothing towards the dis- 
charge of your demand, nor do I believe intends it ; if you 
are satisfied no doubt he is, but hang me if I should be. 
John Leary too owes for the horse, presuming upon your 
lenity, which is not fair — give the word, and justice shall 
go on in both cases. 

I come to your late disagreeable disappointment the last, 
because I like it the least on your account, not our own, 
for we had rather have had you here ten times, than go 
to that oven, to be burnt up with heat and tortured to death 
with law. 'Tis true I own, till matters are settled between 
civil and military, the situation is not so eligible here, but 
this Colony is grown the quintessence of moderation, all 
its neighbours are writing inflammatory papers, while our 
poor printers would starve if it was not for the dirty trade of 
copying, which they are forced to submit to for want of orig- 
inals ; now and then a parson writes against the play house, 
because his daughter steals there, but this is not enumerated 
among the works of sedition. 

Sir H — y has »taken it in his head to find out an old 
instruction that forbids a Governor to repeal any law what- 
ever past here, good or bad, unless with a suspending 
clause. The minutes have been traced back for forty 
years, and instances found in every administration where it 
has been practiced. Indeed it appears excessively strange 


that a Legislature who passed the law should not repeal 
it, when it concerns the people under their government 
only and proves hurtful. This happens to be just the case 
now. An act for relief of insolvent debtors has been much 
abused. The Council and Assembly have sent up a repeal, 
but he scruples to pass it. The Jersey did so the very last 
year, finding the same law inconvenient. And according 
to this doctrine as we cant draw the nail we must not drive 
it, but from year to year which will create much confusion 
and besides by the same instruction, the 11^ or 13*, 11 if I 
remember right, he is forbid to pass any law for less than 
two years. At this rate we shall have no laws. Good 
Lord, what will the world come to. 

God send you happy whatever it comes to, and believe 
me I shall be always so in subscribing myself 
Dear Sir 

Y? aff! humb 1 serv* 

Honb le Gen! Monckton. 

My regards to Gen! Burton, Col 1 Barre Col! Hale, Mr 
Boone, and all the other friends I have the pleasure to 
know of your visitors. Old Col 1 Martin is here, the 
Speaker I mean of Antigo, a clever veteran as can be, and 
through M r Warners the Att y Gen 1 , a Doctor, and the pro- 
vost marshall, they have enquired after you frequently. 
I forgot to tell you the Assembly have chosen Lot their 
clerk Treasurer, who gives thirty thousand pounds good 
security — Simmons a member's son succeeds Lot. 

The Assembly have M r Colden's pamphlet under con- 
sideration 'tis a wicked misrepresentation of facts. He 
says the Council who were to advise him, laid snares for 
him, 'twas just the reverse ; they were always obliged to be 
upon their guard, how could they lay snares for him, he 
was to propose, they only to answer. 




New York 4 th Feb y 17 G9. 
Dear Sir, 

Your favour of 3 d Nov r was highly welcome to me, as 
every thing of the kind is I have the honour to receive 
from you. 

The affairs between the mother country and this have 
been strangely conducted indeed, though I believe it 
scarcely possible they could have been conducted worse 
than the affairs of Britain itself has been, all instability and 
confusion ; what will be the end of these things, time must 
discover, the prospect is not very enchanting. 

Our Assembly were lately dissolved for coming to resolu- 
tions similar to the other Colonies. His Ex — it is imagined, 
thought to change for the better but if that was the case, 
his disappointment must be great, not only three of the old 

ones were returned hollow, but Livingston the last 

Speaker was thrown out for taking the other side, and 
your friend John Cruger (former Mayor) put in his room. 
Jamey De Lancey took the lead and so must continue to 
do as long as he manages with common wisdom, his father's 
memory is so much revered. Our present ruler has man- 
aged his matters in such a way, as not to have gained the 
confidence, it is thought, of many, particularly those you 
would have chose to be well with. Whether it is his fault 
or theirs, I shant say, but they think he inclines to the 
meeting folks, and the difference has been carried so high 
by the late offensive writings, that the parties will not be 
easily brought to draw together. The Presbyterians or 
Independents as the Church writers call them, at the late 
election, strove eagerly in their publications, particularly 
in an offensive one, styled the Glorious Combination, to 


unite all the dissenting congregations against trie Church, 
under the general term of Episcopalians and Non-Episco- 
palians. But it would not do, they stuck to their old 
friends and formed a great majority, especially of the more 
substantial people. 

I shall pay the proper respect due to your recommenda- 
tion of Mr Blackbourne, our town is become so full of 
strangers, those who want a good connection, stand now in 
need of introductions, which was otherwise, but a very 
little while ago. 

We have lost our friend Gen 1 Burton, I see so we drop 
off one after another and mix with the rest of the race of 
Adam, forgetting and forgot. M r Walton and Jamey 
M c Evers are the only two of our acquaintance that I can 
recollect have dropt since you left the Government. Father 
Colden holds it as well as ever, never comes to town, but 
father Franks has been obliged to bow to four score years 
and better and is just gone. The Assembly the last ses- 
sions allowed M r Colden the salary from l s . fc Sept. to 13 th 
Nov r , which before had been refused, but they could not 
be prevailed on to pay for the burnt chariot. The Gov 1 " 
set out yesterday for an interview with the Indians at Sir 
W. Johnsons. Col! Morris and his Dutchers headed him two 
days to see the curiosity. The business is about the gen- 
eral boundary which it seems has not been distinctly 
enough settled before. 

My compliments to the family and believe me with the 
greatest truth 

Dr Sir 

Y r most aff. humb 1 Ser* 


M r Blackburn I find to be a virtuoso, he is often out of 
town and is now so. 

Honb! Geni Monckton. 




Philadelphia 22 d February 1769. 


In my last I had the pleasure of acknowledging your 
Excellencies much Esteem'd present, p Captain Hay, for 
which I again beg leave to give you my Hearty thanks. 
The great willingness that you have always shewed to 
Oblige, and the many favours I have red at your Hands ; 
have encouraged me once more to bespeak your Excel- 
lencies Frienship and Assistance. 

Nothing could have prevailed on me to take the liberty 
of giving you so much trouble at present, less than the 
grevious complaint of a poor, and distress'd Woman, and 
Family of Children. I am sure that such an object will 
Ever meet with your compassionate regard, and with her 
too I shall take the liberty of recommending to your favour, 
the case of a Gentleman, whom if you are so kind as to 
serve, I shall Ever reckon the kindness, as done to myself. 

The woman I mean, was formerly the wife of Anthi 
Thompson, who Erected a Tan Yard, and sundry Offices 
near Fort Pitt, while that Garrison was under your Excel- 
lencies Command, for the particulars I shall take the lib- 
erty of refering you to the Copy of her account, and 
Deposition, which is herewith Inclosed. As I was particu- 
larly requested by the Widow, and was also a particular 
Creditor, I took on me the Administration of her late Hus- 
band Thompson's Estate. 

The Gentleman I refer'd to is M r William Buchanan 
formerly a Resident in Carlisle Cumberland County, but 
now in Frederick County, Maryland, he is one of the first 
who after the reduction of Fort Du Quence, sent out goods 
under the care of M r William Galbreath, to the Indian 


Towns down the Eiver Ohio, as well by the approbation 
of His Majesty's Commanding Officer in that Department 
and his Majesty's Agent for Indians Affairs, as by an Invi- 
tation with a promise of protection from those very Indians 
who afterwards rob' d him, with sundry other Traders of that 
time in their Country, of all their goods, and Effects. The 
Attornies of these Sufferers, to whom the Necessary Ac- 
counts are sent, will wait upon your Excellency therewith, 
that they may receive such advice, and Instruction, as you 
shall think best to give them. — 

I cannot readily describe what kind of restitution we have 
reason now to Expect, for a certain Junto, in this place, 
who are concerned in these losses, have lately pursued such 
Indirect, Fraudulent, and Selfish Schemes, and have so 
Embarrassed and confounded the whole matter, that 'tis 
hard to tell, on what footing it now stands, I must beg your 
Patience, while I try to explain this subject, by a short 
relation of Facts. — 

In the year 1765, it was reported here, that the losses 
sustained in America by Indian Robberies, coud not be 
repaid out of the French prizes, taken before the Declara- 
tion of War, yet there was reason to hope, that restitution 
woud be made in Land, as soon as the Six Nations shoud 
cede to his Majesty, enough of their Country, to answer 
that purpose. 

In the latter End of that year, it was slightly Intimated 
to some of the Sufferers, by some of the above mentioned 
Schemers, that the Indians had agreed to give up to his 
Majesty, in Consideration of the Injuries they had done, 
all their Claim to the Country, from the Head of the 
River Ohio, down said River to the Mouth of the Cherokee 
River, and bounded on the East by the Allegeheny (sic) 

In March following Cap? William Trent, began to make 
proposals, of buying up the Claims of Indian Traders for 
losses w ch they had suffered. He offer'd, Thirty, and to 



a few as far as Fifty p cent, and that only on a Condition, 
that a Grant of Lands shoud be obtained from the In- 
dians, and his Majesty's confirmation of the same. He 
was very careful to send or go, to Every person he coud 
learn had been Sufferers and were like to come into his 
measures, but absolutely refused to undertake for any but 
such as should accede to the above Extrordinary disc* and 
should further impower him to sell at his discretion, the 
Lands which might be ceded, by which means the Sufferer 
might chance not get 30 nor even 10 p Ct. of the propor- 
tion to which his loss, woud otherwise have entituled him 
out of the real value of those Lands, but no general pub- 
lication was made for the Sufferers to bring in their ac- 
counts to any certain person, nor any time or place 
apointed for such purpose. — 

Notwithstanding this Clandestine, and Inderect mode of 
proceeding, an Exclusive Grant of Land has lately been 
made by the Indians, at the great and general Treaty, held 
by Sir. William Johnson at Fort Stanwix. The Grantees 
are Robert Callender, David Franks, Joseph Symonds, 
William Trent, Levy Andrew Levy, Philip Boyl, John 
Boynton, Samuel Wharton, George Morgan, Joseph Spear, 
Thomas Smallman, Samuel Wharton Adm r for John Welsh 
ded, Edmund Moran, Evan Shelby, Samuel Postlewait, 
John Gibson, Richard Winston, Dennis Crohon, William 
Thompson, Abram Mitchell, James Dundas, Thomas Dun- 
das, & John Ormsby, and no others, the Land that is granted 
to these persons, is thus bounded — Beginning at the mouth 
of little Kcnhaway Creek, and thence South East to the 
Laurell Hill, thence Northward along the Hill, to the Waters 
of Monangehela, then down said Water, till it meets the 
Southern Boundary of Pennsylvania, then along said line, 
as fir as it extends, and from that West, as far as the Ohio, 
and down that, thence to the place of begining, or words to 
this import. This is said to be granted them as a Com- 
pensation for the particular losses they sustained by the 



Indians, in the year 1763, only. The terms and purport 
of this Grant which appears from the Compromise above 
mentiond of most of the grantees to be intended for the 
particular Emolument of a very few of these grantees only, 
and that to the Exclusion of all other Sufferers by Indians, 
and absolutely omiting the Sufferers in former years, the 
whole Execution of this Indirect Scheme, greatly alarms 
the other Sufferers, some of them who had been Sufferers, 
Even in the year 1763, having furnished Cap? Trent with 
their accounts, had them returned for no other cause, than 
their refusing to sell out their Claims, for the uncertain 
Chance of 33 J p Ct. 

In consequence of the above proceedings of Mess™ Trent, 
Wharton &c. the Merchants here in behalf of themselves, 
and Traders who suffered by Indian Robberies, at the 
approach of the last War, have remonstrated to his 
Majesty in Council, praying, That if his Majesty would be 
pleased to confirm such Indian grants, he wou'd only give 
it to some person or persons in Trust for themselves and 
others who suffered by means of French and Indian Depre- 
dations, made on his Majesty's Subjects in America, from 
1750 to 1763, or that he would be pleased to grant such 
other relief as to his Majesty might appear most expedient. 
Now if it were certain that the first part of the remon- 
strance and Petition of these persons woud be granted 
we would have spared you this Trouble, as in that Case, we 
should have shared Equally with other Sufferers, But per- 
haps a Special Grant of Land to these Petitioners out of 
the new purchases may be chosen as the alternative, in 
which case, our Attorneys have Instructions to apply for 
the like grant for us, and for that purpose, as furnished 
1 with a Description of the Land, we expect may be granted. 

Inclosed are a few remarks which I have drawn up, in 
conjunction with Mr. Buchanan, the Gentleman mentioned 
above, who has a pretty general acquaintance with the 
State of our Colonies, perhaps they may furnish you with 


hints, which you may improve to some valuable purpose, 
If it shou'd any how tend to his Majesty's Interest, the 
relief of his Subjects, or your own private Emolument, I 
shall count myself fortunate in having communicated them. 
I remain with respect 
Your Excellencies 

Most Obliged Humble St. 

ad* HOOPS. 

To His Excellency Gen 1 Monckton. 


Philadelphia 22 February 1769 


From your Excellencies acquaintance with this Country, 
or from a Transient view of any good Map of North 
America, you may observe that the Lands lately ceded to 
his Majesty Southward of Fort Pitt, from a very large Tract 
of Country, which will doubtless claim his Majesty's par- 
ticular attention, the more so probably at this time, when 
Independance, in regard to manufactories, seem to be our 
avowed Sentiments, it will certainly be consistent with the 
Policy and Interest of Great Brittain to encourage the 
Settlement of our New Countries, as that will encrease our 
demand for your Manufactories, and draw our attention 
from that of our own. 

But it does not seem probable that this new Territory 
can be Peopled to advantage without erecting a new 
Government on the Ohio, it is so far distant from the 
Capital of Virginia, that the continuing under that Govern- 
ment, would subject its Inhabitants to Inconveniences not 
easily to be born. And as to any more Proprietary Govern- 
ments, they are neither expected, nor wish'd for by Ameri- 


cans. Therefore we shall suppose it a Royal Government 
(if any) and for the settling of which, that his Majesty is 
not only desirous, but willing to give proper encourage- 
ment in the Land way, and some necessary aid to the 
first adventures ; If this be resolved upon, the following 
Measures is thought wou'd greatly expedite the Settling of 
that Country, lessen the National Expence usual in such 
Cases, tend much to its security in case of any future rup- 
ture with the Indians, and at the same time be an Exercise 
of Justice, and Humanity to many of his Majesty's suffering 
Subjects. And that is, That the losses or some fix'd propor- 
tion thereof, sustained by the Frontier Inhabitants, as well 
as the Traders, of Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania, 
after being properly Examined and Liquidated, by Persons 
appointed for that purpose, be paid them in Lands in 
the New Colony, at a Moderate price, on Condition of 
their settling the same, in a Limited time ; on these Terms 
many Thousands wou'd flock thither from the Frontier 
Settlements, and many who fled from thence into the 
interior parts, in the time of the late war, and unable since 
to return, by reason of the losses they sustained by the 
Enemy, would become Adventures to this new Country. 
These people having been accustomed to hardships and 
frequent conflicts with the Indians, will be proper Inhabi- 
tants for a new Frontier Colony, while their places will be 
occupied with Emigrants from Europe, and the Interior 
parts of the Country. 

The number of Sufferers, and their demands for Losses, 
woud no doubt be very considerable, but there is Land 
enough for them all, and cannot well be better disposed of. 
Some few of the Suffering Traders are Solliciting very 
large grants in this Country, & to be under no limitation 
I for settling the same, others more equitably Pray, that such 
grant, or grants, be made to some person or persons, in 
trust for the Sufferers in General, if these Gentlemen were 
meant by Sufferers in General to include the Frontier In- 




habitants, and the restitution to be granted to the Indi- 
viduals on Condition for settling, it will answer the end 
proposed, but if only the Trading Sufferers are to be under- 
stood in this case, A Restitution made them in Lands, will 
naturally fall in large Tracts, into the hands of a few of the 
ablest Merchants, who being under no Engagement as to 
time of settling will keep it up for an encrease in value, 
and thereby effectually prevent the peopling that Country. 
But as we have no Right to construe or interpret these 
Gentlemen's words, otherwise than their literal meaning, 
we will return thereto, viz. That such grants be made to 
person or persons in Trust, for the common use and benefit, 
as well of your Petitioners as of all others who suffered by 
means of French or Indian Depradations committed on your 
Majesty's Subjects in America from 1750 to 1763. 

Now the quantity to be granted, and the person, or per- 
sons to whom such grant is to be made in trust for the 
Sufferers, seem to be the principal things to be determined 
in the proposed scheme, and on this determination the 
whole depends, as to the first we are of Opinion that the 
whole Boundary would be well bestowed by his Majesty 
on any Gentleman who would engage for the settling of 
such a Wilderness, and at the same time parcelling out 
such a part of it, as might be a Reasonable Compensation 
for the Sufferers by Indians, in the late War. As to the 
Second we humbly presume it is a subject that deserves 
your Excellencies speculation, whether such a grant would 
not be worth your acceptances. Many of the Sufferers 
have express'd great Satisfaction in the Hopes of your re- 
ceiving this grant, and we are fully of opinion it is worth 
your attention. But in case the Land should be granted 
in Trust to several persons, tho' we cannot flatter ourselves 
with being of that number, yet whatever Quantity his Ma- 
jesty through your Interest, shall be pleased to allow, we 
shall readily undertake the settling of it, in any reasonable 
time that may be proposed. 



In case your Excellency should be concerned either 
solely, or in company, we beg leave to assure you, that we 
shall chearfully render you every service in our Power, and 
be happy in Every opportunity of convincing you, that we 
are with respect, 

Your Excellencies 

Most obliged Humble Sts. 


To His Excellency General Monckton. 



Boston, April 1769. 

Hon l Sirs, 

Having obtain'd the Inspector General's leave of absence 
for the recovery of my health, I returned here on the 13 th 
instant, I now in obedience to your commands signify'd to 
me, when I had the Honour to attend the Board, do lay 
before your Honours the following account of the disturb- 
ances which happened at Philadelphia viz. 

On Saturday I s ' instant about Ten o'clock in the morning 
a seizure was made by the Collector in consequence of an 
order from the Inspector General of near fifty pipes of 
Madeira Wine, which was lodged in a store belonging to 
M r Andrew Hodge, — - the supposed owner of the wine was 
one Capt. Caldwell. In about half an hour after the seizure 
was made, I received a letter from the Inspector General 
directing me to attend my Duty. I shew the same to the 



Collector, who required me to go to the Store where the 
wines was, and take an account of the number of Casks 
therein, he gave me the key of the padlock which he had [ 
put on the Dore, when I got there I took the same off, but 
found the Store fastned with the lock that was on it before 
the Collector made the seizure, Upon which I went to Mr. 
Hodges House to get the key of the same, but was told 
that he was not at home, and that they did not know where 
he was. I asked the Family for the key, but they said it 
was not in the House, and that they did not know who had 
got it — Between 11 & 12 o'clk I waited upon the In- 
spector General and acquainted him that I had great 
reason to suspect that it was the Intention of some of the 
Inhabitants to rescue the Wines from the Officers, he told 
me that he would take care to prevent it, I informed the 
Collf of my not being able to get the key of the Store, and 
with my apprehensions of the design of the Inhabitants, 
and recomended the wines being removed as soon as pos- 
sible, He told me that he had no Stores to put them in, & 
that if he had it was not in his power to get it removed on 
account of the rain — the rain was over about four o'clock I 
in the afternoon, when the Collector went down to the 
Store, but was denied admittance therein by a man unknown 
who had armed himself with Pistols, & swore that if he pre- 
tended to enter it he would blow his brains out or words to 
that effect, upon which the Collector retired and went to 
the Chief Justice & procured a writ of assistance, and a 
number of Constables to assist him in the execution of his j 
duty, and they returned to the Store about five o'clock in 
the afternoon, but they were not able to afford him any j 
help, the Mobb being so numerous, they ordered the Con- 
stables off of the wharf, though I think they tarried there | 
long enough to read the Riot Act or Writ of Assistance, j 
but which I do not know — they likewise prevented the 
Collector's executing his Duty obliging him to go away, I 
swearing they would shoot him if he attempted it, they 



pelted him with Stones, Glass Bottles &c. one of which 
struck him in the lip and hurt it considerably, it was by 
this time Dear Dusk, the Collector not being able to pro- 
ceed in the Execution of his Duty, communicated the same 
to the Inspector General, who thereupon waited upon the 
Governour & made him acquainted therewith, and renewed 
his desire for support & assistance, having about 5 o'clock 
wrote to him on that subject— This procured an order 
for Cap* & 50 men to assist the King's officers, but they 
did not get to the Custom House till ten o'clock that night, 
near an hour before which, the Lock which the Collector 
put on the Store was broke off by the Alobb, & the Door 
forced open and all the Wines therein taken out, and put 
on board three Lighters or Shallops and carried up the 
river, all the time they were transacting this matter they 
swore revenge and destruction against me taking it for 
granted that I was the cause of making the seizure — some 
time in the night a number of people went to the Custom 
House which is held at the Collector's House, where Mf 
Williams lodged & broke many of the windows — there 
being one or two Constables in the House they run out & 
took three that was concerned in the act, and secured them 
in Goal, since which they have been tried & found guilty, 
one of them was fined £25 — the other two five or ten 
pounds each — on Sunday 2 d instant I found in the necess- 
ary House Belonging to my Lodgings the following abusive 
Letter directed " To the infamous Scoundrel Sheppard — 
altho I sign no name yet I sware by God Almighty that I 
will be revenged on you for this day's affair and put it out 
of your Power ever to hurt any body else for the future, 
believe what I say." I gave the Inspector General M r 
Williams the above Letter who told me he would show it 
to the Governor — The affair of the seizure was matter 
of conversation all Sunday Every body inveterate against 
me, saying they were sure it would not have happened if 
I had not informed the Collector thereof — some particular 



persons told me they thought it would be dangerous for 
me to venture out, the Gentleman that I boarded with was 
advised not to let me tarry in his House, that if he did it 
would be in danger of being pulled down, but he kindly 
said that he would run the risque (sic) of it — I could not 
be persuaded that my person was in danger, and thought 
that if I appeared to be intimidated the Inhabitants would 
think it arose from a consciousness of Guilt, I therefore 
went out as usual — I spent the evening out taking care, 
for fear I should be insulted to put a pair of Pistols in my 
Pockets — Upon my return home about a Quarter past Ten 
o'clock two men of a sudden came up to me, one of them 
without saying a word to me, struck me as hard as he could 
in the pit of my stomach which immediately deprived me 
of breath and I fell down, he took the advantage with some 
weapon I apprehend a knife & slit my nose. I suppose 
his intention was to slit it up to my Eyes, he did not alto- 
gether succeed in this, tho he did in part, having cut the 
inside thereof considerably and more than a quarter of an 
inch clear through. I received several blows upon my 
face which bruized it greatly, caused a large swelling, 
while this piece of cruelty was transacted I recovered 
strength enough to endeavour to defend myself — I got 
my right hand into my Pocket, and cocked the Pistol that 
was in it, intending to discharge the same at him through 
my Pocket, but as soon as he heard the guard of the Pistol 
spring back he run from me, I upon his retreat fired it at 
him but am uncertain whether I hit him or not, am apt to 
think I did, I can not hear or find out who the person was. 
I lay some time upon the ground being faint with the 
Blows and bleeding considerably at last got home. The 
Family was much frightnd seeing me very bloody. When I 
had recruited a little, I waited upon Mr. Williams accom- 
panied by Mr. Hill, and his servant armed, to know what 
I should do. Mr. Hill acquainted him he had received a 
message from Mr. Hodge delivered by his son, that if he 



harbour' d me in his House he would be in danger, and 
that if the Mobb came he would recommend to him, to 
consent to let some of them go over his House, to see if I 
was in it or not, this message was delivered about three 
Quarters of an hour before I received the abuse above- 
mentioned, M r Williams and M r Swift procured a number 
of Watchmen belonging to the City to guard the House 
that night — the severity of the Blow that I received in my 
stomach was so great as to cause me to bring up a con- 
siderable Quantity of Blood the next morning but one. I 
have had a constant pain in my Breast ever since besides 
a kind of inward favour (sic) which hangs about me, no 
appetite to my victuals, and spirits very much depress'd — 
on the morning of the 6*. h instant I was advised to let blood, 
which I consented to, and was in hopes it w* have made 
me feel better but was disappointed — I could not think 
of tarrying among a sett of People under my present cir- 
cumstances whose greatest pleasure would be to have an 
opp° of burying me — The few acquaintance that I had 
at Philadelphia were afraid of being seen to keep company 
with me, that so I was in a manner alone in the City with- 
out a Friend to assist me in any Trouble. I was obliged 
to confine myself at home a nights, as I did not know what 
murderous intentions the people had determined to execute 
against me — As I passed through the streets I was the 
object that every body stair'd and gaized at. I at present 
think myself unable to persevere any longer at Philadelphia 
for the Trouble & abuse I meet with their appears to be im- 
possible for me to encounter with, and yet my desires are 
so great to be continued & fixed in it, that notwithstanding 
their opposition I cant think of quitting the field — there- 
fore if the Hon 1 ! 1 Board should think it most for his Ma- 
jesty's service to order me to return I am determined to 
obey them, if the consequence should be the loss of my 
Life, which I really apprehend may be the case, My Wil- 
liams acquainted me that he had recomended to the Board 



that a number of officers be made at Phil a if the Hon*. 1 
Board should think proper to appoint them, the Inhabi- 
tants would think that I was the procuring cause of them, 
which if possible would make them more inveterate 
against me — If the Honourable Board should think 
it best not to order me to return I hope they will be 
pleased kindly to take into consideration the abusive 
treatment I have received for exerting myself in order to 
prevent his Majesty's being defrauded of that part of his 
Revenue which is due to him at that port, and make such 
provision for me elsewhere as they in their great goodness 
may think I am deserving of — Whether the Govy has 
or intends to do any thing in consequence of the abuse 
that I have rec'd. I know not — M r Williams acquainted 
me that the Merchants had so far interfeared in the affair 
of the wines, as to engage that they should be all returned 
back to the Store from whence they were taken, and that 
he and the Coll: had promised them if that was done 
no further notice should be taken of the Behaviour of the 
Mobb on Saturday evening — M r Williams engaged that 
I had not nor would not represent the behavior or Treat- 
ment I had meet with if the wines were returned, this re- 
quest I think the Merchants ought to have applyed to me 
to grant, but as Mf Williams had given his Honour that I 
should not write any thing of the matter I did not — I 
dont mean to cast any reflection upon M r Williams for 
I dare say what he did he meant well in, yet I cant but say 
that I think the behavior of the people in general on Satur- 
day night & on the Sunday night following when I was so 
injuriously treated to be of too high a nature to be hushed 
up — Notwithstanding the Merchants agreed to return 
the same wines that were taken from the Store as far as 
possible, they did not do it till five or six days after & then 
returned not near the Quantity that w r as taken, and instead 
to delivering Madeira wine it was no better than mean 
Fyall as Mr. Swift the Collector declared who tasted of 



them, and said that it was his opinion they would not fetch 
more than the cost of condemnation & sale — Mf Wil- 
liams when he was informed of this declared that he would 
not receive them, and that he would make a full represen- 
tation of their conduct — I left Phil* the day after the 
wines were set d & so am unable to give any account of 
what took place after I came away — I have thus endeav- 
oured as faithfully & truly to represent to y e Board the 
Conduct of y e People at Phil* in consequence of y e seizure 
on y e fifth Inst, as nearly as I can recollect — If I should 
be wrong in some particulars tho I believe I am not Mf 
Williams will more correctly & fully acquaint the Hon 1 . 
Board, which he said he should do very soon after I left 

I am Hon bl Sir 

With the greatest regard &c. 



Annapolis Maryland friday 

23 June 1769. 

My Lord, 

That I may not lie under the imputation of neglecting 
to give your Lordship the earliest information of any 
important occurrences in this province I inclose your 
Lordship a copy of the Eesolutions of a self-summoned 
Committee from most of the Counties of Maryland. They 
met at a public house in this town the 28 th inst. and the 
i two following days and could hardly agree among them- 
selves what articles from England should or should not be 
made use of. I was in hopes that from the dissentions 
among themselves the meeting would have come to nothing 




or I should have taken notice of it in my letter to your 
Lordship of the 21 st inst. No. 1. Though several of the 
Deputies were members of the Lower House of Assembly, 
yet, as their meeting could only be looked upon as a pri- 
vate one, I could not possibly interfere, and am really of 
opinion it will lose its Consequence by not being taken 
notice of. Among the enumerated articles in the inclosed 
list there are many they cannot possibly do without ; and 
as soon as necessity breaks through one Article, interest & 
convenience will soon set aside the others. 

As the whole of this has been treated by me as a pri- 
vate transaction (which as Governor I was unconcerned in) 
I submit to your Lordships superior judgement, whether 
you toill take any notice {officially) of having received this 
information from me. 

Without his Majesty's express orders for that purpose, 
signified to me by your Lordship, or instructions from the 
Lord proprietary, I shall not at the meeting of the Assem- 
bly make mention of this Convention. Taking notice of 
it would probably induce them to repeat their Resolves 
when legally assembled, and I am in hopes they will now 
rest contented and the Session go off peaceably. 
I am &c. 


Gov r of Maryland. 
Y.y. 76. Reed. 6 Dec* 1769 — 
The printed Resolves 22 June 1769. 


New York, 12'. b Sept. 1769. 

Dear Sir, 

Sir Harry Moore died yesterday after some days illness 
of a mortification in the bowels. Today Mr Colden is ex- 
pected in town once more to take upon him the adminis- 


tration of the Government; He fairly lives himself into 
office, being they tell me as hearty as when you knew him. 
I never saw him since he left the city upon Sir Harry's 
arrival, and retired to Long Island. A fine mess of pot- 
tage is left behind for him by his predecessor who had not 
time to go through with the grand land matters that were 
upon the carpet. The old man seems to be the son of for- 
tune in his advanced years. 

The next office in government will soon be vacant too, 
your old chief justice having been at death's door with a 
flux and I think will hardly ever get abroad again. I 
went to see him upon this event, but he was so low M r . 3 
Horsmanden did not choose it should be mentioned to him. 

My friend Napier I suppose, is taking the country air, 
not having heard from him lately. 

My respects to Col! Barre, Col! Amherst, Col! Hall, and 
all the friends I have the honor to know of your circle. 
I ever am 
D r Sir 

Y r Aff Humb 1 Ser fc 

The Council is quite full at present. 

The Honb! Gen. Monckton. 


Annapolis, 23? Nov. 1769. 

My Lord, 

I had the honor of informing you that the Session of 
Assembly was opened on friday last the 17 th inst., contrary 
winds having prevented a sufficient number of members 
meeting on the Tuesday before, to which day they stood 


prorogued by proclamation. Your Lordship will see by 
the addresses from each house in answer to my speech all 
of which are inclosed, that there is a pleasing appearance 
of harmony here. 

I communicated the intentions of the Ministry to the 
province by the Channel of the Gazette immediately after 
I received an account thereof from your Lordship and shall 
shortly repeat it by a Message to the lower House, if 
thought necessary by the Council. 

By their advice I did not touch upon it in my speech, 
having great reason to apprehend that some of them would 
Express their dissatisfaction at any part of the late revenue 
act remaining unrepealed. They say that, whilst the duty 
upon Tea continues, it may serve as a precedent for laying 
others. If Sixpence pr pound at home was reserved from 
the drawback instead of three pence collected here, their 
minds would be relieved from the apprehensions they are 
under on that account. Your lordship may depend on 
my taking the greatest pains to confirm them in the belief 
of your assurances that it never was the design of his 
Majesty's present Administration to lay any further duties 
for the purpose of raising a revenue in America. On the 
whole I think I may venture to assure your lordship that 
we may shortly expect an end of our troubles in this part 
of the world. Tranquility seems to be returning ; Lord 
Botetourt has .the same pleasing prospect before him; Is 
very much liked in Virginia and has great reason to expect 
that the Session which was opened on Tuesday the \T} 
inst. will be got over smoothly. 
I am &c. 

[Prop. Z. 4 Reed 7 Nov. 1770.] 



Brig Good Intent sent back. 

Annapolis 21 s .' Febry. 1770. 

My Lord, 

From my Situation here as Governor of this province it 
is incumbent upon me to give your lordship immediate 
information of a late transaction of a Committee of the 
associators here relative to the Brig Good Intent, William 
Evrington, chartered by John Buchanan Merchant in Lon- 
don with goods to Sundry Merchants here. 

Previous to the arrival of the above Brig Mess r ? Dick 
and Stewart Merchants in this City, and attorneys in fact 
for Mr. Buchanan, gave notice in our Gazette that such a 
Vessel was Expected and that no goods should be landed 
for twelve days after her arrival in order to allow a free 
inspection of her papers &c ; for which advertisement I 
refer your lordship to the inclosed Gazette of the 25 th 

In consequence of this advertisement very soon after the 
Vessel arrived, four Commissioners from each of the three 
Counties principally interested in the importation met 
here ; for whose resolves (in Consequence whereof the 
Brig returns to England) I also refer your lordship to the 
other inclosed gazette of the 15*! 1 instant. 

I think my Lord I can venture to assure you, that this 
step of the Committee, far from being the general sense of 
the Province, has not been attended with the approbation 
they Expected. The Merchants concerned from their Sit- 
uation, were obliged to comply with the determination of 
a Committee, whose Election perhaps was partial & hasty, 
whose resolution was not unanimous, and which I really 



believe the most violent of them are now sorry they 
entered into, although they are ashamed to recant. 

I can give your Lordship but little information of their 
proceedings, except from the inclosed prints ; they were 
so close as never to allow more than one of the Merchants 
concerned to attend them at a time. 

As soon as the issue of their deliberations were made 
public I endeavoured as my duty to my Sovereign and the 
Colony required, to persuade them to reconsider the mat- 
ter and for that purpose laid before some of them Extracts 
of your lordships two last letters to me, but could not con- 
vince them of the impropriety of their conduct on this 
occasion, when they have the greatest reason to expect, 
that the act they complain of as a grievance is already or 
shortly will be repealed. 

The arguments had no Effect and the Brig sails tomor- 
row for England, liable to be seized in the first English 
Port she Enters for carrying back India Goods and other 
things contrary to the condition of the Bonds given on 
shipping them ; liable also to actions on every bill of 
lading given by the Captain who could act no otherwise 
than he has done any more than the Merchants concerned. 

I will just beg leave to observe that Mr. Buchanan 
signed the City address, which gave great offence to many 
of his Employers here. How far that may have contrib- 
uted towards the virulence of this proceeding, I will not 
take upon me to determine, although the Committee calls 
this premeditated design to subvert the association. 

The Collector and Surveyor of this Port Mess r f Calvert 
and Eddis have wrote fully on this head to the Commis- 
sioners of the Customs in London, who probably will apply 
to your lordship for your directions how to act with respect 
to the vessel. I can only say, my Lord, that the Captain 
was obliged to act as he has done, and that as neither he 
nor his Employer are to blame the compulsion upon them 
will I hope Entitle them to some indulgence. 


I will send your Lordship the pamphlet advertised at 
the bottom of the above account as soon as it comes out, 
I have &c 


Gov! of Maryland. 
Prop. Z. 

Maryl. Gazette 25 Jany. 1770 — 
15 Feb. 1770. 


Annapolis 7 th Aug! 1770. 

My Lord, 

I have had the honour of receiving your lordship's letter 
No. 17 which gave me the greatest satisfaction, as it con- 
veyed to me his Majesty's gracious opinion of the temper 
and Moderation shewn to the Maryland Assembly this last 
Session and his approbation of my past conduct which it 
shall ever be my earnest endeavour to merit a continu- 
ance of. 

Should his Majesty from your lordships recommendation 
be at any time graciously pleased to honour me with a Lieut. 
Colonels Brevet I should be bound ever to consider it the 
highest favour. I served his Majesty fourteen years and 
was abroad most part of the last war and my predecessor 
without a superior claim obtained the rank I now solicit. 

By Capt. Lynch I had the honour of transmitting to your 
lordship the proceedings of the General Assembly since 
my arrival with copies of the laws Enacted the last year. 
Against the next vessel sails I will collect and transmit to 
your lordship the journals required since 1763 and the 
Copies also of the laws enacted during that period and 
shall take care that they are more punctually sent for the 

I have &c. 

Prop. Z. 




Good Intent sent back to England — Appologies. 

Annapolis 19 Aug' 1770 

My Lord, 

I have the honour of your lordships letter of the 12 th 
June ulto. on the subject of mine of the 25 th february 
respecting the proceedings of the Committee of the arrival 
of the Brigantine Good Intent from London. Permit me 
again to observe to your lordship that Mess 1 ? Dick and 
Stewart, Consignees and importers of goods in this Vessel 
and the Agents and Attorneys of Mr. John Buchanan Mer- 
chant in London, the owner or rather the Employer of the 
Brig, by their advertisement in the Maryland Gazette, 
solicited as a favour, that a Committee from the three 
Counties concerned would meet at Annapolis for the very 
purpose of having a full and strict examination made, 
whether the goods had been shipped contrary to and with 
an intention to counteract the general association of the 
Traders and other Inhabitants of the province. 

The determination of the Committee thus convened, in 
consequence of the solicitation thus publicly and earnestly 
communicated was (I believe) contrary to the expectation 
of the importers and agents of M r Buchanan ; and I in- 
formed your Lordship of the step I took to prevent that 
determination, the only steps as far as I am able to judge 
that I could take with propriety. The Importers and 
agents submitted. They had their reasons. They chose 
rather to make an immediate sacrifice of their interests 
than not stand fair in the opinion of those on whose esteem 
their success in business depended. No complaint or appli- 
cation was made to myself or any other person in Office of 



injury or for protection from the Merchants, or from his 
Majesty's Custom House officers. No disorder or outrage 
was committed or even threatened. It is, my Lord, my 
earnest desire, my determined resolution to do my duty. It 
ever has been, my lord, and when I fail in it I shall have 
the excuse of being mistaken ; but that I wish to avoid and 
therefore to know how it was in my power or would have 
been in the power of any Governor in America, whether of 
a Royal or proprietary province to hinder the importers of 
goods from reshipping them, to prevent their acquiescence 
under the decision of a Committee they called for them- 
selves and appealed to. They had their motives, such as 
was natural to men in their circumstances, such as the 
authority of no Government could control. 

Associations have been formed, Committees have been 
appointed to examine the conduct of those who have en- 
gaged in them and goods imported into America have been 
re-shipped. But, my Lord, these circumstances are not 
peculiar to Maryland, and are therefore your Lordship 
must allow me to remark, no indication, that the authority 
or vigour of government is less influential here than in the 
provinces to the Northward or Southward ; They only 
prove my Lord, that Maryland has not been so happy as to 
escape the flame of discontent which has overspread the 
other Colonies. , 

It is no small mortification to me that your Lordship 
should think the measure adopted by the Merchants of 
remitting the Vessel and goods to London to have been 
owing to any peculiar want of vigour in my Government. 
How soon there may be a similar occurrence I cannot fore- 
see, nor consequently how soon I may again be obnoxious 
to the censure of not exercising the powers with which I am 
vested ; for to myself I must take the censure of the want 
of vigour, and not seek for excuse in the incompetency of 
my official authorities, should the laws be violated and 
redress witheld from those who are entitled to it. 




Had your lordship been pleased to point out in what 
manner Government ought to have interposed, I should 
more clearly see, by comparing my conduct with your Lord- 
ships sentiments, wherein I failed in point of duty and be 
prepared to guard against the appearance of remissness 
upon any future similar occasion. 

It is not, at least I think it is not in my power, to do 
more than lament, that the unhappy differences subsisting 
between Great Britain and her Colonies are not at an end, 
which I fear the partial repeal of the Revenue Act has not 
effected. That they may soon subside is my lord the sin- 
cere wish of &c. 


Prop. Z. 4. 




1. Commission to be issued herewith — Eleven Councillors appointed. 

2. Commission to be published and oaths to be taken by members at the first 

meeting of the Council. 

3. Oaths to betaken by members of the Assembly, Judges, civil officers, &c. 

4. Instructions to be communicated to council. 

5. Council to have freedom of debate. 

6. Not less than Five to be a Quorum. 

7. Upon vacancies the names of three persons to be transmitted. 

8. Vacancies to be filled up by the Governor to the number of nine. 

9. Councillors & other officers to be of good life &c. 

10. No Councillor to be suspended without good & sufficient cause. 

11. Certain absences to be cause of suspension. 

12. Councillors to be amenable to justice, except when Assembly is in session. 

13. No Act for raising money by publick or private lotteries to be assented to 

without king's authority & permission. 

14. Directions forbidding acts of Assembly altering the number & qualifica- 

tions of members or duration of the Assembly. 

15. Members of Assembly protected from arrest of person during session only. 

16. Rules prescribing the form & style of enactments, different matters to be 

provided for by different acts, without intermixture of matters foreign 
to the title of the act, and repeal of acts to be by special act & not by 
general words. 



17. No Act once refused to be reenacted without express leave from the King 

nor any law to be repealed without kings approbation. 

18. Acts of an unusual & extraordinary nature not to be in force without 

kings approval. 

19. Prohibition of acts affecting private property, without publick notice in the 

church of the parish where the premises lie. 

20. Directions for money bills, — keeping publick accounts — grants of money 

alway to the King. 

21. Money to be issued only by Governors warrant with advice of the Council. 

22. No clause to be inserted in any law for levying money or the value of it, 

unless the same be made liable to be duly accounted for to the King or 
his officers regular books of account for Receipts & payments to be kept 
and verified on oath and copies sent to the Secretary of State in England. 

23. Gifts & presents to Governor &c from the Assembly not to be received. 

24. Laws imposing duties upon Wines or strongliquors to continue for not less 

than one year. All others for supply & support of Government with- 
out limitation of time. 

25. No duty to be laid on provisions or victual for the use of ships of war. 

26. Bills of credit not to be issued without Kings approval. 

27. Discriminating duties more advantageous to Inhabitants of Virginia than to 

other British subjects prohibited. 

28. Duties on Negroes or Felons imported prohibited. 

29. Copies of all Statutes &c within three months after passing. 

30. Abstracts of same in the margins with date of passage & assent, & obser- 


31. Do of CouncilJournals, " to be transmitted to Sec y of State in Eng- 


32. Transcripts of all Journals of proceedings, with marginal abstracts to be 

required of the clerk of the Assembly. 

33. Acts of the 6 th of Anne containing rates of foreign coins, to be observed. 

34. No law to be enacted for setting up any Manufactures or carrying on any 

trades which are hurtful to this Kingdom. 

35. Frauds in collecting 2 s duty on Tobacco to be prevented or punished. 

36. Accounts of said Revenue to be transmitted semi-annually. 

37. A Court of Exchequer to be called for Revenue cases, when necessary. 

38. No new Court to be established nor any to be dissolved without orders. 

39. Justice to be promptly and impartially administered. 

40. All orders in Courts & the Council to be read & approved, before re- 


41. Appeals from Courts to Governor & Council and thence to King & Council. 

42. Do also to King & Council in cases of Fines above 100£ sterling. 

43. Fines & Forfeitures above 10£ not to be remitted or disposed of but by 

King's directions. 

44. Forfeitures & Escheats — value to be ascertained by a Jury & disposed of by 

King & in hands of grantee to be subject to quitrents and laws respect- 
ing seating & cultivation. 

45. Judges & Justices of the Peace to hold office during pleasure. Three 

members of the Council to concur in their appointment. 



46. No officer or minister to be displaced -without good cause, signified to the 


47. No person to execute more than one office by deputy. 

48. All fees & salaries to be moderate — Tables of — to be exhibited in public 


49. Directions relative to suspension of Deputies of Patent Officers. 

50. Secretary of the Colony & his clerks — to be reported on to Secretary of 

State and to be under oath for faithful performance of duty. 

51. Governor not to appoint to offices held by royal patent. 

52. Custom house officers not to serve on juries, nor in the militia. 

53. Amount of Courts &c with expences & means of defraying same. 

54. Not more than 1000 acres of land to or in trust for any one person. 

55. On the return of each survey of land, a patent to be immediately made out 

& passed and each Surveyor to make return of his surveys. 

56. Proper Surveyors to be appointed & sworn — General Survey and an exact 

map to be transmitted. 

57. Quitrents to be carefully collected and an account transmitted of all hold- 

ing above 20,000 acres. 

58. No part of the Quitrents to be issued out but by King's order. 

59. Indians to be kindly treated — trade with to be encouraged, & fraud of 

traders prevented. 

60. Lands, not exceeding 1000 acres, by licence may be purchased by any per- 

son, of the Indians. 

61. Directions carefully to exercise the powers of Vice Admiral. 

62. Fees in the Virginia Admiralty Court not to exceed those in England. 

63. No letters of Marque or Reprisal to be granted against States in Amity. 

64. Governor & others empowered to try Pirates. 

65. Do to aid in his office the Receiver General of the royal perquisites in 

Admiralty, and account for & pay over to him the same including effects 
of pirates. 

66. Liberty of conscience to all peaceable & inoffensive persons except 


67. God Almighty to be duly served according to the rites of the Church of 


68. Churches already built to be "well kept, new ones built as the colony im- 

proves — Ministers to have a house & land granted. 

69. No minister to be preferred without a certificate from the Bishop of London. 

70. Every orthodox minister to be one of the vestry, — no vestry to be held 

without him, unless voluntarily absent or in case of sickness. 

71. All ministers who officiate to be in orders, or reported to Bishop of London. 

72. Bishop's ecclesiastical jurisdiction to be encouraged, but collating to bene- 

fices, granting marriage lisences & probate of wills reserved to the Gov- 

73. No schoolmaster coming from England to keep school without the Bishop's 

licence, 'or now there or coming from other parts to be allowed to 
keep school without the Governor's licence. 

74. Table of marriages to be hung up in every Orthodox church and to be 

strictly observed as required by the Canons of the Church. 

J 771.] 


75. Vice and immorality as proscribed by late Bishop of London to be punished. 

76. Actual number of Inhabitants including Slaves to be transmitted and a 

yearly account of their increase or decrease and the number fit to bear 

77. Number of negroes and rates at which sold to be transmitted. 

78. No Articles of War or law Martial to be established or put in execution 

without the consent of the Council. 

79. State of defence and military supplies of arms ammunition &c and what 

deficiencies in works or stores should be made good — to be transmitted. 

80. Fit Storehouses for keeping arms ammunition & other public stores to be 

provided throughout the Colony. 

81. Recommended that Assembly pass a new Law imposing a duty of powder 

on all vessels coming into the Colony. 

82. Surveys ordered of all considerable Harbors & Landing places, and Forti- 

fications to be erected therein with advice of the Council. 

83. To assist other Colonies in distress with what you can spare, upon their 


84. Cautions about letters sent by ships in time of war — to be put in a bag 

with a weight sufficient to sink them, and to be sunk, if necessary, to pre- 
vent their falling into the enemies 1 hands. 

85. Trade & correspondence of Merchants & Planters, in time of war, with 

enemies to be hindered. 

86. Account to be sent from time to time of the wants & Defects of the Colony, 

what its chief products, new improvments, made, or desirable, and what 
advantages by trade may be gained. 

87. Governor, with advice of council, to act at discretion in emergencies, 

giving speedy notice thereof to the Government at home — but not to 
commence or declare war. 

88. Salary of Governor £2000 per annum out of 2 s duty on Tobacco and other 

officers &c to be paid from same fund. 

89. Governor not to come to Europe without leave but may go to New York 

or other plantations in case of sickness. 

90. On the death or absence of the Governor, if no Lieutenant governor, eldest 

Councillor to act in his stead. 

91. Half Governor's salary & perquisites to go to such vicegerent. 

92. Accounts of all proceedings on all occasions to be transmitted. 




George R. 

Instructions for Our Eight Trusty and Right 
Welbeloved Cousin, John, Earl of Dunmore, 
Our Lieutenant and Governor General of Our 
Colony and Dominion of Virginia in America ; and in his 
Absence, to Our Lieutenant Governor or Commander in 
Chief of Our said Colony for the time being. Given at 
Our Court at St. James's the seventh day of February, 
1771, in the Eleventh year of Our Reign. 

First, With these Our Instructions you will receive 
Our Commission under Our Great Seal of Great Britain, 
constituting you Our Lieutenant and Governor General of 
Our Colony and Dominion of Virginia in America : You 
are therefore to fit yourself with all convenient Speed, and 
to repair to Our said Colony of Virginia ; and being there 
arrived, you are to take upon you the execution of the 
Place and Trust We have reposed in you, and forthwith to 
call together the following Persons by Name, whom We 
do hereby appoint to be the Members of Our said Council 
in Our said Colony, Viz* William Nelson, Thomas Nelson, 
Richard Corbin, William Byrd, Philip Ludwell Lee, Rob- 
ert Carter, Robert Burwell, George William Fairfax, and 
John Page, Esquires, the Reverend James Horrocks, 
Clerk, and Ralph Wormley, Esquire. 

2. You are with all due and usual Solemnity to cause 
Our said Commission constituting you Our Lieutenant and 
Governor General, as aforesaid, to be read and published 
at the said Meeting of Oar Council, which being done, 
you shall then take, and also administer unto each of the 
Members of Our said Council, the Oaths mentioned in an 



Act passed in the first year of the Reign of His late 
Majesty King George the first, intituled " An Act for the 
further security of His Majesty's Person and Government, 
and the Succession of the Crown in the Heirs of the late 
Princess Sophia, being Protestants, and for extinguishing 
the hopes of the pretended Prince of Wales, and his open 
and secret Abettors," and in an Act passed in the sixth 
year of Our Reign, intituled " An Act for altering the Oath 
of Abjuration, and the Assurance, and for amending so 
much of an Act of the seventh year of Her late Majesty 
Queen Anne, intituled, " An Act for the improvement of 
the Union of the two Kingdoms, as, after the time therein 
limited, requires the delivery of certain Lists and Copies 
therein mentioned, to Persons indicted of High Treason, 
or misprision of Treason ; " as also make and subscribe 
and cause the Members of Our said Council to make and 
subscribe the Declaration mentioned in an Act of Parlia- 
ment made in the twenty-fifth year of the Reign of King 
Charles the second, intituled "An Act for preventing 
dangers which may happen from Popish Recusants." And 
you and every of them are likewise to take an Oath for 
the due execution of your and their Places and Trusts, as 
well as with regard to your and their equal and impartial 
Administration of Justice ; And you are also to take the 
Oath required by an Act passed in the seventh and eighth 
years of the Reign of King William the third, to be taken 
by Governors of Plantations, to do their utmost, that the 
Acts relating to the Plantations be observed. 

3. You shall administer, or cause to be administred the 
Oaths appointed in the aforesaid Acts, intituled "An Act for 
the further security of His Majesty's Person, and Govern- 
ment ; and the succession of the Crown in the Heirs of the 
late Princess Sophia, being Protestants : and for extinguish - 
!| ing the hopes of the pretended Prince of Wales, and his 
open and secret Abettors," and, " An Act for altering the 
Oath of Abjuration, and the Assurance : and for amending 



so much of an Act of the seventh year of Her late Majesty 
Queen Anne, intituled " An Act for the improvement of 
the Union of the two Kingdoms," as, after the time therein 
limited, requires the delivery of certain Lists and Copies 
therein mentioned to Persons indicted of High Treason, or 
misprision of Treason ; " to the Members and Officers of 
the Assembly, and to all Judges, Justices, and other Per- 
sons, that hold any Office or Place of Trust or Profit in 
Our said Colony, whether by virtue of any Patent under 
Our Great Seal of Great Britain, or the publick Seal of 
Virginia, or otherwise. And you shall also cause them to 
make and subscribe the aforesaid Declaration, without the 
doing all which, you are not to admit any Person whatso- 
ever into any Publick Office, nor suffer those that have 
been admitted formerly, to continue therein. 

4. You are forthwith to communicate unto Our said 
Council, such and so many of these Our Instructions, 
wherein their Advice and Consent are required ; as like- 
wise all such others from time to time, as you shall find 
convenient for Our Service to be imparted to them. 

5. You are to permit the Members of Our said Council, 
to have and enjoy freedom of Debate and Vote in all 
Affairs of Publick concern, that may be debated in Coun- 

6. And, altho' by Our Commission aforesaid, We have 
thought fit to direct, that any three of Our Councillors 
shall make a Quorum, It is nevertheless Our Will and 
Pleasure, that you do not act with a Quorum of less than 
five Members, unless upon extraordinary Emergencies, 
when a greater number cannot be conveniently had. 

7. And, that We may always be informed of the names 
and characters of Persons fit to supply the vacancies, that 
may happen in Our said Council, You are from time to 
time, when any vacancies shall happen therein, forthwith 
to transmit unto Us, by one of Our principal Secretaries I 
of State, the names of three Persons, inhabitants of Our j 



said Colony, whom you shall esteem the best qualified for 
that Trust. 

8. And whereas by Our Commission you are empower'd, 
in case of the Death or Absence of any of Our Council of 
the said Colony, to fill up the vacancies in the said Council 
to the number of nine, and no more ; you are from time 
to time to send to Us, by one of Our principal Secretaries 
of State, the names and qualities of any Member or Mem- 
bers by you put into Our said Council, by the first convey- 
ance after your so doing. 

9. And in the choice and nomination of the members of 
Our said Council, as also of the Chief Officers, Judges, 
Assistant Justices, and Sheriffs, you are always to take 
care, that they be men of good Life, well-affected to Our 
Government, of good Estates, and of abilities suitable to 
their Employments. 

10. You are neither to augment nor diminish the num- 
ber of Our said Council, as it is hereby established, nor to 
suspend any of the Members thereof, without good and 
sufficient Cause, nor without the consent of the Majority of 
the said Council, signified in Council after due examination 
of the Charge against such Councillor, and his answer 
thereunto ; and in case of suspension of any of them, you 
are to cause your reasons for so doing, together with the 
charges and proofs against the said Persons, and their 
answers thereunto to be duly entered upon the Council- 
Books, and forthwith to transmit Copies thereof to Us by 
one of Our principal Secretaries of State. — 

Nevertheless if it should happen, that you should have 
reasons for suspending of any Councillor, not fit to be 
communicated to the Council, you may in that case sus- 
pend such Person without their consent ; But you are 
thereupon immediately to send to Us, by one of Our prin- 
cipal Secretaries of State, an account of your proceedings 
therein, with your reasons at large for such suspension, as 



also for not communicating the same to Our Council, and 
duplicates thereof, by the next Opportunity. 

11. And whereas We are sensible that effectual Care 
ought to be taken to oblige the Members of Our Council 
to a due attendance therein, in order to prevent the many 
inconveniences, that may happen for want of a Quorum of 
the Council to transact Business, as occasion may require, 
It is Our Will and Pleasure, that, if any of the Members 
of Our said Council residing in Our said Colony, shall 
hereafter wilfully absent themselves from Our said Colony, 
and continue absent above the space of twelve months, 
without leave from you or from the Commander in Chief 
of the said Colony for the time being, first obtained under 
your or his hand and seal, or shall remain absent for the 
space of two years successively without Our leave, given 
them under Our Royal Signature, their Place or Places in 
Our said Council shall immediately become void : and that 
if any of the Members of Our said Council residing within 
Our said Colony, shall hereafter wilfully absent themselves 
from the Council-Board, when duly summoned, without a 
just and lawful cause, and shall persist therein after admo- 
nition, You suspend the said Councillors so absenting them- 
selves, until Our further Pleasure shall be known ; giving 
timely notice thereof to Us by one of Our principal Secre- 
taries of State. And We do hereby Will and require, that 
this Our Eoyal Pleasure be signified to the several Mem- 
bers of Our said Council, and that it be entred on the 
Council-Books of the said Colony, as a standing Rule. 

12. And whereas Complaint hath formerly been made, 
that the members of our said Council, in all matters of Civil 
Right, where any of them are Defendants, claim a Privilege 
of exemption from the ordinary forms of Process by Writ, 
so that they cannot be arrested, and to be summoned to 
appear by Letters from the Secretary of Our said Colony, 
which they comply with, or neglect at their pleasure, by 



which means the cause of Justice is obstructed, and the 
Plantiffs are frequently left destitute of relief: You are 
therefore to take especial Care, that a Letter of Summons 
to any of the said Councillors, signed either by yourself or 
by the Secretary of Our said Colony, or by the Clerk of any 
Court of Record within Our said Colony, be deemed as 
binding and as strict in Law for their appearance as a Writ, 
and that, upon their neglect to comply with any such sum- 
mons, except only in times of General Assembly, they be 
liable to the ordinary forms of common Process. 

13. Whereas a practice hath of late years prevailed in 
several of Our Colonies and Plantations in America, of 
passing Laws for raising Money by instituting publick Lot- 
teries ; and Whereas it hath been represented to Us, that 
such practice doth tend to disengage those, who become 
Adventurers therein, from that Spirit of Industry and 
Attention to their proper Callings and Occupations, on 
which the publick Welfare so greatly depends ; And where- 
as it further appears that this practice of authorizing Lot- 
teries by Acts of Legislature hath been also extended to 
the enabling private Persons to set up such Lotteries, by 
means whereof great Frauds and Abuses have been com- 
mitted : It is therefore Our Will and Pleasure, that you 
do not give your Assent to any Act or Acts for raising 
Money by the institution of any publick or private Lotteries 
whatsoever, until you shall have first transmitted unto Us, 
by one of Our principal Secretaries of State, a Draught 
or Draughts of such Act or Acts, and shall have received 

: Our directions therein. 

14. Whereas Laws have at several times been passed 
in many of Our Colonies and Plantations in America, by 
which certain Parishes and Districts have been impowered 
and authorized to send Representatives to the General 
Assemblies of the respective Colonies, in which the said 
Parishes and Districts lye, and sundry other regulations 
have been introduced by those Laws relative to the said 



Assemblies, it is Our Will and Pleasure, and We do here- 
by require and command that you do not, upon any pretence 
whatsoever, give your Assent to any Law, or Laws to be 
passed in Our Colony under your Government, by which 
the Number of the Assembly shall be enlarged, or dimin- 
ished, the duration of it ascertained, the qualification of the 
Electors, or the Elected, fixed or altered, or by which any 
regulations shall be established with respect thereto, incon- 
sistent with Our Instructions to you Our Governor, as pre- 
judicial to that Right or Authority, which you derive from 
Us in virtue of Our Royal Commission and Instructions. 

15. And whereas the Members of several Assemblies in 
Our Plantations have frequently assumed to themselves 
Privileges no ways belonging to them, especially of being 
protected from Suits at Law, during the term they remain 
of the Assembly, to the great prejudice of their Creditors, 
and the obstruction of Justice, and some Assemblies have 
presumed to adjourn themselves at pleasure without leave 
from Our Governor first obtained for that purpose ; which 
is highly detrimental to Our Eoyal Prerogative, and may 
be very prejudicial to the publick Service: You are to 
signify to the General Assemblies of Our said Colony of 
Virginia, if occasion should require, that it is Our express 
Will and Pleasure, that you do not allow any protection 
to any Members of Assembly, further than in their Persons, 
and that only during the Session of the Assembly, and that 
you are not to allow them to adjourn themselves, otherwise 
than de die in diem, except Sundays and Holidays, without 
leave from you Our Governor, or the Governor or Com- 
mander in Chief of Our said Colony for the time being first 
asked and obtained. 

16. You are to observe in the passing of all Laws, that 
the stile of enacting the same be by the Governor, Council 
and Assembly. You are also as much as possible to ob- 
serve in the passing of all Laws, that whatever may be 
requisite upon each different matter be provided for by a 



different Law, without intermixing in one and the same 
Act such things as have no proper relation to each other. 
And you are more especially to take care, that no Clause 
or Clauses be inserted in, or annexed to any Act, which 
shall be foreign to what the Title of such Act imports. 
And that no perpetual Clause be made part of any tempo- 
rary Law. And that no Act whatever be suspended, alter'd, 
continued, revived, or repealed by general Words, but 
that the Title and Date of such Act so suspended, altered, 
continued, revived, or repealed be particularly mentioned 
and expressed in the enacting part. 

17. And whereas several Laws have formerly been 
enacted in several of Our Plantations in America, for so 
short a time, that the Royal Assent, or refusal, could not 
be had thereupon, before the time for which such Laws 
were enacted, did expire ; You shall not therefore give 
your Assent to any Law, that shall be enacted for a less 
time than two years, except in the Cases hereinafter men- 
tioned; and it is Our further Will and Pleasure, that 
you do not reenact any Law to which the Assent of Us or 
Our Royal Predecessors has once been refused, without 
express leave for that purpose first obtained from Us, upon 
a full representation by you to be made to Us, by one of 
Our principal Secretaries of State, of the reason and neces- 
sity of passing such a Law, nor give your Assent to any 
Law for repealing any other Law passed within your Gov- 
ernment whether the same has or has not received the 
Royal approbation, unless you take Care, that a Clause be 
inserted therein, suspending and deferring the execution 
thereof, until Our Pleasure shall be known concerning the 

18. And whereas great Mischiefs do arise by passing 
Bills of an unusual and extraordinary nature and impor- 
tance in the Plantations, which Bills remain in force there, 
from the time of enacting until Our Pleasure be signified 
to the contrary ; We do hereby will and require you not to 



pass or give your Assent to any Bill or Bills in the Assem- 
bly of Our said Colony, of unusual and extraordinary nature 
and importance, wherein Our Prerogative, the Property of 
Our Subjects, or the Trade and Shipping of this Kingdom 
may be any ways prejudiced, until you shall have first trans- 
mitted unto Us, by one of Our principal Secretaries of 
State, the Draught or Draughts of such a Bill or Bills, and 
shall have received Our Royal Pleasure thereupon ; Unless 
you take care in the passing of any Bill of such nature, as 
before mentioned, that there be a clause inserted therein, 
suspending and deferring the execution thereof, until Our 
Pleasure shall be known concerning the same. 

19. You are also to take care, that no private Act, 
whereby the Property of any private Person may be affected, 
be passed, in which there is not a saving of the Eight of 
Us, Our Heirs and Successors, all Bodies Politick and Cor- 
porate, and of all other Persons, except such as are men- 
tioned in the said Act, and those claiming by, from, and 
under them. And further you are to take Care, that no 
such Private Act be passed without a Clause suspending 
and deferring the execution thereof, until the same shall 
have received Our Poyal Approbation. It is likewise Our 
Will and Pleasure, that you do not give your Assent to 
any private Act, until proof be made before you in Coun- 
cil, and entered on the Council Books, that publick notifica- 
tion was made of the Parties intention to apply for such 
Act, in the several Parish Churches where the Premises in 
question lie, for three Sundays at least successively, before 
such Act was brought into the Assembly ; and that a Cer- 
tificate under your hand be transmitted with, and annexed 
to every such private Act, signifying that the same has 
passed thro' all the forms abovementioned. 

20. You are to take Care, that in all Acts or Orders to 
be passed within Our said Colony, in any case, for levying 
Money, or imposing Fines or Penalties, express mention be 
made, that the same is granted or reserved to Us, Our 


Heirs and Successors for the publick Uses of that Our 
Colony, and the support of the Government thereof, as by 
the said Act or Order shall be directed. And you are par- 
ticularly directed not to pass any Law, or do any Act by 
Grant, Settlement or otherwise, whereby Our Revenue may 
be lessened or impaired, without Our especial Licence or 
Command therein. 

21. You are not to suffer any publick Money whatso- 
ever to be issued or disposed of otherwise than by Warrant 
under your hand, by and with the advice and consent of 
Our Council : But the Assembly may nevertheless be per- 
mitted from time to time to view and examine the Accounts 
of Money or value of Money disposed of by virtue of Laws 
made by them, which you are to signify unto them, as 
there shall be occasion. 

22. You are not to permit any Clause whatsoever to be 
inserted in any Law for levying Money, or the value of 
Money, whereby the same shall not be liable to be ac- 
counted for unto Us and to Our Commissioners of Our 
Treasury, or to Our high Treasurer for the time being, 
and audited by Our Auditor General of Our Plantations, 
or his Deputy for the time being. And We do particularly 
require and enjoin you, upon Pain of Our highest Dis- 
pleasure, to take care, that fair Books of Accounts of all 
Receipts and Payments of all publick Monies be duly 
kept, and the truth thereof attested upon Oath : And that 
all such Accounts be audited and attested by Our Audi- 
tor General of Our Plantations or his Deputy, who is to 
transmit Copies thereof to Us by one of Our principal 
Secretaries of State, and to Our Commissioners of Our 

I Treasury, or Our high Treasurer for the time being: In 
which Books shall be specified every particular Sum raised 
or disposed of, together with the names of the Persons to 
whom any Payment shall be made, to the end We may 
be satisfied of the right and due application of the 
Revenue of Our said Colony, with the probability of the 



encreasc or diminution of it, under every head or Article 

23. Whereas several inconveniences have arisen to Our 
Governments in the Plantations by Gifts and Presents made 
to Our Governors by the General Assemblies ; It is Our 
express Will and Pleasure, that neither you Our Gover- 
nor, nor any Governor, Lieutenant Governor, or Com- 
mander in Chief, or President of Our Council of Our said 
Colony for the time being, do give your or their consent 
to the passing any Law or Act for any Gift or Present to 
be made to you or them by the Assembly ; and that neither 
you nor they do receive any Gift or Present from the 
Assembly or others, on any Account or in any manner 
whatsoever, upon pain of Our highest Displeasure, and of 
being recalled from that Our Government. 

24. And it is Our express Will and Pleasure, that 
no Law for raising any imposition upon W 7 ines, or other 
strong Liquors be made to continue for less than one whole 
Year : And also that all other Laws made for the supply 
and support of the Government shall be without limitation 
of time, except the same be for a temporary Service, and 
which shall expire & have their full effect within the time 
therein prefixed. 

25. Whereas it hath been represented to Us by our 
Commissioners for executing the Office of Lord High Ad- 
miral of this Kingdom, that by an Act passed in Our Colony 
of Virginia on the first of May, 1765, intituled, " An Act 
to prevent frauds in the Drawback of the Duties on Liquors 
imported into that Colony ;" it is enacted, that no Person I 
whatever shall be entitled to the Drawback of the Duties 
of any Liquors purchased for the use of any Ship or Vessel 
whatsoever ; by which prohibition of the Drawback, as l 
aforesaid, the Merchants, Contractors for Victualling Our 
Ships in Our said Colony, would, in consequence of former 
Laws therein passed, be obliged to pay a Duty or Tax of 
four pence per Gallon upon all Hum furnished by them to 


Our said Ships, contrary to what hath been the practice 
from the time of first laying a Duty on that Commodity, 
whereby an extraordinary expence would be incurred in 
victualling Our Navy, equal at least to the amount of the 
said Duty ; and whereas We have thought fit, upon a con- 
sideration of the said Memorial, as well as upon a repre- 
sentation of Our Commissioners for Trade and Plantations 
thereupon, to repeal the said Law ; in order therefore to 
prevent any extraordinary expence being brought upon 
the service, by any future Act of the Legislature of Our 
said Colony of Virginia, it is Our Will and Pleasure, and 
you are hereby strictly enjoined and required, on no pre- 
tence whatsoever, to give your Assent to any Law or Laws 
for imposing Taxes or Duties upon Liquors, or any species 
of Provisions or Victual, unless it be therein expressly pro- 
vided, that the said Taxes or Duties shall not extend to 
any such Provisions or Victual as shall be bought up in, 
or exported from Our said Colony, for the use and supply 
of Our Ships of War. 

26. Whereas Acts have been passed in several of Our 
Plantations in x\merica, for striking Bills of Credit, and 
issuing out the same in lieu of Money, in order to dis- 
charge their Debts, and for other purposes from whence 
several inconveniences have arisen ; It is therefore Our 
Will and Pleasure, that you do not give your Assent to, 
or pass any Act in Our Colony and Dominion of Virginia 
under your Government, whereby Bills of Credit may be 
struck or issued in lieu of Money, or for payment of Money 
either to you Our Governor, or to any Lieutenant Governor 
or Commander in Chief, or to any of the Members of Our 
Council, or of the Assembly, or to any other Person what- 
soever, except to Us, Our Heirs and Successors, without a 
Clause be inserted in such Act declaring that the same 
shall not take Effect, until the said Act shall have been 
approved and confirmed by Us, our Heirs or Successors. 

27. And whereas Complaints have heretofore been made 



by the Merchants of the City of London, in behalf of them- 
selves and of several others Our good Subjects of Great 
Britain trading to Our Plantations in America, that greater 
Duties and Impositions are laid on their Ships and Goods, 
than on the Ships and Goods of Persons, who are Natives 
and Inhabitants of the said Plantations, It is therefore Our 
Will and Pleasure, that you do not, upon any Pretence 
whatsoever, upon Pain of Our highest Displeasure, give 
your Assent to any Law, whereby the Natives or Inhabi- 
tants of Our Colony of Virginia under your Government 
may be put on a more advantageous footing than those of 
this Kingdom, or whereby any Duties shall be laid upon 
British Shipping, or upon the Product or Manufacture of 
Great Britain, upon any Pretence whatsoever. 

28. Whereas Acts have been passed in some of Our 
Plantations in America, for laying Duties on the importa- 
tion and exportation of Negroes, to the great discourage- 
ment of the Merchants trading thither from the Coast of 
Africa ; and whereas Acts have likewise been passed for 
laying Duties on Felons imported, in direct opposition to 
an Act of Parliament passed in the fourth year of the Reign 
of King George the first " for the further preventing Rob- 
bery, Burglary, and other Felonies, and for the more effect- 
ual transportation of Felons, &c " ; It is Our Will and 
Pleasure, that you do not give your Assent to, or pass any 
Law imposing Duties upon Negroes imported into Our 
Colony of Virginia, payable by the Importer, or upon any 
Slaves exported, that have not been sold in Our said Colony, 
and continued there for the space of twelve Months. It is 
Our further "Will and Pleasure, that you do not give your 
Assent to, or pass any Act whatsoever for imposing Duties 
on the importation of any Felons from this Kingdom into 

29. You arc to transmit authentick Copies of all Laws, 
Statutes and Ordinances, which at any time hereafter shall 
be made or enacted within Our said Colony, each of them 



separately under the publick Seal, unto Us. by One of Our 
principal Secretaries of State, within three months, or 
sooner after their being enacted ; together with Duplicates 
thereof by the next Conveyance, upon Pain of Our highest 
Displeasure, and of the Forfeiture of that year's Salary, 
wherein you at any time, or upon any Pretence whatsoever, 
omit to send over the said Laws, Statutes and Ordinances, 
as aforesaid, within the time above limited, as also of such 
other Penalty as We shall please to inflict : But if it shall 
happen, that no Shipping shall come from Our said Colony 
within three Months after the making such Laws, Statutes 
and Ordinances, whereby the same may be transmitted, as 
aforesaid, then the said Laws, Statutes, and Ordinances are 
to be transmitted by the next Conveyance after the making 
thereof, whenever it may happen, for Our Royal Approba- 
tion or Disallowance of the same. 

30. And you are to take especial care, that the Copies 
and Duplicates of the said Acts, so to be transmitted as 
aforesaid, be fairly abstracted in the Margents, and that in 
every Act the dates or respective times, when the same 
passed the Assembly and the Council, and received your 
Assent, be particularly expressed. And you are to be as 
explicit as may be in your observations upon every Act, 
that is to say, whether the same be introductive of a new 
Law, declaratory of a former Law, or does repeal a Law 
then before in being. And you are likewise to send to Us, 
by one of Our principal Secretaries of State, the reasons 
for passing of such Law, unless the same do fully appear 
in the Preamble thereof. 

31. You are to require the Secretary of Our said Colony, 
or his Deputy for the time being, to furnish you with Tran- 
scripts of all such Acts and Publick Orders, as shall be 
made from time to time, together with a Copy of the 
Journals of Our Council, and that all such Transcripts and 
Copies be fairly abstracted in the Margents, to the end the 
same may be transmitted unto Us by one of Our principal 



Secretaries of State, which he is duly to perform, upon pain 
of incurring the forfeiture of his Office. 

32. You are also to require from the Clerk of the As- 
sembly, or other proper Officer, Transcripts of all Journals 
and other Proceedings of the Assembly, fairly abstracted in 
the Margents, to the end the same may be in like manner 
transmitted as aforesaid. 

33. Whereas an Act of Parliament was passed in the 
sixth Year of the Reign of Queen Anne, intituled, " An 
Act for ascertaining the rates of foreign Coins in Her 
Majesty's Plantations in America," which Act the respec- 
tive Governors of all Our Plantations in America have 
from time to time been instructed to observe and carry into 
due execution ; and whereas, notwithstanding the same, 
Complaints have been made, that the said Act has not been 
observed, as it ought to have been, in many of Our Colonies 
and Plantations in America, by means of which Neglect 
many indirect Practices have grown up, and various and 
illegal Currencies have been introduced in several of Our 
said Colonies and Plantations, contrary to the true intent 
and meaning of the said Act, and to the prejudice of the 
Trade of Our Subjects : It is therefore Our Will and 
Pleasure and you are hereby strictly required and com- 
manded, under pain of Our highest Displeasure, and of 
being removed from your Government, to take the most 
effectual care for the future that the said Act be punctually 
and bond fide observed and put in execution, according to 
the true intent and meaning thereof. 

34. You are to examine, what Rates and Duties are 
charged and payable upon any Goods exported and im- 
ported within Our said Colony, whether of the growth or 
Manufacture of the said Colony or otherwise. And you 
are to suppress the engrossing of Commodities, as tending 
to the prejudice of that Freedom which Trade and Com- 
merce ought to have, and to use your best endeavours in 
the improving the Trade of those Parts, by settling such 



Orders and Regulations therein, with the Advice of Our 
said Council, as may be most acceptable to the generality 
of the Inhabitants. And it is Our express Will and 
Pleasure, that you do not, upon any pretence whatever, 
upon Pain of Our highest Displeasure, give your Assent 
to any Law or Laws for setting up any Manufactures, and 
carrying on any Trades, which are hurtful and prejudicial 
to this Kingdom, and that you do use your utmost endeav- 
ours to discourage, discountenance and restrain any attempts, 
which may be made to set up such Manufactures, or estab- 
lish any such Trades. 

35. And whereas by an Act passed in Our said Colony 
of Virginia, in the 32 d year of the Reign of King Charles 
the 2 d ; intituled " An Act for raising a publick Ee venue 
for the better Support of the Government of this His 
Majesty's Colony of Virginia," a Duty of two Shillings cur- 
rent Money of this Kingdom is imposed on every hogshead 
of Tobacco exported out of Our said Colony, the same to 
be to His said Majesty, His Heirs and Successors forever, 
to and for the better Support of the Government of the 
said Colony ; and whereas it hath been heretofore repre- 
sented, that great Frauds and Abuses have formerly been 
committed in Our said Revenue, as well in the payment of 
the said Duty by the Masters of Ships and other persons 
on whom the same is chargeable, as in the Collection 
thereof by Our Officers appointed to receive and collect 
the said Duty ; You are therefore to take especial Care, 
that the several Provisions in the said Act, made and es- 
tablished for the better discovering and preventing of 
Frauds, be strictly observed and duly carried into execu- 
tion: And that all Persons, employed in the receipt and 
collection of Our said Revenue, do take a solemn Oath 
faithfully to execute their respective Offices in their own 
Persons, and not by Deputys, unless in cases of absolute 
necessity, and in such cases that the Deputies be likewise 
sworn to the faithful and diligent execution of the Trusts 


reposed in them respectively. And it is Our further 
Will and Pleasure that, if you shall find any Person, em- 
ployed in the receipt of Our said Revenue, to be guilty 
of any Fraud or Neglect in the execution of his Office, 
you do immediately remove such Person from his Place, 
and appoint a fit Person in his stead, giving unto Us by 
one of Our principal Secretaries of State, and to Our 
Commissioners of Our Treasury or to Our high Treasurer 
for the tiuie being, speedy Notice of your proceedings 

36. And you are to transmit unto Us, by one of Our 
principal Secretaries of State, and to Our Commissioners 
of Our Treasury, or Our high Treasurer for the time 
being, every half year, an Account of the Amount of Our 
said Revenue, specifying how the same has been disposed 

37. Whereas it is necessary that Our Rights and Dues 
be preserved and recovered, and that speedy and effectual 
Justice be administred in all cases relative to Our Rev- 
enue ; You are to take care, that a Court of Exchequer be 
called and do meet at all such times as shall be needful. 
And you are to inform Us by one of Our principal Secre- 
taries of State, whether Our Service may require, that a 
constant Court of Exchequer be settled and established 

38. You shall not erect any Court or Office of Judica- 
ture, not before erected or established, nor dissolve any 
Court or Office already erected or established, without Our 
especial Order. 

39. And whereas frequent Complaints have been made 
of great Delays and undue Proceedings in the Courts of 
Justice in several of Our Plantations whereby many of 
Our Subjects have very much suffered ; and it being of the 
greatest importance to Our Service, and to the Welfare of 
Our Plantations, that Justice be every where duly and 
speedily administred, and that all Disorders, Delays, and 



other undue Practices in the administration thereof be 
effectually prevented : We do particularly require you to 
take especial Care that in all Courts, where you are author- 
ized to preside, Justice be impartially administred, and that 
in all other Courts established within Our said Colony, all 
Judges and other Persons therein concerned do likewise 
perform their several Duties without Delay or Partiality. 

40. You are to take Care, that no Court of Judicature 
be adjourned but upon good Grounds, as also that no 
Orders of any Court of Judicature be entered or allowed, 
which shall not be first read and approved by the Magis- 
trates in open Court ; which Pule you are in like manner 
to see observed with relation to the Proceedings of Our 
Council of Virginia, and that all Orders there made be 
first read and approved in Council, before they are entered 
upon the Council-Books. 

41. Our Will and Pleasure is, that you or the Com- 
mander in Chief of Our said Colony for the time being do, 
in all Civil Causes, on proper application being made to 
you or the Commander in Chief for the time being for that 
purpose, permit and allow Appeals to be made from any of 
the inferior Courts of Common Law in Our said Colony, 
unto you or the Commander in Chief, and the Members of 
Our Council of Our said Colony in Supreme Court assem- 
bled, according to the Regulations and Directions of such 
Acts, as having been passed in Our Colony and ratified 
and Confirmed by Us, are now in force within the same ; 
And if either party in such Appeal or in any Cause, which 
shall have been originally brought into the said Supreme 
Court of Our said Colony, shall not rest satisfied with the 
Judgment of you or the Commander in Chief for the time 
being and of Our Council, as aforesaid, Our Will and 

'Pleasure is, that such Party may then appeal unto Us in 
)Our Privy Council, Provided the Sum or Value, so ap- 
pealed for unto Us, do exceed five hundred pounds ster- 
ling ; and that such Appeal be made within fourteen days 



after Sentence given by you or the Commander in Chief, 
and by Our Council, as aforesaid, and that good and suf- 
ficient Security be given by the Apellant, that he will effect- 
ually prosecute the same and answer the Condemnation, 
as also pay such Costs and Damages, as shall be awarded 
by Us, in case the Sentence of you, or the Commander in 
Chief for the time being, and of Our Council be affirmed ; 
Provided nevertheless, that in all Cases, where the Matter 
in question relates to the taking or demanding any Duty 
payable to Us, or to any Fee of Office, or annual Kent, or 
other such like Matter or thing, where Our Rights infuturo 
may be bound, you are to admit Appeals to Us, in Our 
Privy Council, altho' the immediate Sum or Value appealed 
for be of a less Value. And it is Our further Will and 
Pleasure, that in all Cases, where, by these Our Instruc- 
tions, you are to admit Appeals unto Us in Our Privy 
Council, execution be suspended, until the final Determina- 
tion of such Appeals, unless good and sufficient Security 
be given by the Appellee to make ample restitution of all 
that the Appellant shall have lost by means of such Judg- 
ment or Decree, in case, upon the Determination of such 
Appeal, such Decree or Judgment should be reversed, and 
Restitution awarded to the Appellant. 

42. You are also to permit Appeals unto Us in Our 
Privy Council, in all Cases of Fines imposed for Misde- 
meanours, Provided the Fines so imposed amount to, or 
exceed the Sum of one hundred pounds sterling, the Ap- 
pellant first giving good Security, that he will effectually 
prosecute the same, and answer the Condemnation, if the 
Sentence, by which such Fines were imposed, shall be 

43. You shall not remit any Fines or Forfeitures what- 
ever above the Sum of ten Pounds, nor dispose of any For- 
feiture whatever, until you signify unto Us, by one of Our 
principal Secretaries of State, and to the Commissioners of 
Our Treasury, or Our high Treasurer for the time being, 



the nature of the Offence, and the occasion of such Fines 
and Forfeitures, with the particular Sums of Value thereof, 
(which you are to do with all speed) you shall have received 
Our Directions therein ; but you may in the mean time sus- 
pend the payment of the said Fines and Forfeitures. 

44. It is Our Will and Pleasure, that you do not dis- 
pose of any Forfeitures or Escheats to any Person, until 
the Sheriff or other proper Officer shall have made enquiry 
by a Jury upon their Oaths into the true Value thereof; 
nor until you shall have transmitted unto Us by one of Our 
principal Secretaries of State, and to Our Commissioners of 
Our Treasury, or Our high Treasurer for the time being, a 
particular Account of such Forfeitures, or Escheats, and 
the Value thereof, and shall have received Our Directions 
thereupon. And you are to take Care that the Produce 
of the said Forfeitures or Escheats, in case We shall think 
proper to give directions to dispose of the same, be duly 
paid to Our Receiver General of Our said Colony, and a 
full Account transmitted unto Us by one of Our principal 
Secretaries of State, and to Our Commissioners of Our 
Treasury, or Our high Treasurer for the time being, with 
the Names of the Persons, to whom disposed. And Pro- 
vided, that in the Grants of all forfeited and escheated 
Lands, there be a Clause obliging the Grantee to such 
Terms and Conditions of Cultivation and Improvement, 
as are required by the several Laws now in force within 
Our said Colony, relative to the seating and cultivating of 
Lands ; and likewise that there be proper savings and 
Reservations of Quit-rents to Us Our Heirs and Succes- 

45. You shall not appoint any Person to be a Judge or 
Justice of the Peace without the advice and consent of at 
least three Members of Our Council, signified in Council ; 
nor shall you execute yourself or by your Deputy any of 
the said Offices ; And it is Our further Will and Pleasure, 
that all Commissions, to be granted by you to any Person 


650 THE ASriNWALL PAPERS. [1771. 

or Persons to be Judges, Justices of the Peace, or other 
necessary Officers, be granted during Pleasure only. 

46. You shall not displace any of the Judges, Justices, 
Sheriffs, or other Our Officers or Ministers within Our said 
Colony without good and sufficient cause, to be signified in 
the fullest and most distinct manner to Us by one of Our 
principal Secretaries of State, by the first opportunity after 
such removal. 

47. You shall not suffer any Person to execute more 
Offices than one by Deputy. 

48. And you are, with the advice and consent of Our 
Council, to take especial care to regulate all Salaries and 
Fees belonging to Places, or paid upon Emergencies, that 
they be within the bounds of moderation ; and that no 
exaction be made upon any occasion whatsoever : As also 
that Tables of all Fees be publickly hung up in all Places, 
where such Fees are to be paid ; and you are to transmit 
copies of all such Tables of Fees to Us, by one of Our 
principal Secretaries of State. 

49. Whereas there are several Offices in Our Planta- 
tions granted under the Great Seal of Great Britain, and 
the publick Seals of the said Colonies, and Our Service may 
be very much prejudiced by reason of the absence of the 
Patentees and by their appointing Deputies not fit to 
officiate in their stead ; you are therefore to inspect such 
of the said Offices, as are in Our said Colony under your 
Government, and enquire into the capacity and behaviour 
of the Persons exercising them ; and to report thereupon 
to Us by one of Our principal Secretaries of State, what 
you think fit to be done or altered in relation thereto. And 
you are, upon the misbehaviour of any of the Patentees, or 
their Deputies, to suspend them from the execution of 
their Places, 'till you shall have represented the whole 
matter unto Us, and received Our Directions therein ; 
And in case of the death of any such Deputy, it is Our 
express Will and Pleasure, that you take care that the 



Person appointed to execute the Place, until the Patentee 
can be informed thereof, and appoint another Deputy, to 
give sufficient Security to the Patentee, or in case of sus- 
pension, to the Person suspended, to be answerable for the 
Profits accruing during such interval by death, or during 
such suspension, in case We shall think fit to restore the 
Person suspended to his Place : It is nevertheless Our 
Will and Pleasure, that the Person, executing the Place 
during such interval by death or suspension, shall for his 
encouragement receive the same Profits, as the Person dead 
or suspended did receive ; And it is Our farther Will and 
Pleasure, that, in case of the suspension of a Patentee, the 
Person, appointed by you to execute the Office during such 
suspension, shall for his encouragement receive a moiety of 
the Profits, which would otherwise have accrued and be- 
come due to such Patentee, giving Security to such Patentee 
to be answerable to him for the other Moiety, in case We 
shall think fit to restore him to his Place again. 

50. And whereas complaints have formerly been made 
of several undue practices in the Office of Secretary or 
Register of that Our Colony, by the Clerks or other Persons 
employed therein ; you are therefore from time to time to 
make inspection into the state and management of the said 
Office, and report to Us by one of Our principal Secre- 
taries of State, how you find the same ; together with your 
opinion, by what methods any mismanagements may for 
the future be best prevented ; And in the mean time to 
take all possible care, that the Records of the said Office 
be well and faithfully kept ; And in order thereunto that 
not only the Secretary or Register himself, but his Clerks 
also be under Oath for the due execution of the Trust re- 
posed in them, and that they accordingly give sufficient 
Security for their faithful performance. 

51. You shall not, by colour of any power or authority 
hereby or otherwise granted or mentioned to be granted 
unto you, take upon you to give, grant or dispose of any 


Place or Office within Our said Colony, which now is or 
shall be granted under the Great Seal of this Kingdom, or 
to which any Person is or shall be appointed by Warrant 
under Our Signet or Sign Manual, any further than that 
you may, upon the vacancy of any such Office or Place, or 
upon the suspension of any such Officer by you, as afore- 
said, put in any fit person to officiate in the interval, 'till 
you shall have represented the matter unto Us, by one of 
Our principal Secretaries of State ; which you are to do by 
the first opportunity, and till the said Office or Place be 
disposed of by Us, Our Heirs, or Successors, under the 
Great Seal of this Kingdom, or until some person shall be 
appointed thereto under our Signet and Sign Manual or 
that our further Directions be given therein. And it is 
Our express Will and Pleasure, that you do countenance 
and give all due encouragement to all Our Patent Officers in 
the enjoyment of the legal and accustomed Fees, Rights, 
Privileges, and Emoluments, according to the true intent 
and meaning of their Patents. 

52. And whereas several complaints have been made 
by the officers of Our Customs in Our Plantations in 
America, that they are frequently obliged to serve on 
Juries, and personally to appear in Arms, whenever the 
Militia is drawn out, and thereby are much hindered in the 
execution of their Employments ; Our Will and Pleasure 
is, that you take effectual care, and give the necessary 
directions, that the several Officers of Our Customs be 
excused and exempted from serving on any Juries, or per- 
sonally appearing in Arms in the Militia, unless in cases 
of absolute necessity, or serving any Parochial Offices, 
which may hinder them in the execution of their Duties. 

53. You are to transmit to Us, by one of Our principal 
Secretaries of State, with all convenient speed, a particular 
account of all Establishments of Jurisdictions, Courts, 
Offices, Powers, and Authorities, Fees and Privileges 
granted and settled within Our said Colony ; together with 



an Account of all the expences attending the Establish- 
ment of the said Courts, and of such Funds as are settled 
and appropriated for discharging such expences. 

54. Whereas it has at all times been a great hindrance 
to the peopling and settling of Our said Colony, that large 
Tracts of Land have been engrossed by particular persons, 
a great part whereof remaining uncultivated, the Colony is 
thereby deprived of many Inhabitants, that would other- 
wise have settled there ; in order to remedy this Incon- 
venience for the future, It is Our Will and Pleasure, that 
in all Grants of Land to be made by you, you do not grant 
more than one thousand Acres to any one Person, either 
in his own name, or in the name of any other Person in trust 
for him. And that you do take especial care for the reserva- 
tion of our Quitrents, and for settling and cultivating the 
Lands according to the several regulations prescribed by 
such Laws, as now are in force in Our said Colony rela- 
tive to the clearing, settling and cultivating of Lands. 

55. And whereas it has been represented to Us, that a 
very irregular practice hath prevailed in Our said Colony 
of taking out Surveys for Lands, and neglecting to pass 
Patents for the same, whereby We have been defrauded of 
Our Quitrents, and the Lands so surveyed have remained 
uncultivated : It is therefore Our Will and Pleasure, 
that you do take especial care, and give positive directions 
to the proper officers, that, immediately upon the return of 
each Survey, a Patent be made out and passed, and a 
Docquet or copy entered in the Offices of the Auditor 
General of Our Plantations, and of the Receiver General 
of Our Quitrents, to the end that such Lands may be 
immediately carried to, and borne upon the Kentroll. 
And you are earnestly to recommend it to the Council and 
Assembly of Our said Colony, to make proper provision of 
Law, in case it hath not been already done, for compelling 
and obliging the Surveyors of Land in the several Districts 
of Our said Colony to make a return of their Surveys into 



the Secretary's Office of Our said Colony, within a reason- 
able time to be limited in such Law. 

56. You shall, with the advice of Our Council, take 
care to appoint Men fitly qualified to be Surveyors through- 
out all the several Districts of Our said Colony, and that 
they be sworn to make true and exact Surveys of all Lands 
required to be set out, according to the best of their Skill. 
And you shall likewise take care, that a general Survey be 
made of all Our said Colony, and of each County, with the 
several Plantations and Fortifications in it ; and that an 
exact Map or Maps thereof be transmitted to Us by One 
of Our principal Secretaries of State. 

57. And you are to take the most effectual care for the 
discovery of Our Quitrents, and for making in each County 
a perfect Rentroll of the same, by impowering the several 
Receivers to administer an Oath to all such as they account 
with, to declare what other Lands they may have, either 
in their own right, or in the right of others unaccounted 
for, or by such other means as you, with the advice of Our 
said Council, shall think most conducive to this Service. 
And you are further to take care, that an exact account be 
forthwith made out of all arrears of Quitrents due unto 
Us, expressing from what Persons, for what quantity of 
Land, and for what time those arrears are due ; and like- 
wise an account specifying what particular Persons, in Our 
said Colony are possessed of more than twenty thousand 
Acres each, by what title they respectively hold such Land, 
and how much each of them is possessed of above that 
quantity ; both which accounts you are with all convenient 
speed to transmit to Us by one of Our principal Secretaries 
of State, and to Our Commissioners of Our Treasury, or to 
Our high Treasurer for the time being. 

58. And it is Our express Will and Pleasure, and you 
are strictly charged and required not to dispose of any part 
of Our said llcvenuc of Quitrents, nor to suffer the same 
to be issued out upon any occasion, until, upon your cer- 


tifying unto Us, the value of what shall remain thereof 
from time to time in Our Treasury, or be due unto Us, 
We shall order the same to be disposed of, as We shall 
find occasion for Our Service. 

59. And whereas there are several Nations, Cantons, or 
Tribes of Indians inhabiting the western parts of Our said 
Colony under your Government, you are upon all occasions 
to give them all proper encouragement, so as to induce 
them to trade with Our Subjects in preference to any others 
of Europe, and to become not only peaceable Neighbours 
but useful and faithful Allies. And you are, with the 
advice of Our Council of Our said Colony to establish such 
regulations with respect to the Trade carried on with the 
said Indians, as may best conduce to the restriction or pre- 
vention of Fraud and Imposition in those Persons, by whom 
such Trade is carried on. 

60. And whereas private Persons in several of Our 
Colonies in America have frequently purchased Lands 
from the Indians without any Licence from Us, or from 
any Person acting under Our Authority ; which practise is 
inconsistent with Our Rights, and may endanger the Peace 
and Security of Our said Colonies, It is therefore Our Will 
and Pleasure, that you do not, upon any pretence what- 
soever, make a Grant or Grants to any Person or Persons 
of any Lands within Our Colony of Virginia, which may 
or shall have been purchased of the Indians, without a 
Licence first had and obtained from you or the Commander 

i in Chief for the time being. And when any application 
shall be made to you for a Licence to purchase Lands of 

i the Indians, you shall, before the issuing of such Licence, 
cause the Land, proposed to be purchased, to be carefully 
and publickly surveyed by a sworn Surveyor in the presence 
of the Indians, who claim a right to such Lands, and in the 
presence of an Interpreter properly authorized, which said 
Surveyor shall within a reasonable time, not exceeding three 
Months, make a return to you of such Survey, signed or 



otherwise attested and certified by such Indians, with a Plot 
or Description of the Land and the exact Buttings and 
Boundings thereof, the particulars whereof shall be fully 
inserted in the Licence by you to be granted for that pur- 
pose. And you are to take especial care, that in all 
Licences to be granted by you for the purchase of Lands 
from the Indians, the quantity of Land to be purchased by 
any one Person either in his or her own name, or in the 
names of any Person or Persons in trust for him or her, do 
not exceed one thousand Acres. And you are further to 
take care, that in passing Patents for Land purchased of 
the Indians, under a Licence from you, as aforesaid, you 
do strictly observe the regulations prescribed in the afore- 
going articles of these Our Instructions to you, relative to 
the Form, Method, Terms and Conditions of all Grants of 

61. Whereas you will receive from Our Commissioners 
for executing the Office of High Admiral of Great Britain, 
and of Our Plantations, a Commission constituting you 
Vice Admiral of Our said Colony of Virginia, you are here- 
by required and 'directed carefully to put in execution the 
several Powers thereby granted you. 

62. And whereas We have been informed, that the Fees 
for the condemnation of a Prize Ship in Our Courts of 
Admiralty in Our Plantations are considerably greater, 
than those demanded on the like occasion in Our High 
Court of Admiralty here : And whereas We are willing, 
that Our Subjects in the Plantations should have the same 
ease in obtaining the condemnation of Prizes there, as 
in this Kingdom, you are to signify Our Will and Pleas- 
ure to the Officers of Our Admiralty-Court in Virginia, 
that they do not presume to demand or exact other Fees, 
than such as are taken in this Kingdom, which amount to 
about ten pounds for the condemnation of each Prize, 
according to the List of such Fees. 

63. And there having been great Irregularities in the man- 



ner of granting Commissions in the Plantations to private 
Ships of War, you are to govern yourself, whenever there 
shall be occasion, according to the Commissions and Instruc- 
tions granted in this Kingdom. But you are not to grant 
Commissions of Marque or Reprizal against any Prince, or 
State, or their Subjects in amity with Us, to any person 
whatever, without Our especial Command. And you are 
to oblige the Commanders of all Ships, having private 
Commissions, to wear no other Colours than such as de- 
scribed in an Order in Council of the 7 th of January, 1730, 
in relation to Colours to be worn by all Ships of War. 

64. Whereas Commissions have been granted unto sev- 
eral Persons in Our respective Plantations in America, for 
the trying of Pirates in those parts, pursuant to the several 
Acts for the more effectual suppression of Piracy : And by 
a Commission already sent to Our Colony of Virginia, you 
(as Our Lieutenant and Governor General of Our said 
Colony) are impowered, together with others therein men- 
tioned, to proceed accordingly in reference to the said 
Colony of Virginia ; Our W 7 ill and Pleasure is, that in all 
matters relating to Pirates, you govern yourself according 
to the intent of the said Acts and Commission aforemen- 

65. And whereas We have thought it necessary for Our 
Royal Service, to constitute and appoint a Receiver Gen- 
eral of Our Rights and Perquisites of the Admiralty : It is 
therefore Our Will and Pleasure, that you be aiding and 
assisting to Our said Receiver General, his Deputy or 
Deputies, in the execution of the said Office of Receiver 
General. And We do hereby require and enjoin you to 
make up your accounts with him, his Deputy or Deputies, 
of all Rights of Admiralty, (Effects of Pirates included,) as 
you or your Officers have received, or shall or may receive ; 
and to pay over to the said Receiver General, his Deputy 
or Deputies, for Our use, all such sum or sums of Money, 
as shall appear upon the foot of such accounts to be and 




remain in your hands, or in the hands of any of your 
Officers. And whereas Our said Receiver General is 
directed, in case the parties, chargeable with any part of 
such Our Revenue, refuse, neglect, or delay payment there- 
of, by himself or sufficient Deputy to apply in Our Name 
to Our Governors, Judges, Attornies General, or any other 
Our Officers or Magistrates to be aiding and assisting to 
him in recovering the same ; It is therefore Our Will and 
Pleasure that you Our Governor, Our Judges, Our Attor- 
nies General, and all other Our Officers, whom the same 
may concern, do use all lawful authority for the recovering 
and levying thereof. 

66. You are to permit a liberty of Conscience to all 
Persons, (except Papists,) so they be contented with a 
quiet and peaceable enjoyment of the same, not giving 
Offence or Scandal to the Government. 

67. You shall take especial care, that God Almighty 
be devoutly and duly served throughout your Government, 
the Book of Common Prayer, as by Law established, read 
on each Sunday and Holiday ; and the blessed Sacrament 
administered according to the Rites of the Church of Eng- 

68. You shall be careful that the Churches, already 
built there, be well and orderly kept, and that more be 
built, as the Province shall, by God's Blessing, be im- 
proved ; and that, besides a competent maintenance to be 
assigned to the Minister of each Orthodox Church, a con- 
venient House be built at the common charge for each 
Minister, and a competent proportion of Land assigned 
him for a Glebe, and exercise of his Industry. 

69. You are not to prefer any Minister to any Ecclesi- 
astical Benefice in that Our Colony without a Certificate 
from the Right Reverend Father in God the Lord Bishop 
of London, of his being conformable to the Doctrine and 
Discipline of the Church of England, and of a good life 
and conversation ; and if any Person, preferred already to 


a Benefice, shall appear to you to give Scandal, either by 
his Doctrine or Manners, you are to use the proper and 
usual means for the removal of him. 

70. You are to give orders forthwith, (if the same be 
not already done,) that every Orthodox Minister within 
your Government be one of the Vestry in his respective 
Parish ; and that no Vestry be held without him, except 
in case of Sickness, or that, after notice of a Vestry sum- 
moned, he omit to come. 

71. You are to enquire whether there be any Minister 
within your Government who Preaches and administers 
the Sacrament in any Orthodox Church or Chapel, without 
being in due Orders, and to give an account thereof to the 
said Lord Bishop of London. 

72. And to the end the Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction of the 
said Lord Bishop of London may take, place in that Col- 
ony, so far as conveniently may be ; We do think fit, that 
you do give all countenance and encouragement to the 
exercise of the same, excepting only the collating to Ben- 
efices, granting Licences for Marriages, and Probate of 
Wills, which We have reserved to you Our Governor, and 
to the Commander in Chief of Our said Colony for the time 

73. We do further direct, that no Schoolmaster be hence- 
forth permitted to come from England, and to keep School 
in the said Colony, without the Licence of the said Bishop 
of London ; and that no other Person now there, or that 
shall come from other parts, shall be admitted to keep 
School in that Our said Colony of Virginia without your 
Licence first obtained. 

74. And you are to take especial care, that a Table of 
Marriages, established by the Canons of the Church of 
England, be hung up in every Orthodox Church and duly 
observed ; and you are to endeavour to get a Law passed 
in the Assembly of that Colony, (if not already done,) for 
the strict observation of the said Table. 



75. The Right Reverend Father in God Edmund, late 
Lord Bishop of London, having presented a Petition to 
His late Majesty King George the first, humhly beseeching 
Him to send Instructions to the Governors of all the sev- 
eral Plantations in America, that they cause all Laws 
already made against Blasphemy, Profaneness, Adultery, 
Fornication, Polygamy, Incest, Profanation of the Lord's 
Day, Swearing and Drunkenness in their respective Gov- 
ernments, to be vigorously executed ; and We thinking it 
highly just, that all Persons, who shall offend in any of 
the particulars aforesaid, should be prosecuted and pun- 
ished for their said Offences, It is therefore Our Will and 
Pleasure, that you take due care for the punishment of 
the aforementioned Vices ; and that you earnestly recom- 
mend it to the Assembly of Virginia to provide effectual 
Laws for the restraint and punishment of all such of the 
aforementioned Vices, against which no Laws are as yet 
provided ; and also you are to use your endeavours to ren- 
der the Laws in being more effectual, by providing for the 
punishment of the aforementioned Vices by Presentment 
on Oath to be made to the temporal Courts by the Church- 
Wardens of the several Parishes at proper times of the 
year, to be appointed for that purpose ; And for the fur- 
ther discouragement of Vice, and encouragement of Virtue 
and good living, that by such example the Infidels may be 
invited and desire to embrace the Christian Religion, you 
are not to admit any Person to publick Trusts or Employ- 
ments in the Colony under your Government, whose ill 
Fame and Conversation may occasion Scandal ; And it is 
Our further Will and Pleasure, that you recommend to 
the Assembly to enter upon proper methods for the erect- 
ing and maintaining of Schools, in order to the training up 
of Youth to, reading, and to a necessary knowledge of the 
principles of Religion. 

76. You shall send to Us, by one of Our principal Sec- 
retaries of State, an account of the present number of In- 


habitants, Men, Women and Children, as well Masters as 
Servants, free and unfree, and of the Slaves in Our said 
Colony ; as also a yearly account of the Increase or De- 
crease of them, and how many of them are fit to bear 
Arms in the Militia of Our said Colony. 

77. You shall also give unto Us, by one of Our princi- 
pal Secretaries of State, an account every half year of 
what number of Negroes Our said Colony is supplied with, 
and at what Rates sold. 

78. You shall not upon any occasion whatever establish 
or put in execution any articles of War, or other Law 
Martial upon any of Our Subjects, Inhabitants of Our said 
Colony of Virginia, without the advice and consent of Our 
Council there. 

79. Whereas it is absolutely necessary, that We be 
informed of the State of Defence of all Our Plantations in 
America, as well in relation to the Stores of War that are 
in each Plantation, as to the Forts and Fortifications there ; 
and what more may be necessary to be built for the De- 
fence and Security of the same ; you are as soon as possi- 
ble to prepare an account thereof with relation to Our 
said Colony of Virginia in the most particular manner. 
And you are therein to express the present State of the 
Arms, Ammunition and other Stores of War belonging to 
the said Colony, either in any publick Magazines, or in the 
hands of private Persons, together with the State of all 
Places either already fortified, or that you judge necessary 
to be fortified for the Security of Our said Colony. And 
you are to transmit the said accounts to Us by one of Our 
principal Secretaries of State ; as also a duplicate thereof 
to Our Master General, or principal Officers of Our Ord- 

i nance ; which accounts are to express the particulars of 
Ordnance, Carriages, Ball, Powder, & all other sort of 
Arms & Ammunition in Our publick Stores at your arrival, 
and so from time to time of what shall be sent to you, or 
bought with the publick Money, and to specify the time of 



the disposal, and the occasion thereof; and other like ac- 
counts half yearly in the same manner. 

80. You are to take especial Care, that fit Storehouses 
be settled throughout Our said Colony, for receiving and 
keeping of Arms, Ammunition and other publick Stores. 

81. Whereas by a Clause in the Act above recited 
passed in Our Colony of Virginia in the year 1680, "for 
raising a publick Revenue for the better support of the 
Government of His Majesty's Colony of Virginia," a Duty 
of Powder and Shot, or an equivalent in Money in lieu 
thereof is laid on the Tonnage of any Ship or Vessel 
coming to Our said Colony, which Act is perpetual : And 
whereas it hath been found by experience, that the raising 
the said Duty in kind only, where Gunpowder can pos- 
sibly be had, has been of great Service in furnishing the 
Magazines with Powder for the Defence of Our Colo- 
nies in times of Danger ; It is Our Royal "Will and 
Pleasure, and you are hereby required and directed to 
recommend it to the Assembly of Our said Colony to pass 
a new Law for imposing and collecting a Duty of Powder 
and Shot ; and that such Law be made perpetual : That a 
certain Time not exceeding twelve Months be allowed by 
the said Act for giving notice thereof to the several Mas- 
ters of Vessels trading to Our said Colony ; and that for 
the more ample notification thereof, a Proclamation be 
also published there, declaring that, from and after the 
time limited in the said Act, no Commutation shall be 
allowed, but upon evident necessity, which may sometimes 
happen, whereof you or the Commander in Chief of Our 
said Colony, for the time being, are to be the Judge : in 
which case the Master shall pay the full price Gunpowder 
sells for there ; and the Money so collected shall be laid 
out as soon as may be in the purchase of Gunpowder. 
And you are also to transmit every six Months to Us, by 
one of Our principal Secretaries of State, an account of 
the particular Quantities of Powder collected under the 



said Act, and also a Duplicate thereof to the Master Gen- 
eral or principal Officers of Our Ordnance. 

82. You shall cause a Survey to be made of all the con- 
siderable landing Places and Harbours in Our said Colony, 
and with the advice of Our Council there, erect in any of 
them such Fortifications as shall be necessary for the se- 
curity and advantage of the said Colony, which shall be 
done at the publick Charge ; And you are accordingly to 
move the General Assembly to the passing of such Acts, 
as may be requisite for the carrying on that work, in which 
We doubt not their chearful Concurrence from the com- 
mon Security and Benefit they will receive thereby. 

83. And in case of the distress of any other of Our 
Plantations, you shall, upon application of the respective 
Governors thereof to you, assist them with what aid the 
condition and safety of Our Colony under your Government 
can spare. 

84. Whereas We have been informed, that in times of 
War Our Enemies have frequently got intelligence of the 
State of Our Plantations, by Letters from private Persons 
to their Correspondents in Great Britain, taken on board 
Ships coming from the Plantations, which has been of dan- 
gerous consequence, Our Will and Pleasure is, that you 
signify to all Merchants, Planters, and others, that they be 
very cautious in time of War, whenever that shall happen, 
in giving any account by Letters of the publick State and 
Condition of Our Colony of Virginia : And you are further 
to give Directions to all Masters of Ships, or other Per- 
sons, to whom you may intrust your letters, that they put 
such Letters into a Bag with a sufficient weight to sink 
the same immediately, in case of imminent Danger from 
the Enemy. And you are also to let the Merchants and 
Planters know, how greatly it is for their Interest, that 
their Letters should not fall into the hands of the Enemy : 
And that they should give the like Orders to Masters of 
Ships in relation to their Letters ; and you are further to 



advise all Masters of Ships, that they do sink all Letters 
in case of Danger in the manner beforementioned. 

85. And whereas the Merchants and Planters in Amer- 
ica have, in time of War, corresponded and traded with 
Our Enemies, and carried Intelligence to them, to the great 
prejudice and hazard of the British Plantations, you are 
therefore by all possible methods to hinder such Trade and 
Correspondence in time of War. 

86. You are likewise from time to time to give unto Us, 
by one of Our principal Secretaries of State, an account 
of the Wants and Defects of Our said Colony, what are 
the chief Products thereof; what new Improvements are 
made therein by the Industry of the Inhabitants or Planters ; 
and what further Improvements you conceive may be made, 
or advantages gained by Trade, and which way We may 
contribute thereunto. 

87. If any thing shall happen which may be for the ad- 
vantage and security of Our said Colony, which is not here- 
in or by Our Commission provided for, We do hereby allow 
unto you, with the advice and consent of Our said Council, 
to take order for the present therein, giving unto Us, by 
one of Our principal Secretaries of State, speedy notice 
thereof, that so you may receive Our^ Ratification, if We 
shall approve the same : Provided always, that you do not, 
by colour of any Power or Authority hereby given you, 
commence or declare War without Our Knowledge and 
particular Commands therein, except it be against Indians 
upon Emergencies, wherein the consent of Our Council 
shall be had, and speedy notice given thereof to Us by One 
of Our principal Secretaries of State. 

88. And for the maintenance and support of you, Our 
Lieutenant and Governor General of Our Colony and 
Dominion of Virginia, and of the Dignity of that Our 
Government, Our Will and Pleasure is, that you do take 
to yourself, out of Our Revenue arising from the Duty of 
two shillings U' hogshead on Tobacco, the sum of two 


thousand Pounds sterling w annum by quarterly payments. 
And you shall also cause to be paid out of Our said Revenue 
to the Members of Our Council, the Judges and other 
Officers, as well Civil as Military, and to the Marshal, 
Clerk of Assembly, Gunners and Matrosses, the usual 
Salaries and Allowances, as already established, or such 
other as you, with the advice of Our Council, shall think 
requisite and reasonable, a true account whereof you shall 
transmit every six Months unto Us by one of Our princi- 
pal Secretaries of State, & to our Commissioners of Our 
Treasury, or to Our high Treasurer for the time being. 

89. And whereas great Prejudice may happen to Our 
Service, and to the Security of Our said Colony by the 
absence of you Our Lieutenant and Governor General, or 
the Commander in Chief of Our said Colony for the time 
being from those parts ; Our Will and Pleasure is, that 
neither you Our Lieutenant and Governor General, nor 
Our Commander in Chief for the time being, shall, upon 
any pretence whatsoever, come to Europe, without having 
first obtained leave for so doing from Us under Our Sign 
Manual and Signet, or by Our Order in Our Privy Council : 
Yet nevertheless, in case of Sickness, you or he may go 
to New York, or any other of Our neighboring Planta- 
tions, and there stay for such a space as the recovery of 
your or their Health may absolutely require. 

90. And whereas We have thought fit by Our Commis- 
sion to direct, that in case of your Death or Absence from 
Our said Colony, and in case there be at that time no person 
upon the Place Commissionated or appointed by Us to be 
Our Lieutenant Governor or Commander in Chief, the 
eldest Councillor, who shall be at the Time of your Death 
or Absence residing within Our said Colony or Dominion 
of Virginia, shall take upon him the administration of the 
Government, and execute Our said Commission and In- 
structions, and the several Powers and Authorities therein 
contained in the manner thereby directed. It is neverthe- 



less Our express Will and Pleasure, that in such case the 
said President shall forbear to pass any Acts, but what are 
immediately necessary for the Peace and Welfare of Our 
said Colony, without Our particular Order for that pur- 
pose, and that he shall not take upon him to dissolve the 
Assembly then in being, nor to remove nor suspend any of 
the Members of Our said Council, nor any Judges, Justices 
of the Peace, or other Officers, Civil or Military, without 
the advice and consent of at least seven of the Council. 
And the said President is to transmit to Us by one of Our 
principal Secretaries of State, by the first opportunity, the 
Reasons of such Alterations, signed by himself and by Our 

91. And whereas We are willing in the best manner, to 
provide for the support of the Government of Our said 
Colony, by setting apart a sufficient allowance to such as 
shall be Our Lieutenant Governor or President of Our 
Council Commanding in Chief residing for the time being 
within the same, Our Will and Pleasure therefore is, that, 
when it shall happen that you shall be absent from Our 
said Colony, one full Moiety of the Salary, and of all Per- 
quisites and Emoluments whatsoever, which would other- 
wise become clue unto you, shall, during the time of your 
absence from Our said Colony, be paid and satisfied unto 
such Lieutenant Governor, or President of Our Council 
commanding in chief, who shall be resident upon the Place 
for the time being, which We clo hereby order and allot 
unto him towards his maintenance, and for the better sup- 
port of the Dignity of that Our Government. 

92. And you are upon all occasions to send to Us by one 
of Our principal Secretaries of State, a particular account 
of all your Proceedings, and of the Condition of Affairs 
within your Government. 

G. R. 

Indorsed, " Instructions as G r of Virginia." 


George E. 

Orders and Instructions to Our Eight Trusty 
and Eight Wellbeloved Cousin, John, Earl of 
Dunmore, Our Lieutenant and Governor Gen- 
eral of Our Colony and Dominion of Virginia in America, 
In pursuance of several Laws relating to the Trade and 
Navigation of this Our Kingdom of Great Britain and Our 
Colonies and Plantations in America. Given at Our Court 
at St. James's the Seventh Day of February, 1771, In the 
Eleventh Year of Our Eeign. 

First. You shall inform yourself of the principal Laws 
relating to the Plantation Trade, and shall take a solemn 
Oath to do your utmost, that all the Clauses, Matters and 
Things contained in all Acts of Parliament now in force, 
or that hereafter shall be made relating to Our Colonies or 
Plantations, be punctually and bond fide observed, accord- 
ing to the true intent and meaning thereof. 

2. And whereas by an Act made in the 7 th and 8 th years 
of the Eeign of King William the Third, intituled " An 
Act for preventing Frauds and regulating Abuses in the 
Plantation Trade," the Officers appointed for the perform- 
ance of certain things, mentioned in An Act passed in the 
15 th year of the Eeign of King Charles the Second intituled 
"An Act for the encouragement of Trade," commonly known 
by the name of the Naval Officers, are to give Security to 
the Commissioners of Our Customs in Great Britain for the 
time being, or such as shall be appointed by them for Our 
use, for the true and faithful performance of their Duty, 
you shall take care that the said Naval Officers do give 
such Security to the said Commissioners of Our Customs, 


as the persons appointed by them who are impowered to 
take the same, in the manner thereby enjoined ; and that 
he or they produce to you a Certificate from them of his or 
their having given Security, pursuant to a Clause in the 
said Act: and you are not to admit any person to act as 
Naval Officer who does not within two Months, or as soon 
as conveniently may be after he has entered into the execu- 
tion of his Office, produce a Certificate of his having given 
such Security as aforesaid. 

3. And whereas it is necessary for the more effectual 
dispatch of Merchants and others, that the Naval Officers 
and the Collectors of the Customs should reside at the same 
Ports, or Towns ; you are therefore to take care that this 
Regulation be observed. 

4. Whereas by the Act for the encouraging and increas- 
ing of Shipping and Navigation passed in the 12 th Year of 
the Reign of King Charles the Second, no Goods or Com- 
modities whatsoever, are to be imported into or exported 
out of any of Our Colonies or Plantations, in any other 
Ships or Vessels whatsoever, but in such as do truly and 
without Fraud, belong only to Our People of Great Britain 
or Ireland or are of the Built of, and belonging to any of 
Our Lands, Islands and Territories, as the Proprietors and 
right Owners thereof, and whereof the Master and three 
fourths of the Mariners at least are British, under the 
penalty of the forfeiture and loss of all the Goods & Com- 
modities which shall be imported into or exported from 
any of the said Places in any other Ship or Vessel, as also 
of the Ship or Vessel, with her Guns, Furniture, &c. And 
whereas by a Clause in the Act for preventing Frauds and 
regulating Abuses in the Customs, passed in the 13' h and 
14*? Years of the Reign of King Charles the Second, no 
foreign built Ship, that is to say, not built in any of Our 
Dominions of Asia, Africa, or America, shall enjoy the 
privilege of a Ship belonging to Great Britain or Ireland, 
altho' owned and manned by British Subjects (except such 


Ships only, as shall be taken at Sea by Letters of Mart or 
Keprizal, and Condemnation thereof made in Our Court of 
Admiralty as lawful Prize) but all such Ships shall be 
deemed as alien's Ships, and be liable to all Duties, that 
Alien's Ships are liable to by virtue of the aforesaid Act 
for the encouraging and increasing of Shipping and Navi- 
gation ; And whereas by a Clause in the Act for preventing 
Frauds and regulating Abuses in the Plantation Trade, it 
is enacted, that no Goods or Merchandizes whatsoever, 
shall be imported into or exported out of any of Our Colo- 
nies or Plantations in Asia, Africa, or America, or shall be 
laden in or carried from any one Port or Place in the said 
Colonies or Plantations, to any other Port or Place in the 
same, or to Our Kingdom of Great Britain, in any Ship or 
Bottom, but what is or shall be of the Built of Great 
Britain or Ireland, or of the said Colonies or Plantations, 
and wholly owned by the People thereof, or any of them, 
and navigated with the Master and three fourths of the 
Mariners of the said places only, except such Ships only as 
shall be taken as Prize, and Condemnation thereof made 
in one of the Courts of Admiralty in Great Britain, Ireland, 
or the said Plantations, to be navigated by the Master and 
three fourths of the Mariners British, or of the said Planta- 
tions as aforesaid, and whereof the Property doth belong to 
British Subjects, on pain of forfeiture of Ship and Goods ; 
And whereas by another Clause in the said Act for the 
more effectual preventing Frauds, which may be used by 
colouring of foreign Ships under British names ; It is fur- 
ther enacted, that no Ship or Vessel whatsoever, shall be 
deemed or pass as a Ship of the Built of Great Britain, 
Ireland, Guernsey, Jersey, or any of Our Plantations in 
America so as to be qualified to trade to, from, or in any of 
the said Plantations, until the person or persons claiming 
property in such Ship or Vessels shall register the same in 
manner thereby appointed; you shall take care and give 
in charge, that these matters and things be duly observed 



within Our said Colony under your Government, according 
to the true intent and meaning of the said Acts, and the 
Offences and Offenders prosecuted according to the direc- 
tions thereof; and where it is required that the Master and 
three fourths of the Mariners be British, you are to under- 
stand that the true intent and meaning thereof is, that they 
shall be such during the whole Voyage, unless in case of 
Sickness, Death, or being taken Prisoners in the Voyage, 
to be proved by the Oath of the Master, or other Chief 
Officer of the Ship, and none but Our Subjects of Great 
Britain, Ireland, or the Plantations, are to be accounted 

5. Whereas by the said Act of Navigation, as the same 
stands amended and altered by the aforesaid Act, for regu- 
lating the Plantation Trade, it is enacted, that for every 
Ship or Vessel which shall set sail out of or from Great 
Britain for any British Plantation in America, Asia, or 
Africa, sufficient Bond shall be given with one Surety to 
the Chief Officer of the Customs of such Port or Place 
from whence the said Ship shall set sail, to the value of 
One Thousand Pounds, if the Ship be of less Burthen than 
one hundred Tons, and of the sum of two thousand Pounds, 
if the Ship shall be of greater Burthen, that in case the 
said Ship or Vessel shall load any of the Commodities 
therein enumerated, Viz : Sugar, Tobacco, Cotton, Wool, 
Indigo, Ginger, Fustick, or other dying Wood of the growth, 
production or manufacture of any British Plantation in 
America, Asia, or Africa, at any of the said British Plan- 
tations, the said Commodities shall by the said Ship be 
brought to some Port of Great Britain, and be there un- 
laden and put on Shore, the Danger of the Seas only 
excepted, and for all Ships coming from any Port or Place 
to any of the aforesaid Plantations, which by this Act are 
permitted to trade there, that the Governors of such British 
Plantations shall, before the said Ship or Vessel be 
permitted to load on board any of the said Commodities, 



take Bond in manner and to the value aforesaid, for each 
respective Ship or Vessel, that such Ship or Vessel shall 
carry all the aforesaid Goods, that shall be loaden on 
board the said Ship or Vessel to some other of the said 
British Plantations or to Great Britain, and that every Ship 
or Vessel which shall load or take on board any of the 
aforesaid Goods, until such Bond be given to the said Gover- 
nor, or Certificate produced from the Officers of any Custom 
House of Great Britain, that such Bond hath been there duly 
given, shall be forfeited, with her Guns, Tackle, Apparel 
and Furniture, to be employed and recovered as therein is 
directed ; And whereas by two Acts passed in the 3? and 
4*? 1 years of the Reign of Queen Anne, the one, intituled 
I An Act for encouraging the Importation of Naval Stores 
from Her Majesty's Plantations in America" and the other, 
I An Act for granting to Her Majesty a further subsidy on 
Wines and Merchandizes imported " and by two other Acts, 
passed in the 8*! 1 year of the Reign of King George the 
First, the one intituled u An Act for Encouragement of the 
Silk Manufactures of this Kingdom, and for taking off 
several Duties on Merchandizes exported, and for reducing 
the Duties upon Beaver Skins, Pepper, Mace, Cloves, and 
Nutmegs imported, and for importation of all Furs of the 
product of the British Plantations into this Kingdom only ; " 
the other intituled, " An Act to prevent the clandestine 
running of Goods, &c, and to subject Copper Ore of the 
production of the British Plantations to such regulations as 
other enumerated Commodities of the like production are 
subject," continued by an Act passed in the 8*! 1 year of His 
said late Majesty's Reign ; and still in force, all Rice (ex- 
cept under the regulations prescribed in the Acts of the 3? 
year of His late Majesty's Reign, and the fourth and fifth 
years of Our Reign), Melasses, Furs, Hemp, Pitch, Tar, 
Turpentine, Masts, Yards, Bowsprits, and Copper Ore, and 
by an Act passed in the fourth year of Our Reign all 
Coffee, Pimento, Cocoa Nuts, Whalefins, Raw Silk, Hides 



and Skins, Pot and Pearl Ashes, of the growth, production, 
or manufacture of any British Colony or Plantation in 
America, are under the like Securities and Penalties re- 
strained to be imported into this Kingdom, as the other 
above-mentioned enumerated Commodities ; And whereas 
by an Act passed in the 5* 11 year of Our Reign, intituled, 
" An Act for more effectually preventing the Mischiefs 
arising to the Revenue and Commerce of Great Britain 
and Ireland from the illicit & clandestine Trade to and 
from the Isle of Man " no Rum or other Spirits shall be 
shipped or laden in any British Colony or Plantations in 
America, but on condition that the same shall not be 
carried to or landed in the Isle of Man, under the like 
Securities, Penalties and forfeitures, and whereas by an- ] 
other Act made in the 6^ year of Our Reign, intituled 
" An Act for opening and establishing certain Ports in the 
Islands of Jamaica and Dominica for the more free Impor- 
tation and Exportation of certain Goods and Merchandizes ; | 
for granting certain Duties to defray the Expenses of open- I 
ing, maintaining, securing and improving such Ports, for 
ascertaining the Duties to be paid upon the Importation of j 
Goods from the said Island of Dominica into this Kingdom, 
and for securing the Duties upon Goods imported from the I 
said Island into any other British Colony," all Wool, Cotton | 
Wool, Indigo, Cochineal, Fustick, and all manner of dying 
Drugs or Woods, Drugs used in Medicines, Hair, Furs, l 
Hides and Skins, Pot and Pearl Ashes, Whale fins, and 
Raw Silk of the growth and produce of any foreign Colony 
or Plantation, shall, upon the exportation thereof from j 
either of the said Islands of Dominica or Jamaica, be ini- 
ported from thence directly into Great Britain, under the j 
like Securities, Penalties and forfeitures, and by the said 
Act of the 6^ year of Our Reign no Goods whatever, 
shall or may be exported from the said Island of Dominica :i 
to any part of Europe to the northward of Cape Finisterre, 
except to Great Britain, and such Goods shall be there 



landed under the same Securities, Regulations and Restric- 
tions, and subject to the like penalties and forfeitures ; You 
are therefore to take particular care and give the necessary 
directions, that the true intent and meaning of all the said 
Acts be strictly and duly complied with. 

6. You shall carefully examine all Certificates which 
shall be brought to you of Ships giving Security in this 
Kingdom to bring their Lading of Plantation Goods hither, 
as also Certificates of having discharged their Ladings of 
Plantation Goods in this Kingdom pursuant to their 
Securities ; and whereas the better to prevent any of the 
aforesaid Certificates from being counterfeited, the Com- 
missioners of Our Customs have thought fit to sign the 
same ; It is therefore Our Will and Pleasure, that no 
such Certificates be allowed of unless the same be under 
the Hands and Seals of the Customer, Comptroller, and 
Collector of the Customs in some Port in this Kingdom, or 
two of them, as also under the hands of four of Our Com- 
missioners of the Customs at London, or three of Our 
Commissioners of the Customs at Edinburgh, and where 
there shall be reasonable ground of Suspicion that the Cer- 
tificate of having given Security in this Kingdom is false 
and counterfeit, in such case, you or the person, or persons 
appointed under you, shall require and take sufficient 
Security for the discharge of the Plantation Lading in this 
Kingdom, and where there shall be cause to suspect, that 
the Certificate of having discharged the Lading of Planta- 
tion Goods in this Kingdom is false and counterfeit, you 
shall not cancel, or vacate the Security given in the Plan- 
tations, until you shall be informed from the Commissioners 
of Our Customs in Great Britain, that the Matter of the 
i said Certificate is true ; and if any person or persons shall 
counterfeit, raze or falsify any such Certificate for any Ves- 
sel or Goods or shall knowingly or wittingly make use 
thereof, you shall prosecute such person for the forfeiture 
of the Sum of five hundred Pounds, according to a Clause 




of the aforesaid Act for preventing Frauds and Eegulating 
Abuses in the Plantation Trade ; and pursuant to the said 
Act, you shall take care, that in all such Bonds to be here- 
after given or taken in the Colony under your Government, 
the Sureties therein named, be persons of known residence 
and ability there, for the value mentioned in the said 
Bonds, and that the Condition of the said Bonds be w T ithin 
eighteen Months after the date thereof, the danger of the 
Seas excepted, to produce a Certificate of having landed 
and discharged the Goods therein mentioned, in one of 
Our Plantations or in this Kingdom, otherwise to attest the 
Copy of such Bonds under your hand and Seal, and to 
cause prosecution thereof: And it is Our further Will and 
Pleasure, that you do give directions to the Naval Officer 
or Officers not to admit any person to be Security for 
another, who has Bonds standing out and undischarged, 
unless he be esteemed responsible for more than the value 
of such Bonds. 

7. And you are also to give Directions to the said Naval 
Officer or Officers, to advise with the Collector of the Port 
or District in taking Bonds, and not to admit any person to 
be Security in any Plantation-Bond, until approved by the 
said Collector ; And whereas Lists of all Certificates, 
granted in South Britain, for the discharge of Bonds given 
in the Plantations, are every Quarter sent to the Collectors 
of the Districts where such Bonds are given, the said Naval 
Officer or Officers is, or are to take care that no Bond be 
discharged or cancelled by him or them without first advis- 
ing with the Collector, and examining the said List to see 
that the Certificate is not forged or counterfeited ; And 
whereas the principal officers of Our Customs in America 
are directed to examine, from time to time, whether the 
Plantation Bonds be duly and regularly discharged, you are 
to give directions, that the said Officers be permitted to 
have recourse to the said Bonds, as well as the Book or 
Books, in which they are or ought to be entered, and to 


examine, as well whether due Entry thereof be made, as 
whether they are regularly taken and discharged, and 
where it shall appear that Bonds are not regularly dis- 
charged, you are to order that such Bonds be put in Suit. 

8. You are to understand that the payment of the Rates 
and Duties, imposed by An Act intituled " An Act for the 
encouragement of the Greenland and Eastland Trades, and 
for the better securing the Plantation Trade" passed in 
the 25^ Year of the Reign of King Charles the Second, 
on the several Plantation Commodities therein enumerated, 
doth not give liberty to carry the said Goods to any other 
place, than to some of Our Plantations, or to Great Britain 
only : & that notwithstanding the payment of the said 
Duties, Bond must be given to carry the said Goods to 
some of the said Plantations, or to Great Britain and to no 
other place. 

9. You shall every three Months, or oftener, or otherwise, 
as there shall be opportunity of Conveyance, transmit to 
the Commissioners of Our Treasury or Our High Treasurer 
for the time being, and to the Commissioners of Our Cus- 
toms in London, a List of all Ships or Vessels trading in 
the said Colony, according to the Form and Specimen 
hereunto annexed, together with a List of the Bonds taken 
pursuant to the Act passed in the 22 d and 23 d years of 
King Charles the Second's Reign, intituled " An Act to 
prevent planting Tobacco in England, and for regulating 
the Plantation Trade ; " and you shall cause Demand to be 
made of every Master at his clearing of an Invoice of the 
Contents and Quality of his lading, &c, according to the 
Form hereunto also annexed ; and inclose a Copy thereof by 

I some other Ship, or for want of such Opportunity, by the 
same Ship, under Cover, sealed and directed to the Commis- 
sioners of Our Treasury, or Our High Treasurer for the 
time being, and to the Commissioners of Our Customs in 
London , and send another Copy of the said Invoice in like 
manner to the Collector of that Port in this Kingdom for 



the time being, to which such Ship shall be said to be 

10. Whereas by the aforesaid Act for the encourage- 
ment of Trade, no Commodities of the growth, produc- 
tion or manufacture of Europe, except Salt for the Fishery 
of New England and Newfoundland, Wines of the growth 
of the Madeiras or Western Islands or Azores, Servants 
and Horses from Ireland, and all Sorts of Victuals of the 
growth and production of Ireland, and Salt to the Provinces 
of Pennsylvania, New York, Nova Scotia, and Quebec, in 
pursuance of five Acts passed in the 13 th year of the Reign 
of King George the first, in the third year of His late 
Majesty's Peign, and in the second, fourth, and sixth years 
of Our Peign, shall be imported into any of Our Colonies 
or Plantations, but what be bond fide and without fraud 
laden and shipped in Great Britain, and in Ships duly 
qualified : You shall use your utmost endeavours for the 
due observance thereof, and if contrary hereunto, any Ship 
or Vessel shall import into Our said Colony under your 
Government, any Commodities of the growth, production 
or Manufacture of Europe, but what are before excepted, 
of which due proof shall not be made, that the same were 
shipped or laden in some Port of Great Britain, by pro- 
ducing Cocquets or Certificates under the hands and seals 
of the Officers of Our Customs, in such Port or Place 
where the same were laden, such Ship or Vessel and Goods 
shall be forfeited ; and you are to give in charge, that the 
same be seized and prosecuted accordingly. 

11. And in order to prevent the Acceptance of forged 
Cocquets or Certificates, which hath been practised to Our 
great prejudice, you are to give effectual Orders, that for 
all such European Goods as by the said Act are to be 
shipped and laden in Great Britain, Cocquets for the same 
from hence be produced to the Collectors or other Officers 
of Our Customs in Our aforesaid Colony under your Gov- 
ernment, for the time being, before the unlading thereof; 


and you shall give Order that no European Goods be 
landed but by Warrant from the said Collector in the pres- 
ence of an Officer appointed by him ; and for the better 
prevention of Frauds of this kind, you shall take care, 
that, according to the said Act of Trade, no Ship or Ves- 
sel shall be permitted to lade or unlade any Goods or Com- 
modities whatsoever, until the Master or Commander 
thereof shall first have made known to you, or such Officer 
or other person as shall be thereunto authorized & ap- 
pointed, the Arrival of such Ship or Vessel with her name, 
and the name and Surname of the Master, and hath shewn, 
that She is a Ship duly navigated and otherwise qualified 
according to Law, and hath delivered to you or such other 
person as aforesaid, a true and perfect Inventory of her 
lading, together with the place or places in which the said 
goods were laden, and taken into the said Ship or Vessel 
under forfeiture of such Ship and Goods. 

12. You shall not make or allow of any Laws, Bye 
Laws, Usages or Customs in Our said Colony under your 
Government, which are repugnant to the said Laws, herein 
before mentioned, or any of them, or to any other Law 
already made or hereafter to be made in this Kingdom, so 
far as such Laws relate to, and mention the said Planta- 
tions, but you shall declare all such Laws, Bye Laws, 
Usages and Customs in Our said Colony under your Gov- 
ernment, which are any wise repugnant to the said Laws 
or any of them, to be illegal, null and void to all intents 
and purposes whatsoever. 

13. You shall be aiding and assisting to the Collectors 
and other Officers of Our Admiralty and Customs, ap- 
pointed, or that shall hereafter be appointed by the Comm™ 
of Our Customs in this Kingdom, by and under the Author- 

i ity and direction of the Comnf of Our Treasury, or Our 
High Treasurer of Great Britain for the time being, or by 
Our High Admiral or Commissioners for executing the 
Office of High Admiral of Great Britain for the time 



being, in putting in execution the several Acts of Parlia- 
ment before mentioned ; and you shall cause due prosecu- 
tion of all such Persons as shall any ways hinder or resist 
any of the said Officers of Our Admiralty or Customs in 
the performance of their Duty : It is likewise Our Will 
and Pleasure, and you are hereby required, by the first 
Opportunity, to move the Assemblies of Our said Colony, 
that they provide for the Expence of making Copies for 
the principal Officers of Our Customs in Our said Colony 
for the time being, of all Acts and Papers, which bear any 
relation to the Duty of their Office ; and in the mean time 
you are to give Orders, that the said Officers for the time 
being, as aforesaid, be allowed a free Inspection in the 
Publick Offices within your Government, of all such Acts 
and Papers, without paying any Fee or Reward for the 

14. Whereas the Commissioners appointed for collect- 
ing the sixpence per Month from Seamen's Wages, for Our 
Royal Hospital at Greenwich, pursuant to an Act of Par- 
liament passed in the second Year of His late Majesty's 
Reign, intituled, "An Act for the more effectual collecting 
in Great Britain, and Ireland, and other parts of His Maj- 
esty's Dominions, the Duties granted for the support of 
the Royal Hospital at Greenwich," have given Instructions 
to their Receivers in foreign Parts for their Government 
therein ; It is therefore Our Will and Pleasure, that you 
be aiding and assisting to the said Receivers in Your 
Government, in the due Execution of their Trusts. 

15. And whereas by an Act passed in the sixth Year of 
His late Majesty's Reign, intituled " An Act for the better 
securing and encouraging the Trade of His Majesty's Sugar 
Colonies in America," and by another Act passed in the 
fourth year of Our Reign, intituled, " An Act for granting 
certain Duties in the British Colonies and Plantations in 
America, &c," Duties are laid on all Sugar, Paneles, & 
several other Species of Goods therein enumerated, of the 



Produce & Manufacture of any of the Plantations not in 
Our Dominion, which shall be imported into any of Our 
Colonies or Plantations ; notwithstanding which We are in- 
formed, that great quantities of foreign Sugar, Paneles and 
other Goods mentioned in the aforesaid Acts are clandes- 
tinely landed in Our Plantations without payment of the 
said Duties, Our Will and Pleasure is, that you be aid- 
ing and assisting to the Collectors and other Officers of 
Our Customs in Your Government, in collecting the said 
Duties, and seizing all such Goods as shall be so clandes- 
tinely landed or put on Shore, without payment of the 
Duties, and you shall cause due Prosecution of all such 
Sugar, Paneles and other Goods, as shall be seized for 
Non Payment of the Duties, as well as the persons aiding 
or assisting in such unlawful Importations, or that shall 
hinder, resist or molest the Officers in the due Execution 
of the said Laws, and you are to observe, that Our share 
of all Penalties and Forfeitures, so recovered, is pursuant 
to the said Act made in the fourth year of Our Reign, to 
be paid into the hands of Our Collector of the Customs 
at the Port or Place where the same shall be recovered for 
Our Use. 

16. You shall take Care that upon any Actions, Suits 
and Informations, that shall be brought, commenced or 
entred in Our said Colony under Your Government, upon 
any Law or Statute concerning Our Duties, or Ships, or 
Goods, to be forfeited, by reason of any unlawful Importa- 
tions or Exportations, there be not any Jury but of such as 
are Natives of Great Britain, or Ireland, or are born in 
any of Our said Plantations. 

17. You shall take Care, that all places of Trust in the 
Courts of Law, or in what relates to the Treasury of Our 
said Colony under your Government, be in the Hands of 
Our Native born Subjects of Great Britain, or Ireland, or 
the Plantations. 

18. And that there may be no Interruption or Delay, in 



matters of Prosecution and Execution of Justice in Our 
Courts of Judicature within Our said Colony under Your 
Government, by the Death or Removal of any of Our Offi- 
cers imployed therein, until we can be advised thereof, and 
appoint others to succeed in their Places, you shall make 
choice of Persons of known Loyalty, Experience, Dili- 
gence, and Fidelity, to be employed for the purposes afore- 
said, until you shall have Our Approbation of them, or the 
nomination of others from hence. 

19. You shall from time to time correspond with the 
Commissioners of Our Customs in London for the time 
being ; and advise them of all Failures, Neglects, Frauds, 
and Misdemeanors of any of the Officers of Our Customs 
in Our said Colony under Your Government, and shall also 
advise them, as Occasion shall offer, of all Occurrences 
necessary for their Information, relating either to the afore- 
said Laws of Trade, and Navigation, or to Our Revenue 
of Customs and other Duties under their Management, 
both in Great Britain and the Plantations. 

20. If you shall discover that any Persons or their 
Assigns, claiming any Right or Propriety in any Island or 
Tract of Land in America, by Charter or by Letters Patent, 
shall at any time hereafter Alien, sell or dispose of such 
Island, Tract of Land, or Propriety, other than to Our 
natural born Subjects of Great Britain, without the Li- 
cence or Consent of Us, Our Heirs, or Successors, signified 
by Our or their Order in Council first had and obtained, 
you shall give notice thereof to Us, and to Our Commis- 
sioners of Our Treasury, or Our High Treasurer of Great 
Britain for the time being. 

21. Whereas by the aforesaid Act for preventing 
Frauds and regulating Abuses in the Plantation Trade, it 
is provided for the more effectual prevention of Frauds, 
which may be used to elude the Intention of the said Act 
by colouring foreign Ships under British Names, that no 
Ship or Vessel shall be deemed or pass as a Ship of the 



Built of Great Britain or Ireland, Guernsey, Jersey, or any 
of Our Plantations in America, so as to be qualified to 
trade to, from or in any of Our said Plantations, until the 
Person or Persons claiming Property in such Ship or Ves- 
sel, shall register the same in manner thereby directed : 
you shall take Care that no foreign built Ship be permitted 
to pass as a Ship belonging to Our Kingdom of Great 
Britain or Ireland until proof be made upon Oath, of one 
or more of the Owners of the said Ship, before the Col- 
lector or Comptroller of Our Customs in such Port to 
which she belongs, or upon like Proof before yourself, 
with the principal Officers of Our Revenue residing in Our 
aforesaid Colony under your Government ; if such Ship 
shall belong to the said Colony ; which Oath you and the 
Officers of Our Customs respectively are authorized to ad- 
minister, in manner thereby directed, and being attested by 
you and them, so administring the same, and registred in 
due Form according to the specimen hereunto annexed, 
you shall not fail immediately to transmit a Duplicate 
thereof to the Commissioners of Our Customs in London, 
in order to be entred in a general Register, to be there 
kept for that purpose, with Penalty upon every Ship or 
Vessel trading to, from, or in any of Our said Plantations 
in America, as aforesaid, and not having made proof of 
her Built and Property as by the aforementioned Act is 
directed ; and shall be liable to such Prosecution and For- 
feiture as any Foreign Ship (except Prizes condemned in 
Our high Court of Admiralty) would for trading with Our 
Plantations by the said Law be liable unto ; with this Pro- 
viso, that all such Ships, as have been or shall be taken at 
Sea by Letters of Marque or Reprizal, and Condemnation 
thereof made in Our high Court of Admiralty as lawful 
Prize, shall be specially registred, mentioning the Capture 
& Condemnation, instead of the time and place of Build- 
ing : with Proof also upon Oath, that the entire property 
is British, before any such Prize be allowed the Privilege 




of a British Built Ship, according to the meaning of the 
said Act : And that no Ship's Name registred be afterwards 
changed, without registering such Ship de novo, which by 
the said Act is required to be done upon any transfer of 
Property to another Port, & delivering up the former Cer- 
tificate to be cancelled, under the same Penalties, and in 
like method ; And in Case of any Alteration of Property, 
in the same Port by the sale of one or more shares in any 
Ship after registering thereof, such Sale shall always be 
acknowledged by endorsement on the Certificate of Regis- 
ter before two Witnesses, in order to prove that the entire 
property in such Ship remains to some of Our Subjects of 
Great Britain, if any dispute shall arise concerning the 

22. Whereas by the Act passed in the twenty first Year 
of His late Majesty's Reign, for encouraging the making of 
Indigo in the British Plantations in America, as the same 
stands continued and amended by an Act passed in the 
third year of Our Reign, a prsemium of four pence per 
pound is allowed on the Importation of Indigo of the 
Growth of the British Plantations ; and there are likewise 
contained in the said Act several Provisions to prevent 
Frauds by importing foreign Plantation made Indigo, or 
any false Mixtures in what is made in the British Planta- 
tions, with a View to recover the said Premium, It is there- 
fore Our Will and Pleasure, that if there now are, or 
hereafter shall be any Plantations of Indigo within Our 
said Colony under your Government, you do take particular 
care that the said Provisions be duly and punctually com- 
plied with, and do likewise from time to time transmit to 
Us, by one of Our Principal Secretaries of State, an Account 
of all such Plantations of Indigo, with the Names of the 
Planters and the Quantity of Indigo they make ; as also 
the Quantity of such Indigo exported from the said Colony, 
distinguishing the time when exported, and the Port where 
shipped, the Names of the Vessels, and the Port to which 


bound ; And if there be any foreign Indigo imported into 
the said Colony: It is Our further Will and Pleasure, that 
you do in like manner transmit an Account of such foreign 
Indigo imported, distinguishing the time when, and the 
place from whence imported, together with an Account of 
such foreign Indigo exported, and the Port where ship- 
ped, the Names of the Vessels, and the Port to which 

23. Whereas by the Act passed in the tenth Year of the 
Eeign of King William the third to prevent the Exporta- 
tion of Wool out of the Kingdoms of Ireland and England 
into foreign parts, and for the Encouragement of the 
Woollen Manufactures in the Kingdom of England ; It is 
amongst other things, therein enacted, that no Wool, 
Woolfels, Shortlings, Mortlings, Woolflocks, Worsted, 
Bays, or Kerseys, Says, Freezes, Druggets, Cloth Serges, 
Shalloons, or any other Drapery Stuffs or Woollen Manu- 
factures whatsoever made or mixed with Wool or Wool- 
flocks being of the Product or Manufacture of any of the 
British Plantations in America, shall be laden or laid on 
Board in any Ship or Vessel, in any Place or Port within 
any of the said British Plantations, upon any pretence 
whatsoever ; as also that no such Wool or other the said 
Commodities, being of the Product or Manufacture of any 
of the said British Plantations, shall be loaden upon any 
Horse, Cart, or other Carriage, to the intent and purpose to 
be exported, transported, carried or conveyed out of the said 
British Plantations, to any other of Our Plantations, or to 
any other place whatsoever, upon the same and like pains, 
penalties, and Forfeitures, to and upon all the Offender and 
Offenders therein, within all and every of Our said British 
Plantations respectively, as are provided and prescribed by 
!the said Act for the like Offences committed within Our 
Kingdom of Ireland ; You are to take effectual Care, that 
'he true Intent and Meaning thereof, so far forth as it 
:elates to you, be duly put in Execution. 



24. In the Act made in the twenty-fonrth year of His 
late Majesty's Reign, for the more effectually securing the 
Duties upon Tobacco, there is a Clause to prevent Frauds 
in the Importation of Bulk Tobacco, enacting that no 
Tobacco shall be Imported into this Kiugdom, otherwise 
than in Cask, Chest, or Case containing 450 Pounds 
Weight of Tobacco each, under Penalty of the Forfeiture 
thereof; you shall take Care, that this part of the said Act 
be made publick, that none may pretend Ignorance ; and 
that the true Intent and Meaning thereof be duly put in 
Execution within your Government. 

25. AisD whereas His Majesty King George the first 
was informed, that a Clandestine Trade had been carried 
on as well by British as foreign Ships from Madagascar 
and other parts beyond the Cape of Bona Esperanza, with- 
in the limits of Trade granted to the United East India 
Company ; directly to Our Plantations in America, to the 
great Detriment of these Realms, and in breach of the 
several Laws in force relating to Trade and Navigation ; 
Our Will & Pleasure is, that you the said John, Earl of 
Dunmore, or in your absence, the Commander in Chief of 
Our said Colony of Virginia, for the time being, duly ob- 
serve and cause to be strictly observed, the several Laws 
and Statutes now in force for the regulating of Trade and 
Navigation, particularly the several Acts of Parliament 
already mentioned in your General and in these Instruc- 
tions ; And in Order to the better Execution of the Laws 
and Statutes above mentioned, upon the first notice of the 
arrival of any Ship or Ships, within the limits of any Port 
of or belonging to Your Government, which have or are 
suspected to have on board any Negroes, Goods, or Com- 
modities, of the Growth, Produce, or Manufacture of the 
East Indies, Madagascar, or any parts or places beyond the 
Cape of Bona Esperanza, within the limits of Trade granted 
to the United East India Company, pursuant to the afore- 
mentioned Act of the Ninth and Tenth of King William, 



you shall immediately cause the Officers of Our Customs 
in Your Government, and any other Officers or Persons in 
aid of them to go on board such Ship or Ships, and to 
visit the same, and to examine the Masters and other Com- 
manders, the Officers and Sailors on Board such Ship or 
Ships, and their Charter Parties, Invoices, Cocquets & other 
Credentials, Testimonials or Documents, and if they find 
that such Ship or Ships came from the East Indies, Mada- 
gascar, or any other parts or places beyond the Cape of 
Bona Esperanza, within the limits of Trade granted to the 
said United East India Company, and that there are on 
board any such Goods, Commodities or Negroes as is above- 
mentioned ; that they do give notice to the Master or other 
person having then the Command of such Ship or Ships, 
forthwith to depart out of the limits of Your Government, 
without giving them any Helief, Support, Aid, or Assist- 
ance, altho' it should be pretended that such Ship or Ships 
were, or the same really should be in Distress, Want, Dis- 
ability, Danger of Sinking, or for or upon any other Reason 
or Pretence whatsoever ; And that you Our Governor or 
Commander in Chief do by no means suffer any Goods, 
Merchandize, or Negroes from on board such Ship or 
Ships, to be landed or brought on Shore upon any Account 
or Excuse whatsoever ; And it is Our further Will and 
Pleasure, that if any such Ship or Ships being foreign, 
having on board any such Goods, Merchandize, or Negroes, 
do not upon notice given to the Master or other person 
having the command thereof, as soon as conveniently may 
be, depart out of the limits of your Government, and from 
the Coasts thereof, without Landing, Selling or Bartering 
any of the said Goods or Negroes, You Our Governor or 
the Commander in Chief for the time being, shall cause 
the said Ship or Ships and Goods and Negroes to be seized 
and proceeded against according to Law ; But if such 
Ship or Ships having such Goods or Negroes on board, 
and entering into any Port or Place, or coming upon any 



of the Coasts or Shores of Our said Colony under Your 
Government, do belong to Our Subjects, and do break 
Bulk or Sell, Barter, Exchange, or otherwise dispose of 
the said Goods or Negroes, or any part thereof, contrary to 
Law ; You are to take Care that such Ship or Ships, with 
the Guns, Tackle, Apparel and Furniture thereof, and all 
Goods and Merchandize laden thereupon, and the Proceed 
and Effects of the same be immediately seized, and that the 
Laws in such Case made and provided be put in Execution 
with the greatest Care, Diligence and Application ; But if 
any Ship belonging to the Subjects of any foreign State or 
Potentate, having on board any Negroes or East India 
Commodities, shall be actually bound to some Place or 
Port in the West Indies, belonging to any foreign Prince 
or State, from some European Port, and such Ship shall 
happen to be driven in by necessity and be in real Distress, 
the same may be supplied with what is absolutely neces- 
sary for her relief: But you shall not take, have or receive, 
nor permit or suffer any Person to take, have, or receive 
any Negroes, or other the said East India Commodities in 
payment or Satisfaction for such Relief; That if any Officer 
of Our Customs, or other Officer employed by you Our 
Governor or Commander in Chief, in visiting, searching, 
or seizing such Ship or Ships, Goods, Merchandize or 
Negroes, be corrupt, negligent, or remiss in the discharge 
of his Duty therein, We do hereby require you to suspend 
him from the Execution of his said Office, and that you do 
by the first opportunity, send an Account of such Officer's 
Behaviour to Us, by one of Our principal Secretaries of 
State, that care may be taken, that such Officer be re- 
moved from his Employment, and further punished accord- 
ing to his Demerit ; And Our further Will and Pleasure 
is, that you, Governor or Commander in Chief do constantly 
from time to time, and by the first opportunity that shall 
offer, send to Us by one of Our principal Secretaries of 
State, true, full, and exact accounts of Your Proceedings, 



and of all other Transactions and Occurrences in, or about 
the Premisses or any of them. 

26. And whereas notwithstanding the many good Laws 
made from time to time, for preventing of Frauds in the 
Plantation Trade, it is manifest that very great Abuses 
have been and continue still to be practised to the Preju- 
dice of the same, which Abuses must needs arise either 
from the Insolvency of Persons, who are accepted for 
Security, or from the Remissness or Connivance of such 
as have been, or are Governors in the several Plantations, 
who ought to take Care, that those Persons, who give Bond 
should be duly prosecuted in case of nonperformance, You 
are to take notice, that we take the good of Our Planta- 
tions and the Improvement of the Trade thereof, by a strict 
and punctual observance of the several Laws in force con- 
cerning the same, to be of so great Importance to the 
benefit of this Kingdom and to the advancing the Duty of 
Our Customs here, that if we shall hereafter be informed, 
that at any time there shall be any Failure in the due ob- 
servance of those Laws and of these present Instructions, 
by any wilful fault or neglect on your part, We shall es- 
teem such Neglect to be a breach of the aforesaid Laws ; 
And it is Our fixed and determined Will and Pleasure, 
that you or the Commander in Chief respectively, be for 
such offence, not only immediately removed from Our Em- 
ployments, and be liable to the Fine of One thousand 
Pounds, as likewise suffer such other Fines, Forfeitures, 
Pains and Penalties as are inflicted by the several Laws 
now in force relating thereunto, but shall also receive the 
most rigorous Marks of Our Highest Displeasure, and be 
prosecuted with the utmost Severity of Law for your Offence 
against Us, in a matter of this Consequence that We now 
so particularly charge you with. 

G. E. 


























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George R. 

Additional Instruction to Our Eight Trusty 
and Right Welbeloved Cousin, John Earl 
of Dunmore, Our Lieutenant and Governor 
General of Our Colony and Dominion of Virginia in 
America. Given at Our Court at St James's the Fourth 
Day of 'February, 1772. In the Twelfth Year of Our 

Whereas Laws have been passed in some of Our 
Colonies and Plantations in America, by which the Lands, 
Tenements, Goods, Chattels, Rights, and Credits of Per- 
sons, who have never resided within the Colonies where 
such Laws have been passed, have been made liable to be 
attached for the Recovery of Debts, in a manner different 
from that allowed by the Laws of England in like cases ; 
and whereas it hath been represented unto Us, that such 
Laws may have the consequence to prejudice and obstruct 
the Commerce between this Kingdom and Our said 
Colonies, and to affect public Credit : It is therefore Our 
Will and Pleasure that you do not on any pretence what- 
ever, give your Assent to, or pass any Bill or Bills in Our 
Colony under your Government, by which the Lands, 
Tenements, Goods, Chattels, Rights and Credits of Persons, 
who have never resided within Our said Colony, shall be 
made liable to be attached for the Recovery of Debts, due 
from such Persons, otherways than is allowed by Law, in 
Cases of the like nature within this Our Kingdom of Great 
Britain, untill you shall have first transmitted unto Us, by 
one of Our principal Secretaries of State, the draught of 
such Bill or Bills, and shall have received Our Royal 



Pleasure thereupon ; unless you take care in the passing 
of such Bill or Bills, that a Clause or Clauses be inserted 
therein, suspending and deferring the Execution thereof 
untill Our Eoyal Will and Pleasure shall be known 

G. E. 

Indorsed, " Virginia. Additional Instructions. Rec d May 2* 1772." 

Eepresentation of the Comm rs for Trade & Plantations, 
to His Majesty, dated July 29^ 1768, as far as it relates 
to a Law passed in the Colony of Virginia in 1767, in- 
tituled, An Act to compell Ships importing Convicts or 
indented Servants, infected with the Goal fever or Small 
Pox, to perform Quarantine. 

By this Act the Master of every Vessel importing Con- 
victs or indented Servants is prohibited from allowing any 
such to quit the Vessel before Entry at the Naval Office, 
and Oath by him made that none of the said persons have 
been infected with the Goal fever or small pox at any time 
within fifty days last past, upon refusal of which Oath, or 
if it shall appear to such Naval Officer that the said vessel 
ought to make Quarantine, certain rules and directions in 
that case given are to be carried into execution ; upon a 
due consideration of this Law (in the course of which we 
have been attended both by the Agent on the part of the 
Province, and the Contractor for the Transportation of 
Convicts, and heard what each had respectively had to 
offer) we are humbly of opinion that this Law, however 
unexceptionable in point of principle, does nevertheless 
contain certain regulations and restrictions of an improper 



nature. In particular, the vague and arbitrary powers 
given to the Naval Officer, the hardships of imposing an 
Oath to be taken on circumstances, which, in their nature, 
must be so uncertain and indeterminate, and the severity 
of the fines, pains, and penalties inflicted on the nonobserv- 
ance of the provisions contained in this Act, are, in our 
opinion, liable to great objection, when in addition here- 
unto, we submit to your Majesty the further consideration 
how far this Law, by subjecting Masters of British vessels 
to the above disabilities and restraints may be said to 
counteract the Spirit of the Act of Parliament for the 
Transportation of Convicts, we humbly conceive that your 
Majesty, upon these reasons and suggestions, will think 
it expedient to signify your Royal Disallowance of this 

Indorsed, " Representation to the King, on Three Acts passed in April, 


Annapolis, 29 January 1773 

My Lord, 

I am to acknowledge the honour of your Lordships letter 
of the 4 th of November 1772 — No. 1. 

The intimation with which your lordship has favoured 
me of his Majestys most gracious approbation of my con- 
duct gives me the utmost satisfaction srnd I sincerely wish 
that the measures pursued by the lower House of Assembly 
had been less intemperate and offensive. In popular 
Assemblies particular men generally govern the rest and 
their proceedings take their colour from the temper and 
views of a few leaders. The moderate and diffident are 


carried with the stream, and their silence and acquiescence, 
by swelling the apparent majority, indicate an approbation 
of violences they really condemn. This was too much our 
case in the October Sessions, as well as in the Sessions 
next before it. 

I shall, particularly as your lordship has expressed your 
opinion of the utility of it, take the earliest opportunity to 
transmit from time to time, whilst I shall continue in my 
present station, the acts and proceedings of the legislature of 
Maryland. In the year 1773, as is observed in my Message 
to the lower House, p. 85, Lord Baltimore by proclamation 
settled the fees of Officers. On that occasion the lower 
House entered a resolve in their proceedings, similar to 
that your lordship has taken notice of, p. 20. It seems 
probable that in the year 1733, the lower House had no 
view beyond the subject before them, viz, the regulation of 
Officers fees by proclamation, but, whether the lower 
House in their repetition of this Resolve in October Session 
1771, had or not any further views, I cannot certainly in- 
form your lordship. But, the design of their message was 
I apprehend to represent this regulation of fees and the 
restriction laid upon the Officers by my proclamation, as an 
effective tax, and of the general reasoning of it to prove 
not only that a tax cannot be constitutionally raised with- 
out the assent of the peoples representatives but also 
the peculiar privilege claimed by the lower House in the 
article of taxation. This claim of privilege is further 
explained by the messages between the two Houses, p. 53, 
56, and was one of the reasons that induced me to recite in 
my message, p. 86, the opinion of Lord Camden when he 
was the Kings Attorney General. That both Houses of 
Assembly in Maryland would with their utmost exertion en- 
deavour to maintain their position, that the people of Mary- 
land are not constitutionally liable to any tax laid without 
their assent, I have no doubt, and believe the same principle 
and idea to be generally prevalent in the other Colonies. 



The Resolves of the different American Assemblies on the 
affair of the Stamp Act and the proceedings of the Congress 
(as it was called) at New York seem to be clear proofs of 
their disposition and strong attachment to this principle : 
But yet, my lord, the notion that the regulation of fees and 
the laying of a tax are the same thing has not been carried 
so far as to beget an opinion that the fees established for 
the support of the officers of the Customs appointed by 
the Crown are not due : For these fees are paid in Mary- 
land without hesitation, and though the regulation of fees 
by my proclamation has been violently exclaimed against, 
your lordship perceives nothing has been said with respect 
to the fees claimed and received by his Majestys officers 
of the Customs. 

I should be extremely sorry if the explanation I am to 
give your lordship of the motive for passing the !ict Ch. 1. 
should not prove satisfactory ; For, I can venture to assure 
your lordship that this Act was not intended to contravene 
the Statute in any degre*e, and that the people in whose 
favour it was passed have the merit of being most useful 
subjects. In consequence of the encouragement given by 
Statute a great number of German Emigrants have settled 
in North America, particularly in Pennsylvania and the 
frontier County of Maryland. They are generally an in- 
dustrious laborious people. Many of them have acquired 
a considerable share of property. Their improvement of a 
Wilderness into well stocked plantations, the example and 
beneficent Effects of their extraordinary industry have 
raised in no small degree a spirit of emulation among the 
other inhabitants. That they are a most useful people 
and merit the public regard is acknowledged by all who 
are acquainted with them. 

It happened that one Mr. Hagar, a German who had 
been naturalized according to the Statute was elected one 
of the Burgesses to serve in Assembly for the frontier 
County. When the Assembly met, it became a question 



whether he was eligible or not, and it was determined in 
the Negative by a Majority of one only, as your lordship 
will observe on having recourse to the transmitted copy of 
the votes and proceedings, p. 9. 10. 

It was understood that the limitation or proviso in the 
13^ of George 2* Ch. 7 had been omitted by the general 
purview of the act Mr. Hagar would have been Eligible, 
and that the limitation or proviso, "that no person who 
should become a natural born subject of this Kingdom by 
virtue of this Act shall be of the privy council or a mem- 
ber of either house of Parliament or capable of taking 
having or enjoying any office or place of trust within the 
Kingdom of Great Britain or Ireland, Civil or Military, or 
of having accepting or taking any grant from the Crown 
of any lands tenements or hereditaments within the King- 
doms of Great Britain or Ireland." I say, my lord, that 
this limitation or proviso did not Extend to disqualify Mr. 
Hagar to be a member of the Maryland Assembly : But, 
an Act of Assembly having provided that no person disa- 
bled by the laws of England from sitting in Parliament 
should be elected to serve in Assembly, the question arose 
on the proviso in the Statute and the reference of the Act 
of Assembly to the laws of England conjunctly ; and 
though a majority of the lower House of Assembly thought 
Mr. Hagar on this question to be ineligible, yet the Act 
Ch. 1. unanimously passed for the very purpose, that a 
person in his situation might in future be chosen a Mem- 
ber of Assembly ; and your lordship will perceive on turn- 
ing to p. 53, 54 that Mr. Hagar was re-elected. Such my 
lord was my motive for passing the Act Ch. 1, And permit 
me to assure your lordship, if I had Entertained any Sus- 
picion that this Act impugned in any degree the Statute, I 
would have dissented to it on that very ground. 

In Pennsylvania foreigners naturalized may be chosen 
members of the Assembly, and there is reason to appre- 
hend that if they should not have (since the point has been 



stirred) the same privilege in Maryland, it would be a great 
disadvantage to this Colony, Especially as (notwithstanding 
they maintain their Ministers by contribution) they are 
Equally taxed with others to support the Established 
clergy; a charge to which they are not liable in Pennsyl- 
vania, where there is no such Establishment. 

The Effect of this Act is merely local ; the design of it 
was in no degree to set aside the limitation contained in 
the Statute and the provisions of it are all most necessary 
on account of the privileges Enjoyed by foreigners natural- 
ized in Pennsylvania. On these Considerations I hope for 
your lordship's most favorable construction. 

I acknowledge myself greatly obliged to your lordship 
for your polite attention to my request should my business 
call me home ; and only beg leave to add, that I hope any 
consideration such a proposition may induce will not re- 
move me from my Government, so long as my conduct 
therein merits the approbation of his Majesty and his Min- 
isters for this department, which shall always be the En- 
deavour as it has ever been the sincere wish of 


[Prop. Z 51. Reed. 20 Dec. 1773.] 


At a Council held at Fort George in the City of New 
York, on Wednesday the Ninth day of June 1773. 


His Excellency William Tryon Esq! Captain General &c? 
Mr Watts ^ Mr Cruger 
Mr De Lancey I Mr Wallace 
Mr Morris f Mr White 
Mr Smith J 



His Excellency laid before the Board his Majesty's Order 
given at the Court at S* James's the 7 th day of April last, 
prohibiting until further Order the issuing of any Warrant 
of Survey, or the passing of any Patents for Lands, except 
<to Commission and non Commission Officers and Soldiers, 
and the same being read was ordered to be entered in the 
Minutes, and is as follows. 

At the Court at S* James's the 7 th Day of April 1773. 


The King's most excellent Majesty 

Lord President } Earl of Rochford 
Earl of Suffolk > Earl of Dartmouth 
Earl of Sandwich ) Lord Mansfield. 

Whereas it has been represented to his Majesty, that 
the State and Condition of his Majesty's Colonies and 
Plantations in America, do both in Justice and Expediency 
require that the Authority for granting Lands, contained 
in the Commissions and Instructions given to his Majesty's 
Governors in the Plantations, should be further regulated 
and restrained, and that the Grantees of such Lands should 
be subjected to other Conditions than those at present pre- 
scribed in the said Instructions. His Majesty having taken 
the same into His Royal Consideration, is pleased, with the 
Advice of his Privy Council, to order, and it is hereby 
Ordered that the Lords Commissioners for Trade and 
Plantations, do take into their immediate Consideration, the 
Powers and Authorities for granting Lands contained in the 
Commissions and Instructions to his Majesty's Governors 
in the Plantations, and that the said Lords Commissioners 
do Represent to his Majesty at this Board such Alterations 
as they shall think fit and necessary to be made therein. 
And his Majesty is hereby further pleased to Order, that 
in the mean time, and until His Majesty's further Pleasure 
be signified, all and every his Majesty's Governors, Lieu- 
tenant Governors or other Persons in Command in his 




Majesty's Colonies in North America who are Entrusted 
with the Disposal of his Majesty's Lands, in the said Col- 
onies, do forbear upon pain of his Majesty's highest Dis- 
pleasure, and of being immediately removed from their 
Offices, to issue any Warrant of Survey, or to pass any Pat- 
ent for Lands in the said Colonies, or to Grant any Licence 
for the purchase by private Persons of any Lands from the 
Indians without especial Direction from his Majesty for 
that purpose, under His Majesty's Signet or Sign Manual, 
or by Order of His Majesty in His privy Council, except- 
ing only in the case of such Commission and non Commis- 
sioned Officers and Soldiers, who are intituled to Grants of 
Land in Virtue of his Majesty's Royal Proclamation of the 
7 th October 1763 to whom such Grants are to be made and 
passed, in the Proportions and under the Conditions pre- 
scribed in his Majesty's said Proclamation. 



N Carolina Dec! 16 1773. 

My Lord, 

I have the honour to transmit your Lordship herewith a 
Copy of my Speech to the Council and Assembly of this 
Province at the opening of their Session on the 4 th inst. 
and of their addresses and my answers. 

The address of the Assembly contains Expressions so 
unfit and breaths a spirit so unbecoming a people living 
under the mild and just government of his Majesty that it 
gives me pain to lay it before your Lordship : I transmit 
with no less concern, a copy of certain Resolves entered 
upon the Journals of that House, which display like dis- 
content and disrespect to Government. These will no 



doubt appear to your Lordship very inauspicious presages ; 
and the proceedings of that branch of the Legislature since 
afford me no hopes that any advantage will result to the 
public from its present measures, This body my lord un- 
fortunately consists for the most part of men in the lowest 
state of ignorance that are gulled into any absurdities by 
a few artful and designing men influenced by selfish and 
interested motives, who lead them implicitly into their 
views, by representing every Salutary proposition of gov- 
ernment as injurious and oppressive : And thus make them 
instruments to their own little purposes and their Countrys 
ruin. The poor misguided herd renounce out of the House 
the sentiments they have the moment before blindly con- 
curred in and Execrate their own conduct as soon as they 
are made to discern its obvious consequences. 

The few mischievous but too successful dema(go)gues 
who have hitherto governed the Assembly at the present 
Session seem by their conduct in the House as well as out 
of doors from its beginning to have challenged a dissolu- 
tion. But, as I have a sincere feeling for the Country and 
a just contempt for their provocations and sinister designs 
I shall I trust be superior to resentment while it is con- 
sistent with the dignity of government to overlook their 
rash and hasty proceedings. They are acting my Lord if 
I may believe report contrary to the sense and wishes of 
the people at large, and I hope, if they leave me oppor- 
tunity to prorogue the Assembly, that after its consulting 
its constituents I shall soon meet the House in more cor- 
responding temper and disposition. And in all events I 
will pursue with my best discernment my duty to his Maj- 
esty and promote to the utmost of my power the good of 

this Country. I have &c 


[F 38 Read 25 Oct' 1774. No papers.] 

[The Resolves alluded to were against the appointment 
of Courts of oyer & terminer by the Governors Commis- 
sion alone, as illegal.] 



Pensylvania. Sec r . off. Prop. 1773-4. 

Various printed papers (Pensylva a Newspapers and hand- 
bills, shewing the conduct of the people of Boston New 
York and Pensylvania) were sent under an anonymous 
cover to Lord D. — The opposition to the landing of the 
Tea at Boston began the middle of December 1773 — & 
before the End of December Ships with Tea had been 
sent back from N York and Philadelphia. Capt. Ayres 
of the Polly was obliged to carry back the Tea without 

These printed papers, which contained much important 
information, were read by the King. 

Mr. Penn (Spring garden) presents his respects to Lord 
D. — * He was not returned from taking the air when he 
was honoured with his Lordships note. He is extremely 
astonished the Deputy Gouvenor of Pensylvania has sent 
no information to his Lordship on the subject of the Teas : 
and is himself under great concern as he has received no 
letters from him, but supposes the next ship must bring 

Lord D. wrote to Dep. Govf Penn. The insult that 
has been offered to this Kingdom by the inhabitants of 
Philadelphia in the case of the Polly Capt. Ayres, is of 
a very serious nature and leads to very important conse- 

It is matter of Equal surprise and concern to the King 
that such a transaction should have happened in any of his 
Colonies without the least appearance of any Endeavour on 
the part of the Government either to check or oppose the 

Dartmouth, Secretary for the American Department. — T. A. 



violences that have been committed. And it is matter of 
still greater surprise, that the Ship which has been thus re- 
belliously denied an entrance into the Port of Philadelphia 
should have returned to G. Britain without a single letter 
of advice or information from the Proprietors deputy in the 
administration of that government. 

I have, Sir, too good an opinion of you to suppose that 
you have been inattentive to what was your duty upon 
the occasion ; and therefore I must conclude that your 
despatches have by some accident miscarried. 

It will be necessary however in all Events, that a cir- 
cumstance which appears at present so very extraordinary 
should be fully explained 

Gov! Penn appologized for his before reprehended neg- 3 May, 1774. 
lect. I was totally ignorant, says Penn, of the measures 
which were taken to prohibit the Entrance of the vessel, 
till after her departure ; and indeed had I been fully ap- 
prized of the unjustifiable designs of the people, such was 
the general opposition of the people upon that occasion 
as well here as in other parts of N. America, that any En- 
deavours on my part to have prevented what happened 
would have proved ineffectual and vain. 

The Importation of Tea into America, by the East India 
Company was generally considered here from all accounts 
from home, as a private adventure of their own, in which 
the government had no immediate concern, and being un- 
attended with any instructions from the Ministry, I did not 
think my duty required me to transmit your lordship an 
account of the Transaction. 

The King was pleased graciously to acquiesce in this 

Gov! Penn wrote Lord D. That as soon as the people of ff*?' 177 *' 

J- J- 4 July rec a, 

Boston knew of the late Act of Parliament for shutting 
up that port an Express w T as dispatched from hence, with 
a proposal to concur with them in putting a total stop to 
the importing or exporting of any kind of goods untill the 
above Act should be repealed. 



In consequence of this a considerable number of Mer- 
chants and others had a meeting at a tavern in this City, 
where I understand the matter was taken into considera- 
tion. The only resolution they agreed on was a petition 
to me to call the assembly, which will be presented in a 
few days. Should so affrontive an application be made to 
me your lordship may be assured I shall treat it as it de- 
serves. I have however been informed that the mover of 
this extraordinary measure had not the most distant expec- 
tation of succeeding in it ; but that their real scheme was 
to gain time to see what part the other Colonies will take 
in so critical a conjuncture. 

Lord D. wrote for answer : The reception given to the 
proposal that came from the Town of Boston, there did 
not appear then to be any strong inclination to adopt ; 
What has since passed in Virginia may perhaps as in 
other like instances^ become an Example to the neighbour- 
ing Colonies. And should this be the case, it will be your 
duty to exert every power which the Constitution has 
placed in your hands to defeat any attempt to trample 
upon and insult the authority of this Kingdom. 

Govf Penn wrote Lord D. That a petition had been 
presented to him by 851 persons which he had refused, 
because it did not appear to him that the peace of the pro- 
vince required it. The general temper of the people here 
& in all the Colonies is very warm. They look upon the 
Chastisement of Boston to be purposely rigorous and is 
therefore suffering in the common cause. The delinquency 
in destroying the Tea is lost in the attention which is 
given to what is here called the too severe punishment of 
shutting up the port, altering the Constitution, and making 
an Act as they term it screening the Soldiers for shedding 
American blood. The plan universally adopted is the 
procuring a general Congress, in order to state the rights 
and represent the grievances of America to the throne. — 
Collections are making for Boston. 



Since he had refused to call the Assembly on the peti- 
tion of the people an unhappy incident (an Indian War, 
on the Western frontier,) had obliged him to call an As- 
sembly tho' with reluctance, as it may give offence at home : 
Yet he is of opinion that the Assembly will be more mod- 
erate than the people are in their Town Meetings, which 
cannot be prevented. The Assembly are to choose the 
Delegates for Congress. 

The 16 th of June 1774 was observed throughout the 
By node of N. York and Philadelphia as a day of humili- 
ation and prayer on account of the late invasion of the 
liberties of America [Pensyl. Gaz. 22 June 1774] 

18 th July the Assembly met. 19 th July the Speaker 
laid before the House several letters & copies of Resolves 
from the Speakers of Massachusetts & Rd. Island : the I s * 
dated 17 June notifying the appointment of Deputies to 
Congress: the 2? dated the 20 June notifying also the 
appointment of Delegates. There was also laid before the 
House a letter from the Committee of Correspondence & 
inquiry of Virgf (Randolph, Nicholas & Digges) : stating 
the propriety of appointing Deputies from the several Col- 
onies of British America to meet annually in general Con- 
gress — as a Measure extremely important and extensively 
useful, as it tends so effectually to obtain the united wis- 
dom of the whole in every case of general concern. 

22? July Resolved N. C. D. That there is a necessity for 
a Congress of Deputies from the several Colonies to form 
a plan for obtaining redress — ascertaining American rights 
on constitutional principles & for establishing harmony be- 
tween G. Britain & the Colonies. 

A committee appointed to bring in instructions to the 
Deputies in Congress (Allen one). The instructions very 
short — particularly — you are to avoid doing any thing 
indecent or disrespectful to the Mother State. 

[A kind of Convention from Philadelphia & several 
Counties with Tho. Willing for their Chairman was then 
sitting at Carpenters Hall.] 



They presented on the 19 July their opinion of the ne- 
cessity of a Congress — and they informed the house that 
the Committee are employed in finishing their resolves & 
drawing up their sentiments on the present situation of 
public affairs, which when compleated will be laid before 
the House. 

[Printed proceedings of the House. ~] 

The Assembly voted £2000 to Employ Rangers against 
the Indians. 

The provincial meeting of Delegates chosen by the 
several Counties in Pensylvania assembled the 15 July 
1774 — Appointed a Committee to send their Resolves to 
all the Committees of Correspondence. 

Gov r Penn wrote Lord D. of the meeting of the Con- 
gress that morning. Impossible to say what will be the 
result of their deliberations. From the best intelligence 
the Resolution of opposing the Boston port Acts and the 
Parliamentary power of taxing America possesses all ranks 
of people & is universal. They persuade themselves there 
is a formed design to enslave ximerica and tho the iVct for 
regulating the Government of Canada does not immediately 
affect other provinces it is held up as an irrefragable argu- 
ment of that intention. There is difference of opinion as 
to the modes of opposition. 

Govf Penn wrote Lord D. That the Congress having 
agreed to keep all their proceedings secret he had it not 
in his power to give any account of them but what had 
been published — had published such as may be seen in 
the N. papers. 

[So that on the 10 th of Nov? 1774 the Ministry knew that 
'"''th./'he the Congress had adopted the Suffolk Resolves (Massachu- 
setts) which lighted the match.] 

[These Resolves are dated the 6 th of Septf & approved 
by Congress on the 17 Sept r 1774.] 


t t 

ird North 


There were various extracts of letters said to be from quarters at 

the same 

London, asserting the designs of Ministry to be to tax L m( N n( to Ced 
America & recommending to stop all trade with Britain, thing but no " 
published in Philadelphia N. papers during the Sitting of Lord m. op- 
Congress, [Pensyl. Gaz. 21 Sept r 1774.] Es!T 8 

In that of 28 Septr 1774 there is the following extract duc S t? on " 
of a letter said to be from London dated 23? July — 

Df Franklin was so obliging as to call on me this after- 
noon. From what he communicated I find, that the inten- 
tion of taxing all America is openly avowed by the Minis- 
try : — They have already begun by high duties on Spirits 
in Canada and have ordered a Regiment to be raised there ; 
determining as the D T . well expressed it, not only to rivet 
their chains but make them pay for the iron to do it with. 

Gov? Penn wrote Lord D. That the Congress had dis- US* St 
solved themselves the 26 th ins* & have just published the 
principal part of their proceedings — but the petition to the 
King they have not published : I am entirely unacquainted 
with the contents of it ; as I had not the least connexion or 
intercourse with any of the members. 

Gov r Penn wrote Lord D. What tendency the Measures £ Nov. 1774. 

J 17 Dec. rec'd. 

of Congress may have to compose the unhappy differences 
is a question which occasions a variety of opinions. I can 
only wish these transactions may not be viewed in such a 
light as to retard that union which all good men anxiously 
desire may be speedily established. 

[This is the last Despatch of 1774.] 





[Secret fy Confidential.'] 

DAY THE 3 SEPT. 1774. 

[ Transmitted to Lord Dartmouth by Governor Franklin 6 September 1 774 — 
Received 11th October.] 

1774 — Sea. off — N. J. (N. Jersey.) 

I have just returned from Philadelphia, where I have 
been to wait on and endeavour to find out the Temper of 
the Delegates. Near two thirds of them are arrived and I 
conclude all will be ready to proceed on business on Mon- 
day. I have not had any great opportunity of sounding 
them — But, so far as I have, I think they will behave with 
temper and moderation. The Boston Commissioners are 
warm and I believe wish for a non importation agreement, 
and hope the Colonies will advise and justify them in a 
refusal to pay for the Tea until their aggrievances are re- 
dressed : They are in their behaviour and conversation very 
modest ; and yet they are not so much so as not to throw 
out hints, which like straws and feathers tell us from which 
point of the Compass the wind comes. I dined with them 
on Thursday. 

I have had two opportunities, one with the Elder Rut- 
lidge of Carolina, whose sentiments and mine differ in no 
one particular, so far as I explained myself ; and I was re- 
served in no point save that of a Representation in Parlia- 
ment. He is a gentleman of an amiable character ; has 
looked into the argument on both sides, more fully than any 
I have met with, and seems to be aware of all the con- 
sequences which may attend rash and imprudent measures. 
His younger brother is rather warm. My other oppor- 
tunity was with the two New Hampshire gentlemen. I 


found Colonel Folsom very cool and moderate : Major 
Sullivan rather more warm, but very candid and has 
thought solidly on the subject. I think neither of them 
intends to attach himself more to the particular cause of 
Boston than will be for the general good. They requested 
opportunities of exchanging sentiments with me often on 
the occasion : and all my observations seemed to have full 
weight with them. The Mary landers are not arrived and 
but three of the Virginians. Peyton [Randolph] Bland and 
Lee are arrived. 

I have intimated to several of the Delegates the neces- 
sity of sending Commissioners over fully authorized to the 
British Court, as a mode pursued by the Roman, Grecian, 
and Macedonian Colonies, on every occasion of the like 
natures. That through them we may be enabled, in case 
our first plan for accommodating our unhappy differences 
should not be acceptable, to know the better what to pro- 
pose next : That having these Gentlemen at the Scene of 
action we shall be no longer misled by newspaper accounts 
and private letters, but shall proceed on solid information 
and principles of safety : That without this any Petitions 
or plans, not having any persons to explain and support 
them, will have very little effect : That in all probability 
the measures of the present Congress will be deemed ille- 
gal and unconstitutional, and that upon this point only the 
necessity of sending persons home to insist in the right in 
the Colonies of being heard and to prove that the illegality 
of the Congress arises of power in not suffering the Assem- 
blies to meet ; and if after all, those reasons should not 
procure due attention to the propositions of the Congress, 
to pray that the Governors may have orders to permit such 
meetings and to give assurances that their conduct will be 
decent, respectful, and dutiful to the Mother State : That a 
conduct of this kind cannot fail to give Strength to our 
cause and if not immediately, in the end bring the govern- 
ment to attend to reason and redress our agrievances. 



These intimations seemed to have then* weight ; and as far 
as I could observe met with approbation. You may de- 
pend on my communicating to you from time to time the 
transactions of the Congress. — 


The Congress met this day at Carpenters Hall notwith- 
standing the offer of the Assembly room, a much more 
proper place. They next proceeded to choose a Secretary, 
and to my surprise, Charles Thomson [one of the most 
violent sons of liberty, so called, in America] was unani- 
mously elected. The New Yorkers and myself and a few 
others, finding a great majority, did not think it prudent to 
oppose it. Both of these measures it seems were privately 
settled by an interest made out of doors. — 

I cannot say but from this days appearance of proceed- 
ings I have altered very much my last sentiments. The 
Virginians and Carolinians (Rutledge excepted) seem much 
among the Bostonians, and have at their instance adopted 
the two above measures. The gentlemen from New York 
have as little expectations of much satisfaction from the 
Event of things as myself. 

Tomorrow we are to determine whether We are to vote 
by Colonies, Each having a single Vote, or otherwise. — 

6 Sept. 1774, Gov r Franklin wrote to Lord D. 

The Delegates from the several Provinces met yesterday 
for the first time in Philadelphia. I have sent your Lord- 
ship Extracts of two letters from a gentleman who is one 


of the Delegates which not only contains an account of 
their first days transactions, but will serve to give an idea 
of their disposition, of some of the principal members of 
that body and what may be Expected from them. The 
gentleman who wrote those letters is a very prudent and 
moderate man, Extremely averse to the violent and rash 
measures proposed by the Virginians and Bostonians and 
was in hopes to have formed a party among the Delegates 
sufficient to have prevented a non importation agreement 
for the present, but he seems now to despair of Success, as 
a majority of the Southern and Northern delegates are so 
much for that measure that those from New York, New 
Jersey and Pensylvania, who are of different sentiments, 
[The 7 Resolve of the New Jersey Convention of the 21 
July 1774 declared: That we do earnestly recommend a 
general non importation and a non consumption agreement 
— as the Congress shall think advisable] begin to think it 
will answer no good End to make any opposition. It was 
likewise his purpose to propose a plan for a political union 
between the two Countries ; and in order to prepare the 
minds of the people for it and to put them as he says in a 
proper train of thinking on the subject, he has wrote the 
enclosed pamphlet entitled Arguments on both sides in 
the dispute between G Britain and her Colonies. But, 
whether, now he finds a great majority of the delegates so 
very different from his own, he will venture to publish his 
pamphlet tho' the whole is printed off, is uncertain : The 
principal part of his plan is as I am told is the making 
application for leave to send representatives from Each 
Colony in America to the Parliament in G. B. : A meas- 

i ure notwithstanding the many difficulties and objections 
made thereto on both sides the Water he thinks will be 

t the only Effectual remedy for the present Evils and prove 
a lasting and beneficial cement to all the parts of the Brit- 
ish Empire. 


Recommends Secrecy — as otherwise it will put a stop 
to the obtaining any further intelligence from the same 
quarter. — 

2 Novf 1774. Lord D. promised to keep such informa- 
tions very secret. 

[The pamplet very futile.] 


New York 30* May 1774. 

Dear Sir, 

Among some other Warrants for expenses of govern- 
ment, as M r Tryon was leaving us, was introduced one for 
the postage I paid for you some years ago, which the 
Council thought just, as all your successors have been re- 
paid this charge. The sum is £67. 1. 5 this currency, for 
which you have my bill inclosed on Sam. Baker for £26. 3. 
stg exchange being 80 per ct. 

Shutting up the Port of Boston is matter of great spec- 
ulation on this side the water, though carried so rapidly on 
yours. The lower class of people were taking it up ex- 
ceeding high here, and would have carried things to 
extremities, but by the interference of most people of 
weight, a soberer counsel takes place, though the treat- 
ment of their brethren is very ill relished — " proximus 
ardet." How the matter will operate it is impossible yet 
to judge. It appears to me that destroying the charter 
will sink deeper into their spirits, than shutting up the Port 
of Boston, as it will have a more general effect, and may 
be taken up in an enthusiastic light, which is the worst of 
all prejudices. 

As I partake of every good that befalls you, it gives me 
great pleasure to hear that Government has not been quite 



unmindful of you at last, and that some family events 
(since it is the wisdom of Providence so to order it) have 
turned to your advantage. May you enjoy health and spir- 
its to possess these with satisfaction and many more. 

Your friends here always remember you with regard, 
some have dropt, but not many. Old McGra is gone in 
spite of all his aversion to a change, and had lived quite 
long enough both for constitution and pocket. 

Col? Robertson, Small, Mallet, gone to wait on Gen. 
Gage, who has been feasted immoderately. The Commis- 
sioners are removed to Plymouth, with the Custom House 
by this time, and the General to Salem. ShirrefFe writes 
Gen! Haldimand is much esteemed here, and acts with 
great prudence and circumspection. Old M r Allen, hearty 
and well, does not like the times at all, has resigned his 
office to M r Chew. Tis an amazing Colony that, for in- 
crease and wealth. Of the discontented Irish, Scots, and 
emigrating Germans, they speak of having imported 
eighteen thousand in one year. Many Scots and Irish 
are come here and will find land sufficient already granted, 
but the new mode prescribed of granting will shut up the 
office, for some time at least and that is probably the effect 
intended, and to corroborate it, an instruction is sent out 
to forbid naturalization, an impolitic one I think. The 
Charter Governments will disregard it, and by that means 
increase in strength in proportion as the Royal Govern- 
ments lose it, who dare not offend. 

I beg you will be so good as to remember me to such 
i of my friends as fall in your way, of which number poor 
I Larry it seems is no longer to be one, and believe me with 
great truth and esteem 
Dr Sir, 

Y r most Obl d Humb. Sert 


I am verging to the state of a Patriarch, three daughters 
I have married, the eldest has born four children, the sec- 


ond three, and the third coming one. If I live till my sons 
get at it, there will be fine work. I hear frequently from 
our friend Napier. Col! Barre still the wrong side of the 
House ; M r Boone the right. Those loaves and fishes are 
a convenient diet. 


{Separate & Secret.) 

3 June 1774. 


You will observe that I have, in my separate letter to 
you of this day's date, mentioned in general terms the cor- 
respondence kept up by persons here with the leaders of 
the faction at Boston. 

Some proofs of this dangerous and unwarrantable cor- 
respondence have come to my knowledge by a confidential 
communication of the copies of two letters, the one from 
D r Franklin, dated 7 July 1773, the other from M r Arthur 
Lee dated 25 Dec r 1773. 

Both these letters have I understand been publicly read 
in the Assembly and are expressed in such terms as makes 
it very much to be wished that such evidence could be ob- 
tained of the authenticity of them as might be the ground 
of a proper proceeding thereupon. You will therefore 
use your best endeavours with that secrecy and caution the 
nature of the case requires to procure either the originals 
or some regular attested copies of those letters and transmit 

them to me by the first opportunity. 






3 d June 1774. 

. . . "We have received letters from M r Hutchinson 
so late as the 2 d day of May, at which time they had re- 
ceived at Boston an account of the proceedings down to 
the 15 th of March, which I find had occasioned great alarm 
& apprehension, but had been attended with no other con- 
sequences ; so that I am willing to suppose that the peo- 
ple will quietly submit to the correction their ill conduct 
has brought upon them and to lay a foundation by their 
future behaviour for a re-establishment of their commercial 

As some doubt may possibly arise whether his Majesty's 
governor can act in any case in the capacity of an ordinary 
civil Magistrate, I think it fit to acquaint you that the 
King's chief Law-servants are clearly of opinion that the 
Governor by his Commission is Conservator of the peace 
in all cases whatsoever. 


(Separate & Secret.) 

Salem 25 August 1774. 

My Lord, 

Your Lordships letter, Separate & Secret of the 3 d of 
June has been received, and I will endeavour to obtain 
either the originals or attested copies of those letters which 
your Lordship mentions to have been written to the lead- 
ers of the faction at Boston and which you understand 
have been publicly read in the Assembly. At the same 




time I am to acquaint your Lordship, that I found upon 
making inquiries of the same nature soon after my arrival, 
it was very difficult to procure either the originals or copies 
from the precautions used. They are generally directed 
to the Speaker, who calls them private letters, and after 
reading them to the House, he puts them in his pocket as 
his own private correspondence. 

I will acquaint your Lordship with the extract of a letter 
from the country, which you will receive by this opportu- 
nity is from Coll Williams and written to me to excuse his 
acceptance of the honor the King has conferred upon him, 
in nominating him a Counsellor. Colonel Worthington 
who lives in his neighborhood gave the same reasons for 
not accepting at present, who from the reputation of his 
abilities, firmness and influence is of more loss than all the 
rest who have refused. Royal's refusal is from timidity. 
Russel, who is a good man feared the loss of some post he 
enjoys. Vassal, Green & Hooper plead age, infirmities, 
but I believe choose to avoid the present disputes. M r 
Irving, who has not yet decided, has connections with all 
sides, and would keep well with all, and I apprehend 
wants to see what turn affairs will take, before he gives a 
positive answer. (He did refuse) M r Powell lives at a 
great distance, and I suppose has had no opportunity to 
send an answer, but it is of little consequence, whether he 
refuses or accepts. 

Upon the whole, I can't apprehend that better men 
could have been chosen than those who have been 
sworn in ; altho' I found a shyness, in several, towards 
giving an opinion about the adjournment of Town meet- 
ings, and a desire to throw the removal of the Sheriffs, now 
in office, entirely upon the Governor, by a construction of 
the act, which appears to me quite foreign to its intent and 
contrary to the plain words of it. 

I have &c 

(RecM 1 Octo' 1774.) 



I sincerely congratulate your Excellency on your ap- 
ointment and arrival to the chief seat in Government ; 
and as heartily wish you may be the happy instrument, 
under God, of restoring peace, good order and subjection 
to government, now almost at an end. Never was a time, 
when such numbers of wise and good men, as well as oth- 
ers, were so infatuated, till the present. An enthusiastick 
frenzy and surprising madness obtain every where. Noth- 
ing said in the coolest manner avails, but rather irritates. 
Indeed, whoever proposes pacific measures is considered, 
as an enemy to his country and threatened with ruin. The 
source of all this, your Excellency will easily conceive, 
and from whence propagated. The fences of law are 
broken down ; and without your Excellency's aid, our lives 
as well as property will be much endangered. We rely 
on your Excellency's wisdom and power to support and 
defend us against the fury of the mobs, which are rising 
in many places, abusing individuals, and as I am well in- 
formed, are determined, in case the royal assent be given 
to the two last bills, to prevent the holding of the Courts, 
the ensuing term, in the county of Berkshire ; and the 
same thing is threatened to be done in this county. Even 
the people of Connecticut have undertaken to reform the 
laws in their Province and chastise the King's subjects, 
within your Excellencys Jurisdiction. No attempts, that 
we hear, are made by the Magistrates of that Colony to 
prevent and suppress the disorders and insurrections. 
Every measure proposed and pursued seems to be with a 



view to insult Majesty, and widen the breach between this 
and the parent state, and even to dare the vengeance of 
the Supreme Authority of the British Empire in America, 
which, without some immediate, powerful interposition, 
will, it is to be feared, be felo cle se. — 

The writer of the foregoing (according to a letter of 
Gen 1 Gage of the 20 Sept. 1774) was afterwards obliged 
by the mobs to make the following concessions. 

l ly That the three late Acts of parliament are unconsti- 
tutional. — 2 dly That it is just the people should use all 
suitable means to oppose the same. — 3 dly That I shall nei- 
ther directly, nor indirectly countenance the taking place 
of said Acts. — 4 thly That I never have nor will use any 
means to disunite the people in pursuing all salutary meas- 
ures to retain our ancient rights and privileges. — 


(Separate & Secret.} 

17 October 1774 


In the present moment every circumstance of intelli- 
gence respecting what passes in America is of importance 
and information, which at any other time, would be thought 
of no consequence, deserves attention. 

I am told that M r Lee, a major upon half pay with the 
rank of Lieu fc Colonel, has lately appeared at Boston, that 
he associates only with the enemies of government, that he 
encourages the discontents of the people by harangues and 
publications, and even advises to arms. This gentleman's 
general character cannot be unknown to you, and there- 
fore, it will be very proper, that you should have attention 



to his conduct, and take every legal method to prevent his 
effecting any of those dangerous purposes, he is said to 

have in view. 

I am &c 



Secy 8 Office Mass™ 1774 

To publishing 500 Appeals to the World 
To publishing 500 Extracts of a letter & Remarks 
Printing 500 Junius Americanus 

Copying Assembly's Letters to Noblemen & Gentlemen 

Presents to Doorkeepers, Messengers of the Council 

Chamber, messengers of Lords & Commons, Board of 

Trade & Secretary of State's offices, Noblemens Servants 

Newspapers, Pamphlets. 

General Retaining fee to the Clerks of the House of 
Commons to be immediately informed when any affairs of 
importance come before the House respecting America. 

Transmitted in Gen. Gage's letter of 26 June 1774, because they appeared to 

him extraordinary \ 


{Notes of G. Chalmers.) 

24 th May 1774 the House ordered the 1 st day of June, 
i when the Harbour of Boston, which is now hostilely in- 
vaded, will be shut up, be kept as a day of fasting and 
humiliation to avert the heavy calamity, which threatens 


destruction to our civil rights, and the evils of civil war, 
and to give them one heart and mind, firmly to oppose, by 
all -just and proper measures, every injury to American 

29 May 1774 Lord Dunmore wrote Lord Dartmouth 
(reed 4th July 1774) t; the Assembly met on the 5 th of May 
1774 and a few days thereafter an account arrived of the 
Act of Parliament for blocking the Port of Boston, which 
had induced the Burgesses again to declare, what they are 
fond of having it thought always originates with them, a 
determined resolution to deny and oppose the authority 
of Parliament. Accordingly, R. Carter Nicholas, the 
Treasurer, made motion for the order that passed for a 
public fast in order to prepare the minds of the people for 
other resolutions, to inflame the whole country, and insti- 
gate the people to acts, that might raise the indignation of 
the Mother Country." 

" In order to prevent the bad effects, I have dissolved 
the Assembly by the unanimous advice of the Council and 
shall not call another, till I receive the King's orders." 
He had heard that this was a hasty measure and disap- 
proved by the wiser members. 

27 May 1774. After the dissolution, 89 Burgesses 
entered into an association — that an attack on any of 
their Sister colonies to compel submission to arbitrary taxes 
is an attack on all British America — that the shutting up 
the Port of Boston is a most dangerous attempt to destroy 
the constitutional rights of all North America. That they 
will consume no East India goods till American grievances 
are redressed. And they appointed a committee of cor- 
respondence in order to consider the expedience of a con- 
gress to meet annually to deliberate on general measures 
for the general interests of America. 

6 July 1774. Lord Dartmouth wrote Lord Dunmore 
To grant no back lands. To maintain the Jurisdiction on 
the Ohio & not to encourage settlements there. 


The information contained in your letter of May last of 
what passed in Virginia in consequence of the measures 
pursued in Parliament, respecting the Town of Boston has 
given me the greatest concern. 

There was reason to hope, from appearances in the 
other Colonies, that the extravagant proposition of the 
people of Boston would have been everywhere disregarded. 
But it may now be well doubted, whether the extraordinary 
conduct of the Burgesses of Virginia, both before and 
after their dissolution as a House, may not become (as it 
has already become in other instances) an example to the 
other Colonies. 

In this view of what has passed, and under the many 
aggravating circumstances stated in the papers your Lord- 
ship has transmitted, it will become my duty to lose no 
time in Consulting with the rest of the Kings Servants 
what advice it shall be proper to give his Majesty there- 
upon — approved highly of his lordships conduct on that 
Occasion. The Conduct of Col? Cresap who had Murdered 
an Indian to be inquired into. Did not know that Cresap 
lived in Maryland. 

6 June 1774. Lord Dunmore wrote to Lord D 1 ! 8 

After the dissolution of the assembly and before the Bur- 
gesses had left Williamsburgh, there arrived an express 
from Boston to the Committee of Correspondence here — 
as had been done to other Colonies — to excite them to 
shut up the Courts of Justice ag* English Creditors — 
to join in an association ag* Imports & Even Exports — and 
proposing a Congress of Deputies from all the Colonies 

Unable to suggest what lengths the people will go. 
The Burgesses immediately called together the Inhabitants 
of Williamsburgh who adopted all those violent Measures 
and Summoned a Convention to Consist of the late dissolved 
Burgesses to meet 1 st Augt. next. 

[Printed paper inclosed, consisting of the Annapolis 



resolves of the 25 May 1774 — & the vote of the Town of 
Boston of the 13 May — that if all the Colonies join &c] 

The printer says, that the Speaker expressed an earnest 
desire to have the Transactions of the different Colonies 
transmitted to the late Burgesses as speedily as possible. 
This done by a printed hand-bill, which states that many 
Private letters from principal gentlemen at home — bold 
& spirited — which Conjure the people to persist in defence 
of their liberties, as their Conduct will afford a precedent 
to future ages — they inform us of many secret transactions 
going forward in England against — & warn of the Con- 
sequences — shall publish these in the next paper. But 
gave the conclusion of one letter of a disinterested English- 
man : " after the subjection of Boston & perhaps all the 
N. England governments, N. Jersey & N. York are to be 
the next in course, and they talk of taking away Pens 
charter. Look to yourselves ; exert all your faculties to 
the utmost ; your virtues will be put to a severe trial, 
and if they are not genuine & well founded they will not 
stand the test. Alas ! how is my soul shocked at the 
present situation of England, my native country, a great, 
a generous, & a late happy people, but now how changed, 
how fallen ! The men who are really wise and good 
deprived of all opportunities of acting ; the poor and 
middling people ruined and oppressed ; the rich lost in 
luxury & dissipation ; a set of weak & wicked men j 
misguiding the reins of Government ; the people taxed to 
death without mercy ; place-men & pensioners without | 
number, &c." 

8 Sept. 1774. Lord I), wrote to Lord D. of his informa- J 
tion that the Cause of the Indian war was the encroach- \ 
ments of the Virg n . s on their lands : That Connolly had pre- 1 
sumed to rebuild Fort Pitt, which had been dismantled by j 
the Kings express order. 

States the various treaties with the Indians since 1 763 [ 
— & the orders given for their Protection, but in vain — 



threatens to remove Lord D. for countenancing the settle- 
ments on the Ohio — signifies the Kings displeasure. 

[Other dispatches in 1774 about the Jurisdiction on 
Ohio — Walpoles intended grant — the settlements — Ind n 
War &c] 

20 June 1774 Lord Dunmore wrote to Lord Dartmouth 
that a petition had been presented to him by the Council 
to prevail on him to issue Writs for a New Assembly, 
which tho' averse to I did, in order to remove the pretence 
of not calling the assembly to impute the disorder which is 
continually increasing. 

The writs are issuing. But unless, the incursions of the 
Indians, the distress arising from the expiration of many 
of our essential laws & other urgent reasons compel me, I 
shall defer the Meeting the Assembly till I receive orders. 
The Councillors excuse any apparent inconsistency of first 
advising a dissolution & afterwards advising a new assem- 
bly so soon afterwards. 

Extract of a Letter from Lord Dartmouth to Lord Dunmore, dated 3rd 

August, 1774. 

[Virg* Soc. off. 1774.] 

It still remains to be seen whether the measures adopted 
by Parliament will or will not have the effect to restore 
peace and harmony between Great Britain and her Colonies. 
The proceedings of the Burgesses of Virginia do not en- 
courage me to hope for a speedy issue to the present dis- 
union, and we have seen too much of the prevalence of the 
example they have set to the other Colonies, not to be 
justly alarmed at what may be the result of the unconstitu- 
tional Meeting they are endeavouring to promote. 

The prudence and spirit which your lordship has already 
shown, will, I am persuaded, be exerted to counteract such 
dangerous Measures and every power of government made 
use of to prevent Unlawful assemblies of the people for 




factious purposes ; and I cannot too strongly exhort you 
to endeavour by every means in your power to encourage 
those who you say have publicly declared that they are in 
principle averse to such Proceedings, to exert themselves 
and by their example and authority to endeavour to con- 
vince the people of the fatal consequence of listening to 
propositions that lead to inevitable destruction. 

5 Oct. 1774. Lord D. signified the Kings pleasure not 
to meet the assembly except urged by the last necessity, 
till further orders. 

14 Aug* 1774. Lord Dunmore wrote from Frederick 
county, of the Indian incursions even to the East of the 
Mountains — of his purpose to March a body of Men to 
the Ohio & down that river to the Mouth of the Scioto & 
if he can only penetrate to the Indian lower towns undis- 
covered — hopes to put an End to this Most horrid War in 
which there is neither honour, pleasure, nor profit. 

Instructions to their Delegates to attend Congress. l sUy 
To express their faith & allegiance to Geo. 3. as their law- 
ful & rightful Sovereign, whom they are determined to sup- 
port in the legal exercise of his just Prerogatives. However 
Misrepresented, they sincerely Approved of a constitutional 
Connexion with G. B. & ardently wish for a return of that 
intercourse of affection & Commercial Connexion that for- 
merly United both Countries. — British Subjects in America 
Entitled to all the rights of British Subjects in Britain. 

The end of Government would be defeated by the Par- 
liaments exercising a power over the lives, property & the 
liberty of the American Subjects. The Original Constitu- 
tion of the American Colonies gave their assemblies the 
sole right of directing their internal Policy — wanting the 
protection of Britain they had long acquiesced in her acts 
of Navigation : But, as those acts derive their efficacy alone 
from that foundation , we expect that they will be so re- 
strained as to produce the reasonable purposes of Britain 



without injuring them — express a desire to pay their 
Debts to Britain — Vehement declaration against Gen! 
Gage's (this despotic Viceroy) proclamation, declaring it 
treason for the people of Massachusetts to meet to Con- 
sider of grievances. 

[2 Nov. 1775. Lord Dartmouth wrote Lord D. that he 
had laid his Dispatch of 14 Augt. before the King. — 
approves of his Marching against the Indians.] 

1 Dec. 1774. Lord Dartmouth wrote to Lord D. that he 
might declare the Copper half pence (formerly Cent) to be 
the lawful Current money of Virg* 


Whitehall 8 th September 1774. 

My Lord, 

The Deputy Governor of Pensylvania, in his Message 
to the House of Representatives on the 18 th of July last, 
asserts that the Hostility of the Indians upon the Ohio 
River, which had spread such general alarm and distress 
throughout the Back Settlements, was occasioned by the 
unprovoked ill treatment of those Indians by the people 
of Virginia, who had barbarously murdered about eleven 
of the Delaware and Shawanes Tribes ; and that many 
friendly Indians who had generously afforded protection 
to the persons and goods of Indian Traders, from the vio- 
lence of some of their young Warriors ; and who were at 
the risk of their own Lives, escorting those Traders to 
their friends near Pittsburg, were, contrary to all faith, 
attacked, and some of them wounded by a party of Vir- 
ginians sent out for the purpose by one Conolly a Militia 
Captain, having a Commission from the Government of 



My Intelligence through a variety of other Channels 
confirms these facts, and adds further that this Conolly, 
using your Lordships name, and pleading your authority 
has presumed to re-establish the Fort at Pittsburg, which 
was demolished by the King's express Orders; — that he 
has destroyed the King's Boats which were kept there for 
the purpose of a Communication with the Illinois Country ; 
— and that parties were sent out by his authority, or under 
his direction, for the purpose of building other Forts lower 
down the River Ohio. 

The duty I owe the King, and the regard I entertain for 
your Lordship, induce me to take the earliest opportunity 
of acquainting your Lordship with this Information, to the 
end that the facts asserted, if not true, may be contradicted 
by your Lordship's authority ; but if otherwise (which I 
cannot suppose to be the case) such steps may be taken as 
the King's Dignity and Justice shall Dictate. 
I am, my Lord, 

Your Lordship's 

most obedient 

humble servant 

Governor of Virginia. 


Whitehall 8 th Septem' 1774. 

My Lord, 

I have not before me any Letters from your Lordship 
the receipt of which has not been already acknowledged. 
But I must not omit the first opportunity of acquainting 
you that the contents of your Dispatch of the 16 th May 
(No. 16) have had the fullest Consideration. 

Upon this occasion the Measures that have been pursued 
by Government respecting the Country lying between the 



Ohio River and the Northern boundary of North Carolina 
and the grounds of policy of those Measures from the 
Royal Proclamation of 1763, down to the present Time, 
have been examined with due attention. 

Your Lordship cannot have been ignorant of those 
Measures and must have seen that it has been the in- 
variable Policy of this Country to prevent, by every pos- 
sible means, any Settlement of the King's Subjects in 
situations where they could not fail of exciting the Jealousy 
of and giving Dissatisfaction to the Indians, and where at 
the same time the Settlers would be out of the reach either 
of the controul or protection of the King's Government. 

It was upon this Policy and upon these motives that the 
King, by the Royal Proclamation of 1763, forbad settle- 
ments beyond the Heads of the Rivers that fall into the 
Atlantic Ocean ; and altho' His Majesty was graciously 
pleased to accept from the Six Nations a Surrender of 
their Title to the Lands on the South of the Ohio, as low 
down as its confluence with the Cherokee River, yet such 
acceptance was accompanied with an order to Sir William 
Johnson to assure those Nations of His Majesty's firm 
Resolution not to suffer any Settlement to be made below 
the Kanawa River. 

That assurance gave the greatest satisfaction to those 
Indians, and that no Nation might entertain jealousy of 
encroachment upon their hunting Grounds, His Majesty 
was further graciously pleased, at the request of the Colony 
of Virginia, to consent to a Treaty being held with the 
Cherokees for ascertaining the Limits of Settlement on the 
side of the Country claimed by them. 

By that Treaty, which was concluded at Lockhaber on 
the 18 th of October 1770, it was expressly stipulated that 
the settlement of The King's Subjects under the Govern- 
ment of Virginia, should be bounded by a Line drawn in 
a certain direction from the Mouth of the Kanawa River 
to the Boundary Line of North Carolina. 


The faith of the Crown was, by this act, solemnly 
pledged to the Indians, and a Clause corresponding there- 
with has been accordingly inserted in the Propositions for 
a Government on the Lands proposed to be granted to M! 
Walpole and his associates. 

Admitting therefore that in the present State of that 
Country, it would, as your Lordship contends, be advisable, 
upon Grounds of general Policy, to allow Settlements under 
the authority of the Government of Virginia, beyond that 
Line (of which both myself and the rest of the King's 
servants entertain very great doubt) yet while these Com- 
pacts with the Indians remain in full force and The King's 
Sacred Word stands pledged for the observance of them, 
every attempt on the part of the King's Subjects to acquire 
title to and take possession of Lands beyond the Line fixed 
by His Majesty's authority & every encouragement given to 
such attempt, can be considered in no other light than 
that of a gross Indignity and Dishonour to the Crown, 
and of an Act of equal Inhumanity and Injustice to the 
that cannot fail to be attended with fatal Consequences. 

I am therefore commanded by the King to signify to 
your Lordship, His Majesty's just Displeasure that such a 
Proceeding as that to which your Letter refers should have 
received any degree of Countenance or Encouragement 
from you and it is not without real Concern that I find 
myself obliged to observe to your Lordship that if His 
Majesty had not been graciously pleased, out of His great 
Tenderness & Lenity, to suppose that your Conduct upon 
this Occasion has proceeded from Inadvertency to the facts 
above stated, it must have been followed by other Marks 
of the Royal Displeasure, which I mention to your Lord- 
ship, with a Wish of putting you more upon your guard 
for the future, for as on the one hand, it will at all times 
give me the greatest pleasure to represent to the King, 
in the most favorable light, the conduct of His Servants 



acting the Department with which I am entrusted, so on 
the other hand, I consider myself bound by every Tie of 
Duty to His Majesty, to see that His Commands are duly 
obeyed by those to whom I have the honour of conveying 

I am sorry I am obliged to say so much on this subject, 
but my Duty to the King is above all other Considerations, 
and having discharged that, so far as relates to your Lord- 
ship's Conduct in the Case of the purchase made by M r 
Murray and others, I have only to add, that it is The 
King's Pleasure that you do, in the most public and solemn 
manner, declare His Majesty's Disapprobation and Dis- 
allowance of that purchase, and that you do exert every 
power and Authority which the Constitution has vested in 
you, to preserve inviolate the Engagements entered into 
with Indians in the King's Name, and to prevent any 
Settlement whatever being made upon any Pretence be- 
yond the Line settled at the Congress at Lockhaber in 
Oct r 1770. 

I am further commanded by the King to acquaint your 
Lordship, that it is His Majesty's Pleasure that you do not 
make any Grant or consent to any Possession being taken 
of Lands included within the Limit of the Tract proposed 
to be granted to M r Walpole and his associates, nor exer- 
cise any other Jurisdiction than what shall be absolutely 
necessary to preserve the public Peace and prevent Violence 
and Bloodshed. 

Your Lordship will find that Orders were given some 
time ago for the Transmission of Lists of all Grants of 
Land made and passed within the Colony of Virginia, but 
as I do not find that the Order has been regularly com- 
plied with, I am to signify to your Lordship His Majesty's 
further Commands that you do transmit to me, by the first 
Opportunity, an account of all Grants made and passed by 
you, specifying the date of each Grant, the Name of the 



Grantee, the Number of Acres granted, and where situated, 

and that you do make the like return every Six Months. 

I am, My Lord, 

Your Lordship's 

Most obedient 

humble servant 

Earl of Dunmore. 


Whitehall 5 th Oct! 1774. 

My Lord, 

Since my Letters to your Lordship of the 8^ Sep r I 
have received your Lordships Dispatches N. 20 & 21, and 
having laid them before the King, I am commanded to sig- 
nify to your Lordship His Majesty's Pleasure that the 
Assembly be not allowed to meet in consequence of the 
New Election . until His Majesty's further pleasure be 
known, unless the imminent danger of an Indian War 
shall, in your Lordship's Judgement, make it absolutely 

As your Lordship says that you were entirely ignorant 
of the Claim of M r Walpole and his Associates, otherwise 
than by common Report, I think fit to inclose to your 
Lordship a Copy of Lord Hillsborough's Letter to Lord 
Botetourt of 31, July 1770, the Receipt of which was 
acknowledged by M r President Nelson a few days after 
Lord Botetourt's Death, and appears by his Answer to it to 
have been laid before the Council. That Board therefore 
could not be ignorant of what had passed here upon M r 
Walpole's Application, nor of the King's express Com- 
mands contained in Lord Hillsborough's Letter, that no 
Land whatever should be granted beyond the Limits of the 
Royal Proclamation of 1763, until the King's further 



Pleasure was signified, & I have only to observe that it 
must have been a very extraordinary Neglect in them not 
to have informed your Lordship of that Letter & of those 

I am 

My Lord 

Your Lordship's most Obedient 

humble servant 



[Mem* Pitt & Lee convicted of disingenuity, perhaps falsehood.] 

[Proprieties 1775-6 Sec. off.'] 

It is apparent that Penn had not during the year 1774 
& even 1775 any apprehension that his rule was so soon to 
end : For his despatches are full of the disputes with Vir- 
ginia with respect to the Western boundary. 

Gov r Penn wrote Lord D. That the Military Association 5 June, 1775. 
universally prevailed in that Province. — That the Con- 
gress had again met & would continue for some time ; but 
they kept their proceedings very secret. 

The Pensyl Mercury of this date published the plan of g £pm, 
union submitted to the Congress of Albany 1754 by Df 
Franklyn — because it bore so strong a resemblance to that 
laid before the Congress in 1774 by a Member (Galloway) 
it was thought right to take the child from the putative and 
give it to the rightful father — But Galloway in the same 
paper controverted this doctrine. 

In the Pensyl. Gazette of this date the prohibitory act of Jf 7 ^ ne » 
P. passed 31 Mar. 1775 was published. 

Gov? Penn wrote to Lord D. That the Assembly after 
in vain endeavouring to procure his assent to a bill for 



striking paper, did of their own authority order £35.000 to 
be emitted — which now freely passes : The Assembly have 
voted to take into pay 4500 men for the defence of the 
province — The Committee have ordered to be built a 
number of flat row boats — and Machines of strong timber 
are to be sunk in the Delaware to obstruct the Naviga- 

Penn wrote to Lord D. That in the present distracted 
times it will be utterly out of his power to give any assist- 
ance to the Kings Gen! or Adm! — The Committee seized 
a quantity of clothing for the Kings troops & gave Major 
Trench his parole. 

Gov 1 ; Pen sent Lord I), the instructions of the Ass? to 
their Delegates in Congress, which discovers their abhor- 
rence of a Separation or change of the form of Government, 
and notwithstanding the military preparations I am truly 
of opinion that the people of this province are very gener- 
ally averse to all ideas of Independence on G. Britain & 
heartily desire a reunion with G. Britain. 

The Speaker laid before the house a letter received last 
night by a vessel from London which was as follows — 

Hon l Sir — 

On the 21 of last month We sent to the Secretary of 
State for America a copy of the petition from the general 
Congress, and yesterday, the first moment that was per- 
mitted us, we presented to him the original, which his 
Lordship promised to deliver to the King. 

We thought it our duty to press his Lordship to obtain 
an answer ; but we are told, that, as his Majesty did not 
receive it on the throne, no answer would be given. 

We have &c. 

Richard Penn 

Arthur Lee. 

Lord D. wrote to Gov r Pen : I am very much obliged 
to you for the early communication of the proceedings of 
the General Congress. 



These proceedings are of a very extraordinary nature ; 
and it is with concern I see by your letter of the 6 th of 
December that the Resolution for nonimportation has been 
so generally adopted in the Colony under your Govern- 
ment. Such measures and proceedings are but ill calcu- 
lated to restore peace and union between Great Britain and 
the Colonies : But, tho they may in the moment provoke the 
vengeance of Government, I will hope, that we may yet in 
the consideration of the business be led to some proposition, 
that may ultimately bring about a happy accommodation 
upon some general constitutional plan. — 

[In another letter to Gov r Pen Lord D. had promised 
that any intelligence I may give shall be kept secret and 
pass only into the hands of the Kings most confidential 

Gov r Pen wrote Lord D. That the Assembly [Dec r 1774] 31 Dec. 1774 
to his great surprise had unanimously approved the trans- 
actions of the late Congress & appointed Deputies to attend 
another. There seems too general a disposition every 
where to adhere strictly to the Resolves of the Congress : 
And the Committee of the City have already taken upon 
them to regulate the disposition of all British goods im- 
ported since the 1 st Decf [1774] — 

The house of Assembly (Pensylvania) recommend unani- 10 Dec. 1774. 
mously to the people of this province a strict attention to 
and an inviolable observation of the several matters & 
things contained in the Journal of Congress. [Printed 

A Convention met in Jany. at Philadelphia to consult on 
the most effectual manner of carrying into Execution the 
resolves of Congress. [Pen to Dartmouth] 

Lord D. sent a circular letter to the Govf with the Re- 3 Mar. 1775. 
solve of the house of Commons of the 27 of feb. 1775 — 

Pen says that he had received this letter [at that time] 29 April. 
by the packet which arrived last winter 

Lord D. in a private letter had enforced his circ? one of 
the 3 Mar. 1775. 



Lord D. wrote Govf Pen: That having received his letter 
of 23 feb. last & laid it before his Majesty it gave his Maj. 
great concern to find that there is yet no appearance in 
Pensylvania of a disposition in the people to return to a 
just sense of their situation and of the fatal consequences 
of their longer continuing in a state of disobedience to the 
authority of the Supreme Legislature. 

Gov r Pen wrote Lord D. of news having arrived of the 
commencement of hostilities in Massachusetts — which had 
so great an effect on the people of Pensylvania that they 
instantly began to muster, are daily acquainting themselves 
with the use of Arms, and providing Arms & Ammunition, 
that they may be prepared for their defence. 

[Rec? at Whitehall 12 June 1775] 

The Pensylvania Assembly, which was the first before 
whom the Resolve of 27 July by the house of Commons 
had been laid rejected it as insufficient, because they re- 
solved to adhere to general measures. 

Lord D. wrote to Governor Pen — I have received your 
letters of the 29 Apr! and 1 & 5 May. — The Assemblies 
Message to you of the 4^ of May tho' unfavorable to the 
terms of reconciliation with America offered in the Resolu- 
tion of the House of Commons is however expressed in 
terms of decency & respect to the Mother Country and 
holds forth appearance of a disposition to accommodation : 
But in the present state of things we must not trust to ap- 
pearances of this nature ; and no confidence can be placed 
in general declarations from the representatives of the 
people, whilst the people themselves are armed and ar- 
rayed for the purpose of supporting a rebellion that 
threatens to overturn the Constitution. 

In this situation it is the Kings firm resolution, that the 
most vigorous efforts should be made both by sea & land to 
reduce his rebellious subjects to obedience, and the proper 
measures are now pursuing not only for augmenting the 



army under Gen! Gage, but also for making such addition 
to our Naval strength in N. America as may enable Admiral 
Graves to make such a disposition of his fleet as that, be- 
sides the squadron necessary for the N. England Station 
there may be separate squadrons at N. York, within the 
bay of Delaware, in Chesapeake bay, & upon the Coast of 
S. Carolina. 

After what has passed there can be no doubt what ought 
to be the plan of operations for the Squadron the N. Eng- 
land Station ; and I think it necessary to acquaint you for 
your own information that Admiral Graves will be in- 
structed to exert the most vigorous efforts for suppressing 
the rebellion now openly avowed and supported in that 
Country and to seize and detain all ships & vessels belong- 
ing to the Inhabitants thereof, such only excepted as are 
the property of persons who are friends of Government 
and have shewn an attachment to the Constitution. 

There is still some room to hope that the Colonies to 
the Southward may not proceed to the same lengths with 
those of N. England. It is however his Majesty's intention 
that the Commanders of the separate Squadrons I have 
mentioned should be instructed to prevent all commerce 
between the Colonies within their respective Stations and 
any other places than G. Britain, Ireland & the Brittish 
W. I. that they should receive on board and give protec- 
tion to any officers of the Crown, who may be compelled 
by the violence of the people to seek for such an asylum 
and to proceed as in the case of a Town in actual rebellion 
against such of the Seaport Towns being accessible to the 
King's Ships, as shall hereafter offer any violence to the 
! Kings officers, or in which any Troops shall be raised or 
military works erected other than by his Majesty's author- 
: ity, or any attempts made to seize or plunder any public 
magazine of arms or ammunition. 

With regard to the plan of operations to be adopted by 
Gen! Gage ; it must depend upon his own judgment and 



the opinion of the able Generals with him, and I have 
therefore only to add that it is his Majesty's express com- 
mand, that you do exert every endeavour and employ 
every means in your power to aid and support him and 
Admiral Graves in all such operations as they may think 
proper to undertake for carrying the King's orders into 
full execution and restoring the authority of his Majesty's 


Whitehall 7 th January 1775. 

My Lord, 

By the New York Mail, which arrived Yesterday, I had 
the honor to receive Your Lordship's Letter dated at Fort 
Pitt the 16 th of September. 

I sincerely wish that the Efforts Your Lordship is pre- 
paring to make for restoring Peace & Security to the 
Frontier Settlements, may have the desired effect ; but it 
would have been a very fortunate Circumstance, if, before 
you had adopted any Plan of general Hostility against the 
Indians, you had communicated your Intention to His 
Majesty's Superintendent for the Northern District, and 
had consulted him upon it, for I find, by letters I have 
received from that Officer, that though the Six Nations 
disapprove the Conduct of the Shawanese, yet they wished 
that the Chastisement of them might be left to themselves, 
& that there is a great Probability that any Efforts made by 
the People of Virginia, that may carry with them an Ap- 
pearance of an Intention to extirpate those Indians will 
have the effect to unite the whole Body of Indians in one 
Confederacy against them. 

I am, My Lord 

Your Lordship's 
Most obedient 

humble Servant 




Whitehall March 3 d 1775. 

My Lord, 

It is fit I should acquaint your Lordship that the Reso- 
lution of the House of Commons which accompanies my 
separate Dispatch passed in the Committee by a Majority 
of 274 to 88, and was received & agreed to by the House 
without a Division, & indeed the great Majorities which 
have appeared in both Houses upon every Question that 
has been proposed for maintaining the Supremacy of Par- 
liament, is such an Evidence of the general Sense of the 
Nation upon that Subject, as must shew how little ground 
there has been for those Assurances which have been art- 
fully held out to the Americans of support here in the 
dangerous Conduct they have adopted, & convince them 
that there neither can, nor will be any the least Relaxa- 
tion from those Measures which that Conduct has made 
indispensably necessary for reducing the Colonies to a 
State of due Obedience to the Constitutional Authority of 

I am, My Lord, 

Your Lordship's 
Most obedient 
humble Servant 


Earl of Dunmore. 


Whitehall 4 th Jamy 1775. 

My Lord, 

Certain Persons, styling themselves Delegates of several 
of His Majesty's Colonies in America, having presumed, 
without His Majesty's Authority or Consent, to assemble 
together at Philadelphia, in the Months of September & 
October last ; and having thought fit, amongst other un- 



warrantable Proceedings, to resolve that it will be neces- 
sary that another Congress should be held, at the same 
Place, on the 10 th of May next, unless Redress for certain 
pretended Grievances be obtained before that time, and to 
recommend that all the Colonies in North America should 
chuse Deputies to attend such Congress, I am commanded 
of the King to signify to your Lordship His Majesty's 
Pleasure, that you do use your utmost Endeavours to pre- 
vent any such appointment of Deputies within the Colony 
under your Government ; and that Your Lordship do ex- 
hort all Persons to desist from such an unjustifiable Pro- 
ceeding, which cannot but be highly displeasing to the 


I am, My Lord, 

Your Lordship's 
Most obedient 
Humble servant 


Governor of Virginia. 


Whitehall, 3 d March 1775. 

My Lord, 

My separate Dispatch of this Day's Date, inclosing a 
Resolution of the House of Commons, may be ostensibly 
of use, in case the General Assembly should think fit to 
take up the Consideration of that Resolution ; but it is fit 
I should observe to you, that it is not His Majesty's Inten- 
tion, for very obvious Reasons, that you should officially 
communicate it to them. At the same time, as I think it 
cannot fail to be an object of Discussion in the Assembly, 
I must add, that the King considers that the good Effect 
of it will, in great Measure, depend upon your Ability & 
Address in a proper Explanation of it, to those whose Sit- 
uation & Connections may enable them to give Facility to 
the Measures it points to ; and His Majesty has no doubt, 



that you will exert every Endeavour to induce such a Com- 
pliance, on the part of the Assembly, as may correspond 
with His Majesty's Ideas of their Justice, and His earnest 
Wishes to see a happy Restoration of the public Tran- 

I am, My Lord, 

Your Lordship's 
Most Obedient 

Humble Servant 


Governor of Virginia. 


Whitehall 3 d March 1775. 

My Lord, 

I have received your Lordship's Dispatch of the 24 th 
Dec!" N° 23 ; and it is with the greatest satisfaction that I 
have it in command from The King to acquaint your Lord- 
ship, that what you say in justification of your conduct in 
respect to those Transactions in the Indian Country to 
which my Letters N os 12 & 13 refer, [date 8 September 
1774] leaves no room in the Royal Breast to doubt of the 
Uprightness of your Lordship's Intentions. At the same 
time it will be very proper that your Lordship should sig- 
nify The King's Disallowance of the Indian Purchase upon 
the Ohio, lest the Adventurers in that purchase should, 
from your having consented to transmit their pretensions, 
entertain a hope that such purchase will, on any account, 
be approved of here. 

The steps which have been pursued in the different 
Counties of Virginia to carry into execution the Resolu- 
tions of the General Congress, are of so extraordinary a 
nature that I am at a loss for words to express the crimi- 
nality of them, and my surprise that the People should be 
so infatuated as tamely to submit to acts of such tyranny & 



oppression ; it is however an evil which, from the situation 
& circumstances of Virginia, where the People must ulti- 
mately depend for subsistence upon an export of the prod- 
uce of their lands will, I should conceive, work out its 
own cure ; & that the promoters of those violent measures 
will soon be convinced of the folly of their conduct, tho' 
not perhaps till some of them fall victims to that resent- 
ment of the People which will be the inevitable conse- 
quence of the distress they must in the end be exposed to. 
But I will forbear at present to say more on this subject, 
as I shall probably have occasion to speak more fully upon 
it in a Separate Dispatch as soon as I have received His 
Majesty's Commands upon the inclosed Resolution passed 
in the House of Commons the 27 th of last month. I shall 
therefore only add that the communication to Parliament 
of that part of your Letter which relates to the proceed- 
ings of the People in the different Counties of Virginia 
will probably occasion the restrictions proposed to be laid 
upon the Trade of the New England Governments being 
extended to Virginia. 

It would have been very agreeable to me if I could have 
obtained an Appointment for M r Carter to be of the Coun- 
cil in the room of M r Page, but as M r Gawin Corbin had 
long stood upon the List of the Board of Trade & was 
upon this occasion, supported by the most respectable 
recommendations, I could not under your Lordship's favor- 
able representation of his character & qualifications resist 
his Nomination in preference to another person who had 
no other advantage but that of standing first on your List. 
I am, My Lord, 

Your Lordship's 
Most Obedient 

Humble servant 


Earl of Dunmore. 



You are now in a situation as perilous, as any in which 
a People can possibly be placed. But dangerous as the 
Navigation is, history has placed Beacons upon the fatal 
Rocks, by which an attentive Navigator may shun the de- 
struction that has overwhelmed others. To withstand the 
Powers of this Country, which are set in array against 
you, is one danger ; to prevent the sword that has defended 
you, from becoming the instrument of your oppression, is 
another, and perhaps little less formidable than the first. 

The present Generals, and perhaps almost every man 
who has taken up arms, are at this time perfectly free from 
any intention, or even idea, of ever employing them against 
the liberties of their Country. It was probably the same 
at first with the Parliament Army in the time of Charles 
the first. But what Chance and Change may bring the 
bad forward, or what views may open, what temptations 
rise, from untried situations and unexpected power, to cor- 
rupt and pervert even the good, is a subject well worthy 
of the constant consideration and vigilance of you and 
others, who like Hampden, Pym and S* John, have en- 
gaged in this business from the purest and most unaltera- 
ble motives of publick good. A frequent and minute 
contemplation of the various steps which lead to the 
usurpation of Cromwell, and the total disappointment of 
that plan which the Wisdom and Virtue of others had 
formed, will enable you to discern at a distance the ten- 
dency of similar steps with you, should they be taken ; 
and to frustrate them easily, by an early Counteraction. 
These are times in which few should be trusted, and many 
suspected. Human nature is ever the same, and in given 
situations, men will almost invariably act the same part. 



It is I think therefore by all means advisable for you to 
form a secret and select Committee of Safety and observa- 
tion over the conduct of those, who are entrusted with 
powers great and dangerous, tho' now necessary. If you 
approve of this plan, and Communicate it to the Adams's 
and Hancock, I imagine you may effectually provide — ne 
quid detrimenti respublica capiat, in this eventful contest. 

I am sure you, and I trust the rest of our Countrymen 
will never forget the dignity of the Cause in which you 
are engaged. So far from tarnishing, you will endeavour 
to heighten its lustre by signal Acts of Magnanimity. The 
treating Prisoners with humanity — the shielding age and 
womanhood from the horrors of war — the not being too 
hasty in making Reprisals, should the conduct of the ad- 
versary render them justifiable, but manifesting a generous 
reluctance in the exercise even of necessary severities, will 
give a solid reputation and dignity of Character to your 
Arms and Actions, that will well become the Cause in 
which you are contending, and make you respectable in the 
eyes of Europe. 

In the agitation of so great a question, and by means of 
such magnitude, you are to expect and prepare for instances 
of every vice and passion, that can actuate the Actions of 
Men. He who expects that, in such Circumstances, all 
will go uniformly on, that, because it is a question in which 
an heroic love of one's Country apparently rides para- 
mount to every other passion and pursuit, therefore, neither 
treachery will sometimes betray, Cowardice confound, nor 
self-interest sap the public good — is liberty to fall a sac- 
rifice to his Credulity ? A wise and good man will wear a 
jealous eye over the various events and Characters that the 
turbulence of the times will bring forth, and be prepared 
to shield the public from the designs that may be formed 
against it, as well from within as from without. 

Since the late events in America, I entertain less hope 
from this Country than I did. I hear no man speak upon 



the subject (some few excepted) with the least reference 
to principles of reason, humanity or justice. Passion and 
prejudice are their only guides ; and these, as you may 
imagine, generally mislead them. In the mean time, the 
Ministry unvail their designs with a grossness, that one 
would think nothing but ignorance made drunk could 
overlook or mistake. Yet I assure you the Arming Irish 
Roman Catholics to butcher their Protestant fellow sub- 
jects, does not appear to give the least alarm or offence. I 
can therefore only repeat, what I heme often said, America 
must trust to her own firmness and unanimity to save her 
from distraction. Corruption has such influence here, and 
dissipation of the most unlimited kind has so detached 
them from all serious considerations, that they are truly 
homines ad Servitudinem parati. The high reverence I 
always entertained for the English name and virtue has 
made me struggle long against the evidence of facts, that 
is now become irresistable. Let us, while we drop a pious 
tear over the fallen virtue and majesty of this People, learn 
to shun their fate ; and remember, that the Liberty that is 
won by virtue, by virtue only can be preserved. I have 
understood that, urged by the inexorable resolution of 
Administration to Arm every hand Scotch, Hessian and 
Hanoverian, Irish Papists, French Roman ^Catholics, and 
Savage Indians for your destruction ; and all this with the 
acquiescence at least of the People, it is in Contemplation, 
upon your last Petition proving fruitless, to declare a dis- 
solution of all Connection with this Country. This is a 
Measure of great Consequence, and deep consideration. 
My opinion, you know, has been ever against a disunion 
of the two Countries, as big with inevitable danger to both. 
At the same time, I would remit no endeavor to ascertain 
and fix the terms and limits of our Union upon clear and 
solid ground. While these are Vague and arbitrary, 
America must be perpetually harrassed and grieved. (The 
State of the question will be very naturally altered when, 



instead of resisting oppression and contending for the 
recovery of former subordinate rights, you are fighting 
avowedly for independent Sovereignty. In the former, 
you will always have a party here for you, and the Body 
of the People will at worst be Neuter. But in the latter, 
this whole Nation must be united, earnest, and active to 
subdue you. It cannot therefore be prudent to hazard the 
effecting that, which the Ministry and your Enemies most 
wish ; unless you are assured of foreign support to coun- 
teract its effects.) And even then, my rooted affection for 
the stock from which we sprung, the consideration of the 
danger of being severed from those whose religion, Consti- 
tution, sentiments and habits form so natural and strong a 
Connection, and to which the powers that would offer you 
assistance are adverse would incline me not to adopt such 
a Measure but as the last resource. Arms have been taken 
up avowedly to vindicate Old, not to establish new rights. 
Until such a prosecution of oppressive and ruinous Meas- 
ures shall have actually taken place, as to cancel all 
former obligation, render all hope of redress and reconcili- 
ation obscured, and make it manifest to all the world that 
no other Alternative is left but independence or Slavery; 
the Declaration of the former will make the reasons sdven 
for taking up Arms appear a pretext only, and so far preju- 
dice the justice of your Cause in the estimation of impartial 
Nations, as perhaps to be of material injury. The Suprem- 
acy of Parliament you have acknowledged to all the World, 
in the most solemn manner. Yet events certainly may 
happen, on which you may say, with one of the ablest 
and most Authoritative Authors, on the rights of Nations, 
Mons r I)e Vattell, Mais ce haut attribut du souverain 
n'empeche pas que la Nation ne puisse reprimer un tyran 
insupportable, le juger meme, en respectant, dans sa per- 
sonne, la Majeste de son rang, et se soustraire a son 
obeissance. C'est a ce droit incontestable, qu'une puissante 
llepublique doit sa naissance. La Tyrannie exercee par 


Philippe 2 d . dans les Pays-Bas, fit soulever ces provinces, 
sept d'entre elles, etroitement confederees, Maintinrent 
courageusement leur liberte, sous la conduite des heros de 
la Maison d'Orange, et l'Espagne, apres de vains et rui- 
neux efforts, les a reconnues pour des etats souverains et 
independans. Si l'autorite du Prince est limitee and reglee 
par les loix fondamentales, le Prince, en sortant des bornes 
qui lui sont prescrites, commande sans aucun droit, sans 
titre meme. La Nation n'est point obligee de lui obeir, elle 
peut resister a ses entreprises injustes. Des qu'il attaque 
la constitution de l'Etat, le Prince rompt la contrat qui 
lioit le peuple a lui ; le peuple devient libre par le fait du 
Souverain, et ne voit plus en lui qu'un usurpateur, qui 
voudroit 1'opprimer. Cette verite est reconnue de tout Ecri- 
vain sense dont la plume n'est point asservie a la crainte, 
ou vendue a l'interet. Such is the decided and pertinent 
opinion of this great, good, and wise man. But still there 
can be no harm in Manifesting the least reluctance to take 
such a step, and letting the reasons be glaring to all the 

You will perceive the evasion about not answering the 
Petition, because it was received upon the Throne. The 
objection was made after its having been presented in the 
usual Manner. It was contradicted by the Answer given 
repeatedly (Dr Franklin knows) to Petitions from Massa- 
chusetts Bay. The distinction is itself new and arbitrary. 
If you Petition again, perhaps you may think proper to 
order it to be presented on the Throne only While you 
Acknowledge the King, and your Connection, Petitioning 
Notwithstanding its fruitlessness seems to be Politic and 
proper. It will shew a disposition to harmony and peace, 
which is always laudable. The oftener your petitions are 
rejected, the more truly may you say, as the Samnites did 
to the Romans* justum est Bellum, ubi necessarium ; et pia 
arma, ubi nulla nisi in armis relinquitur spes ; or as Jugur- 

* Livii, Lib. IX. § i. 



tha said to the same people — Crudelissima ac superbis- 
sima Gens, Sua omnia, Suique arbitrio facit. Cum quibus 
bellum, cum quibus pacem habeamus, se modum imponere 
sequum censent. 

By this time Virginia we are told is visited by some of 
the ratio ultima Regum from Boston, to second L* Dun- 
mores pious intentions against it. Tis also said, that some 
of the Troops to be sent from hence are destined against 
you. There is no part but what must feel the vengeance 
of Administration, and after having excited a resistance, 
which they call Rebellion, in the Northern Provinces, they 
seem determined to kindle the same in the South. It is 
certain that their utmost power is to be put forth next 
Spring, both by Sea and Land, for your destruction. 

Let me again entreat you not to let any outrages prac- 
tised by those Commanders who are sent upon this Ne- 
farious business of Administration, against the Laws of 
Nations, make you descend from that dignity and Magna- 
nimity which ought to distinguish your cause and Character. 
Rather let the Noble example of Scipio sway you, as it is 
recorded by Livy (lb. 30. ch. 25) in the following speech. 
Etsi non induciarum modo fides a Carthaginiensibus, sed 
jus etiam gentium in legatis violatum esset; tarnen se nihil, 
nee institutis Populi Romani, nee suis moribus indignum 
in iis facturum esse. He therefore dismissed their ambas- 
sadors in Safety. Remember that upon your conduct now, 
will your Character among all Civilized Nations be formed 
for justice and Magnanimity. 

God bless you 


Sept? 22 d . 1775. 

Addressed to Col * R. H. L. Chantilly Westmoreland County. 

X F. L. L. should open this letter if R. H. L. is not at home and then for- 
ward it to R. II. L. to Philadelphia or wherever he is. 

* Richard Henry Lee. J Francis Lightfoot Lee. 




I am afraid the most Wicked Machinations of Governor 
Dunmore have by this time, involved you in the horrors of 
War. What the Ministry intend against you and the rest 
of America, cannot be exactly ascertained before the meet- 
ing of Parliament. Probably they have not yet determined 
upon the exact mode of executing their Vengeance. You 
will do wisely however in preparing for the utmost extremity 
that the most unprincipled and deepest revenge can suggest. 
It is said, and I believe with truth, that the War is to be 
carried into Virginia, as well as in the Northern Provinces, 
next Spring. This Winter will be employed in providing 
every means that can Shield you from the destruction to 
which your merciless Enemies have destined you. Some 
precautions will be taken, relative to your Negroes ; some 
fortifications, in the places by Nature most inaccessible, for 
Magazines and Refuge will be made. Cannot the Capes, 
by the Co-operation of the two Colonies, be rendered im- 
passable ? Should not alarm Houses be erected there, as 
as well [as] at the Mouths of the Rivers 1 No precautions 
can be too great against the dangers that threaten you, es- 
pecially as no one can tell what foreign foes, taking the 
advantage of the present State of things, may invade you. 

The utmost industry of the Ministry is employed to in- 
flame mens minds here, especially by publishing General 
Gage's accusations of Savageness and barbarity in Carry- 
ing on the War, on the part of the Provincials. These 
Accusations, like those of Barnard & Hutchinson are made 
in such general terms, as admit not of a specific refutation, 
and in a general denial, his word is more likely to gain 
credit than that of those he Accuses. 

Whatever may be the real sentiments of People here in 



this question it is not easy to conceive more quietism than 
prevails in general. The interested on each side declare 
themselves, but the bulk of the Nation are perfectly silent. 
We therefore see the Jacobites and Non jurors Addressing 
for Coercive Measures, the Merchants and Manufacturers 
petitioning for conciliation, while the Counties and large 
Cities in general (London excepted ) remain unmoved. 
The increase of Taxes, which another years continuance 
of violent measures must produce, will excite much 
Clamour, which will not be diminished by the interruption 
of Commerce. 

Our good friends at Glasgow, are by their Agents here, 
endeavouring to procure a proposition from the Merchants, 
in conjunction with them, to supply Administration with 
Money for carrying on the War, provided the forfeited 
Lands in America are secured to them. This Money is 
what the Virginians chiefly have supplied them with, in 
contemplation of the approaching troubles, by treble 
Remittances. This is Scotch gratitude. 

Thirty thousand Men is said to be the Estimate of the 
whole force intended against America, next year ; and 
indeed it is difficult to conceive, where Troops and taxes 
will be found for such an Army. Wherever the Storm 
falls it will be heavy. But that such a force can shake one 
Province, much less the whole Continent, is to me incredible. 
I am afraid a total disconnexion between the two Countries 
will be the consequence of these hostile Measures. Com- 
mon danger, however, if it should occur, would unite thera 
again. The ensuing Session of Parliament, will decide 
whether we are to have actual War or not. For should 
opposition be stronger and in earnest, I cannot but think 
the Calamities we dread will yet be prevented. However 
this is more to be hoped than trusted to. Parliament is 
to meet on the 26 th of next Month. If any thing could 
make us doubt a providence it would be that the lust of 
Tyrants is suffered perpetually to blot the face of the 


Earth with blood and Misery. It seems that Liberty is 
never to be procured, or maintained but by the Sword. 
Be vigilant in providing for your Safety against the prob- 
able attempts of next Spring ; and let not the Philistines 
come upon you unprepared. The Union of America once 
secured, her vigilance must render all attempts upon her 
Liberties abortive. 

God bless and preserve you and yours and send us a 
happy issue out of those distresses and dangers. 

Addressed to Con R. H. L. 

Chantilly Westmoreland County. 

Septr 22, 1775. 


This letter must be forwarded by Express, as directed, as soon as it gets to hand. 
{This directed to Ridlehurst Ordinary Keeper at Hampton.) 

Nov! 13* 1775. 

The plan is now fixed. The ministerial War against 
America is to be prosecuted with all their Might for one 
year more at least, which, if successful on the part of the 
Ministry, will be continued, until the liberties of America 
are totally abolished ; but on the Contrary, if the fate of War 
should decide in favour of America, and the Ministerial 
Troops be kept blocked up in the Seaport Towns under 
protection of the Men of War, at the end of the next 
Campaign, as they are at present ; it will be impracticable 
for the Ministers to prevail with the People of England to 
continue the War another year, for the present years 
expence will exceed Seven Millions of money, exclusive of 
the immense loss to the Community for want of the 
American Commerce, which together with the certain dis- 
tress that will most assuredly overwhelm almost all the 



Manufacturers in England, will raise such a storm, as no 
Minister can appease. 

It is proposed to send in Course of the Winter and en- 
suing Spring, from Twenty to Thirty thousand Men more, 
to the different parts of America ; with Ammunition, Ar- 
tillery, and proportionable Number of Ships of War. 
From Two thousand to 25,00 Men are to embark for 
Charles Town, South Carolina, the beginning of next 
Month, in Jan y or Feb y , a like number are to be sent to 
Virginia ; which it is imagined, will be sufficient, under 
the direction of Dunmore, to subdue that Colony ; as all 
the Natives and inhabitants, lately come from thence, par- 
ticularly tivo Parsons from W ms burg, represent the Colony 
as totally destitute of Arms, Ammunition, Courage or Mil- 
itary discipline ; altho' it is well known that any quantity 
of Arms and Ammunition, may at this time, be got in all 
the Sea port Towns of France and Spain : therefore, if the 
Virginians are Caught napping, after the advantage of 
the Winter season, they little deserve Commisseration. 
However well disposed, a great Majority of the People of 
England may be to the Americans, they cannot expect any 
assistance from hence, or indeed, very little Communica- 
tion of intelligence, on account of the danger the assist- 
ants would run, of exposing themselves to the resentment, 
injustice, and Cruelty of the most abandoned and Blood 
thirsty Administration that ever disgraced the British Na- 
tion, and of the uncertainty of any letters getting safe to 
hand. For this reason, one would think it prudent for each 
Colony, to follow the example of the great Men who 
planned the Revolution, who never Negotiated with the 
Prince of Orange by letter, but by Personal Communica- 
tion, to send Occasionally to England some trusty and 
discerning person, who could convey Verbally every neces- 
sary information. It is thought by the most knowing Per- 
sons, that the Ministry will never be able to get in Great 
Britain or Ireland near the Number of Men that they pro- 



pose to send to America for the ensuing Campaign, so 
exceedingly averse are the Mass of the People, even the 
Irish Eoman Catholicks, to the unnatural and savage Civil 
War against America, notwithstanding greater Premiums 
and bounties are given for recruits, then ever was known 
before : therefore, if the Complement is made up, it must 
be by foreigners ; in which Case, no one can doubt, but the 
General Congress will enter into an immediate treaty with 
France and Spain, since, according to the Treaties now 
subsisting between Great Britain and those Powers, open- 
ing the American Ports to Foreign Nations, cannot answer 
the purpose of procuring effectual assistance or supplies 
of Arms and Ammunition &c. 

The Ministers have been very assiduous in procuring 
Addresses to the Throne, from every part of England and 
Scotland, to persevere in the American War. In this, they 
have proved their Weakness to a demonstration, for almost 
in every part of England, Petitions praying for Peace and 
Conciliation have followed the Addresses signed in general 
by at least four times the Number of Addressers ; besides 
an Unanimous Petition the other day from the full and 
Complete Corporation of London to both Houses of Par- 
liament, praying for the same Issue, added to the repeated 
Petitions and Remonstrances of the Livery of London in 
Common Hall assembled, to the same purpose. The Ad- 
dresses, in order to deceive, are pompously inserted in the 
London Gazette (which by the by, from the late false and 
Mutilated Ministerial Accounts inserted therein respecting 
America is stiled the Brussels Gazette) from whence the 
Petitions are all excluded, in short it is impossible to ex- 
plain the Savage designs of Administration more fully then 
by saying that L d G. Germaine, the Hero of Minden, is 
made Secretary of State for America in the Room of L d 
Dartmouth made privy Seal ; and the bloody Weymouth 
Secretary for the Southern department in the Room of L d 
Rockford resigned. Duke of Grafton with all his influence 



has declared, decidedly in favour of America and joined 
the Minority, which has increased much of late, in both 
houses of Parliament. With all the Ministerial Parade 
of War, they intend to attempt another Scheme of delu- 
sion, something similar to L d North's Contemptible Motion 
last Session, to divide, if possible, the Colonies, and de- 
ceive the People of England. All that is here Written, 
May, and ought to be implicitly believed, as it is most assur- 
edly true. 


Otter Sloop, Hampton Road, 

18 Sept. 75. 

My Lord, 

I last night secured a Man that was coming Passenger 
from the Eastern Shore, who appears to me to be a great 
Kascal, two of my Men know him well, and are ready 
to make Oath that they saw him near York, and at Hamp- 
ton, raising men to fight against the King, he was always 
in Company with one Trotter, who was present at Robbing 
your Palace of the Arms. I have therefore Prest him to 
raise men for the Otter. He says he was going for North 
Carolina, has a Horse & Saddle on board the Passage Boat 
that brings you this, which I think your Lordship had 
better order to be sent on shore at M r Sprowles. 
I am My Lord 

Your Lordships most obedient 
humble servant 

Earl of Dunmore. 

L l ! Dunmore Comp*? to Cap fc Squire, is sorry he can't 
send him the Letters he wants, having already inclosed 
them for the Secretary of State, but wishes Cap' Squire 
would send him some other letters that came by the same 



Vessel that he supposes Cap* Squire had Mislaid when he 
sent the rest, which should also be sent home. 

Saturday Noon. 

Captain Squires Compliments to Lord Dunmpre, would 
be much obliged to him for the reading of two Letters he 
sent him the other night, one directed to Robert Carter 
Nicholas, the other to Richard Henry Lee, which I will 
return to your Lordship again. 

Otter Sloop, Saturday Noon. 


Preston, Boston 28*. h July 1775. 

My Lord, 

I have had the honor to receive your Letter June 17*! 1 
acquainting me with the necessity of your Lordships Ap- 
plication to Captain Montagu to send Lieutenant Collins 
in the Magdalen to England, to convey the most speedy 
Intelligence to His Majesty of the Rebellious Transactions 
in the Colony under your Excellency's Government. I 
can assure your Lordship that it would give me the high- 
est satisfaction to send such a Naval Force as might effectu- 
ally command the Navigation not only of the great Rivers, 
but of the whole Coast, but at present the King's Squad- 
ron in America is barely sufficient for the Northern Prov- 
inces, and really it will not allow of being lessened but on 
the most urgent Occasions. Captain Macartney, whom I 
have sent to relieve Captain Montagu, will, I am satisfied, 
heartily Co-operate with your Lordship in every measure 
for the King's Service and readily give your Excellency 
all the assistance in his power. I beg leave to recommend 
him to your Lordship as a very able and punctual Officer, 
in whose Conduct and Advice respecting Naval Affairs, 
your Lordship may place the utmost dependance. 



Your Lordship I presume is no Stranger to the transac- 
tions of the Rebels in this and the Neighbouring Provinces. 
On our parts we are anxiously expecting arrivals and the 
ultimate determination of Great Britain with respect to her 
Colonies now avowedly in Arms, contending for absolute 
independance. If Government thinks proper to enforce 
the Laws and compel the Americans to do what is right 
for themselves, His Majesty's Squadron in these Seas will 
be considerably re-inforced, and I shall then avail Myself 
of your Lordships hint, respecting the great Rivers which 
empty into the Bay of Chesapeak, by sending there what 
Force can be spared. 

I shall be happy at all times to receive any information 
from your Lordship, for the good of the King's Service, 
and am extremely concerned the Weak State of the 
Squadron will not admit of my sending at present any 
more ships to the Southward. Altho' there is little room 
for such an expectation, -yet I sincerely hope, that the Peo- 
ple under your Excellency's Government may yet accept 
the terms His Majesty most graciously holds out to them, 
before 'tis too late, return to their duty, and thereby avoid 
the Miseries impending on them if they persist in their 
present senseless and rebellious Proceedings. 

I am My Lord, with the greatest respect 
Your Lordships 

Most obedient and Most 

humble servant 


His Excellency the Earl of Dunmore. 


Preston at Boston 7 th August 1775. 

My Lord, 

I cannot express my Astonishment upon Heading your 
Lordship's Letter July 17 th representing the behaviour of 



Captain Macartney of His Majestys Ship Mercury, whom 
I had considered and sent to Your Assistance as an expe- 
rienced Officer, extremely diligent and punctual and with- 
out the least doubt of his Conduct in all Respects meriting 
Your Lordship's particular Acknowledgements. It gives 
me great concern to find 'tis totally the Reverse. I have 
therefore with all possible dispatch sent Captain James 
Montagu in His Majesty's Sloop Kingsfisher with Orders 
for Captain Macartney to return to me immediately in the 
Mercury, and as he must answer for his offences, upon 
your Accusation, at a Court Martial I am to request your 
Lordship will furnish me with such further Proofs of Cap- 
tain Macartney's Guilt as can be procured, and are requi- 
site to support your Lordships Charge against him. 

The Otter and Kingsfisher are the whole force I can at 
present send to Virginia, and as the Command will devolve 
on Captain Squire, I shall be happy to know that he zeal- 
ously endeavours to exert his utmost for the good of His 
Majesty's Service, and is acceptable to your Lordship. 
I am My Lord with great respect 
Your Lordships Most obedient 
and most humble servant 

His Excellency The Earl of Dunmore. 


Preston at Boston 9 th August 1775. 
My Lord, 

I wrote to your Lordship the 28 th of July by the Brig 

John, Hugh Kennedy Master, and am now to acknowledge 

the Honor of your Letter July 20^ I am entirely of your 

Lordships Opinion that the Ships stationed at Virginia 

cannot prevent the Rebels receiving supplies of Ammuni- 



tion and Smuggled Goods ; there is no Station that has a 
number of Ships and Vessels equal to that duty, and this 
deficiency can only be supplied from England, from whence 
we are in hourly Expectation of the most interesting Ac- 
counts and of considerable Reinforcements. 

As these cannot I think be far off your Lordship may 
rely upon seeing as many Vessels arrive within your Ex- 
cellency's Government as can be appropriated to it. 

I cannot order Captain Montagu's Tender to be pur- 
chased, but if she is a swift Sailing Vessel would recom- 
mend her to the Captains on the Stations who certainly 
can make it answer to them, as Ten p. Cent is allowed to 
the Proprietors out of all Seizures over and above their 

I am My Lord 

Your Lordships Most 
obedient and Most 

* humble servant 


His Excellency The Earl of Dunmore. 


Forey at Boston August the 9^ 1775. 

My Lord, 

From the innumerable marks of your Lordships friend- 
ships, and your great politeness to me during my most 
agreeable stay in Virginia, makes me flatter myself a line 
from one (whose gratitude for these favors, cannot be ex- 
press'd) will not be disagreeable, when I reflect on the 
ma(n)y happy days we pass'd under your Lordships very 
hospitable roof, and the present melancholy objects before 



our Eyes, we cannot avoid being cast down ; to see a town 
full of wounded Officers and soldiers, without a morsel of 
fresh Provisions or a likelihood of get(t)ing any is a very 
moving sight. Murmurings and discontents, with (I am 
sorry to say) great justice prevail Every where; The 
G — ; — 1 and Ad — — 1 on bad terms, the latter universally 
despis'd, his character prostituted in the basest manner, 
totally ignorant of the business he is employ'd on ; he 
only turns his mind to find out ways of promoting his 
Nephews, which if he could, he would have done by 
breaking me, for sending home Collins — On my arrivall 
he order'd me to give him my reasons in writing for so 
doing, which I did, and where as I have enclos'd you, but 
not being satisfactory, he order'd me on board my Ship, 
refusing to look at any papers I had to show him respect- 
ing the Ship, I have not seen him since — he told me I 
must answer the consequences — which I suppose, would 
be by a Court Marshal, if he could bring me under any 
article of War, should that be the case, I shall be obliged 
to trouble your Lordship, as an evidence, but fearing he 
may have wrote home against me, I am to beg you will 
write to tbe Admiralty in my justification. — He urges 
my not hiring or pressing a Vessel which I say was im- 
practicable, and would have occationed great delay, which 
can be proved by you. 

I spoke to him about the Arundell, he asked me why 
you did not purchase her, for that service. 

I may congratulate your Lordship on the arrival of Lady 
Dunmore long before this, if the prayers of her friends 
have prevail'd, she has had a good passage. If your Lord- 
ship will do me the honor of presenting my best respects 
to your family when you write I shall be much oblig'd to 

Your Letter to the Admiral against Captain Macartny 
will break him. — He deserves it. Enclosed I send you 
my answer to the Admiral's letter on that head. My 




Brother, who will have the honor of presenting your Lord- 
ship with this ; will tell you what we are doing, beging you 
to accept my sincere wishes for your health and Happiness, 
I have the Honor to remain — 
My Lord 

Your Lordships most ob* 

and most humble servant 


The Earl of Dunmore. 

P. S. Sandys & the other Officers of the Forrey beg you 
to accept their respectful Compliments. 

August the 10 th I have had a conference with my 
comander in chief to day, the result of which is, that he 
finding that he cannot hurt me at a Court Marshal, is glad 
to make the matter up, on my giving him my Honor, that 
my only motive for sending the Schooner home was my 
zeal for the Service. Notwithstanding I beg your Lord- 
ship will write to the Admiralty. 


London 14'. h Nov! 1775. 

Dear Sir, 

I have rec d your Letter and Packet of the 1 2 th of Sep- 
tember and am much obliged to you for them. I am very 
anxious to hear more fully from you, as you are so good 
as to give me reason to expect. Before this can reach 
you, you will certainly have seen the Kings Speech. I 
heartly wish that that or any thing else may put the 
contending parties into a disposition of reconciliation. 
On the Debate of the Address, Lord North said with 
great emotion, to this effect, would to God that all 



things were as they were in 1763, if the authority of 
this Country could likewise he replaced into the same 
state, that it was in the year 1763, but that an uncondi- 
tional repeal of all the Acts since 1763, without some 
honorable Satisfaction to the authority of this Country, 
would leave this Country much disgraced. Then follow 
as of course angry accusations of America, as meaning 
nothing but independence and insult to this Country. 
Your friend Mr. Hartely who offered last year a draught 
of a letter of requisition as a plan of Settlement and 
accommodation desired to offer a Proposition to L* N. 
upon the new ground that he had taken, for 1/ N. had 
declared that we were not now at war for a revenue 
but in support of our authority resisted. The substance 
of Mr. H's proposition was, that if there was any sincere 
desire for Peace, he would endeavour to join issue with 
U; N. and to offer such terms of accommodation, by 
which if Ministry would consent to replace America to 
the year 1763, he should on the other part propose, that, 
— America should give full satisfaction to the Point of 
honour. That he thought himself founded to engage for 
everything that could in reason be required from the 
Americans, under that declaration in their Petition to the 
King, that they did not wish even for reconciliation, not- 
withstanding all their distress, upon terms inconsistent with 
the dignity of Great Britain ; That taking his ground from 
this declaration, he should propose a recognition, not in 
words but in fact, which should effectually replace the 
authority of this Country (be it more or less without any 
invidious line drawn) where it was in 1763. The test 
proposed, was the enrolling some act of Parliament by 
the Assembly of each Province, supposing that the act of 
Parliament in view should be formed upon principles of 
justice and such as the Colonies would have received w T ith 
j a silent and thankfull compliance in 1763. All recog- 
nitions in words being unavoidably both invidious and 


[1775. | 

insidious, that therefore a test bringing no line of authority 
as to obedience into Question, was the only safe proposi- 
tion. You Americans shall be as you were in 1763, if you 
will likewise admit an Act of test, such as you would not 
have had the least scruple to have admitted in 1763. We 
will throw a veil over all the theoretical disputes of rights 
of subjects, either as Colonists or as men at large, we will j 
not discuss the rights reserved, or supposed to be reserved, ! 
at your emigration, whether tacetly or explicitly ; We wish < 
that mutual concessions on both sides should bring the I 
two parties together, we will on our part replace you where 
you were in 1763, if you will admit and register in your j 
Assemblies such an Act of Parliament as you yourselves i 
shall confess that you would have admitted in 1763. It is j 
not an unreasonable request to make to America, that they | 
should treat an Act of Parliament flowing from general 
principles of humanity and justice, with a different recep- I 
tion to what has been given to Acts of Grievance. It is j 
certainly dangerous to disturb questions of the extent, [of] 
empire or obedience because after that, even acts of ac- j 
quiescence may be construed to involve hazardous conces- I 
sions, supposed to be included in the principles which have J 
been brought under contest. But in the State of human 
affairs, we must not always be too scrupulous. Something i 
must be given up for Peace. A Civil war never comes 
too late. Take your situation as it was in 1763, for better 
and for worse. In the present miserable prospect of things, 
I conceive that to be a fair and equitable bargain. The 
object of the Act of Parliament to be proposed to you may 
be perhaps in the event the abolition, but at present can 
only be considered as the first step, to correct a vice, which ; 
has spread thro' the Continent of North America, contrary 
to the Laws of God and Man, and to the fundamental 
principles of this Constitution, from which yours are de- 
rived. That Vice is Slavery. It would be infmitly absurd 
to send over to you, an Act to Abolish Slavery in one 



word, because however repugnant the practice may be to 
the Laws of Morality or policy, yet to expell an evil which 
has spread so far, and which has been suffered for such 
length of time, requires information of facts, and circum- 
stances, and the greatest discreation to root it out— (upon 
this subject pray look to a note in Mr. Duche's Sermon 
on July 7 th 1775 before the Battalion of Militia p. 16tl7) 
and moreover the unavoidable length of settling such a 
point, would defeat the end, of its being proposed as an 
Act of Compromise to settle the present unhappy troubles. 
Therefore the Act to be proposed to you, as an auspicious 
beginning, to lay the first stone of universal liberty to man- 
kind, should be what no American could hesitate an in- 
stant to comply with, viz : that every slave in America 
should in all cases be entitled to his trial by jury. Will 
you not receive and enroll such an Act as this, and there- 
by reestablish peace and harmony with your Parent State. 
Let us all be reunited in this as a foundation to extirpate 
Slavery from the face of the earth. Can they who seek 
justice and liberty for themselves refuse to give justice and 
liberty to their fellow creatures. This is the substance of 
Mr. Hartley's proposal. The first step in the execution 
would be to suspend the Massachusetts Charter Act by 
which means every Colony would be in a full competence 
to enroll the required Act. The Plan therefore would be — 

1st. To suspend the Massachusetts Charter Act. The 
Boston Port Act. The Act for removing Trials. 

2dly. To pass an Act to establish the right of trial by 

jury to all Slaves in America, and to annull all laws in any 

Province repugnant thereto, and to require the enrollment 

of the said Act by the respective Assemblies of each Prov- 

i ince in North America. 

3dly. To pass an Act to Establish a permanent reconcilia- 
tion between Great Britain and its dependencies in North 
America, and to restore his Majesty's Subjects in North 



America, to that happy and free condition, and to that 
peace and prosperity, which they enjoyed in their consti- 
tutional dependence upon Great Britain, before the com- 
mencement of the present unhappy troubles. 

4 th . ly To pass an Act of Oblivion. 

The great misfortune in proposing any terms, is the dis- 
tance and the length between us. Ministry say upon any 
proposals for mutual concessions, who can give us assurance 
that such or such terms will not be rejected in America. 
Then they catch at some hasty and ambiguous phrase 
from America, or talk in the high strain of Supremacy, 
against those whom they charge with a view of independ- 
ence, and by such means all equitable propositions of 
peace are quashed. In short a majority is not to be con- 
vinced by reasoning. They will put what construction 
they please. If the Ministry should declare for peace, then 
the most favourable construction would be put upon every 
phrase, but on the contrary case every thing is turned against 
America ; every hasty phrase is a settled plan of independ- 
ence and even silence in any points upon the most prudent 
motives, is construed into secret views of independance. 
As to the late petition to the King, it is said to be very 
decent indeed, but to mean nothing. With regard to the 
offers from Parliament of the last year, It has been said 
both to Mr. Burke and Mr. Hartley : — 

The Americans have very explicitly refused Lord North's 
proposition, but they have been totally silent as to the pro- 
posals of their own friends. They have taken notice of 
Delenda est Carthago which was a private incident in 
debate, but they have not added to their exceptions to L? 
Norths plan, that if any proposition had been sent to them 
conformable to some plan proposed by their friends they 
would have acceded to such or no. Thus by the interven- 
tion of jealousies and misconstruction, the time of accom- 
modation is lost, and anger is augmented into fury. 


I have consulted several American Gentlemen, who 
have all expressed themselves as confident that America 
would not hesitate to comply to the Act of Jury to Slaves, 
if they could be assured by their compliance with such an 
Act of Parliament that they could secure to themselves 
restoration to their condition in 1763. It would be a satis- 
faction to receive some respectable or authentic opinion 
from America upon that subject. If some authentic senti- 
ments either upon that or any similar plan of mutual conces- 
sion could be communicated in the course of the Spring so 
as to be here in February or March or April (that is to 
say before the prorogation of Parliament) it might give 
some chance of preventing blood. A supply upon requisi- 
tion, would like the case of Ireland, effectually exclude any 
other possible idea of Taxation, and open the way to very 
desirable relaxations of restrictions in Trade ; and, Taxation 
once out of the question, this Country could not have a 
motive to harrass America with needless or vexatious Acts 
of Legislation, more especially if supply were reserved to 
the Americans, as being the Constitutional balance to de- 
fend the Subjects in any State from grievious legislation. 
Then will you strike the bargain. A Supply upon reason- 
able Estimates to be laid before you for your free compliance. 
The enrollment of an Act for trial by Jury to Slaves, or of 
some other Act of Justice and humanity of a similar nature, 
and for you to receive a general redress of Grievances 
since 1763. With respect to putting a final end to Slavery 
in North America, It should seem that when this Country 
had lede the way, by the Act for Jury, that each Colony 
knowing best their own peculiar circumstances, should 
undertake the work in the most practicable way, and 
should endeavour to establish some system, by which Sla- 
very might in a certain term of years be abolished. Let 
the only contention henceforward between Great Britain 
and America be, which can exceed the other in Zeal for 


Establishing the fundamental rights of liberty to all Man- 

Compt 8 to Mess rs Falconer, Read and all friends 
I am dear Sir 

Your Most Affectionate 

G. B. 


London, Novf 14* 1775. 

D R Sir, 

I send you a copy of the petition from the County of 
Berks for lenient measures with America, which my 
Brother and I have signed with about a thousand others. 
Some time ago the Ministerial agents began to move for 
vindictive addresses, and got many from Boroughs, several 
of them by surprise arid management, as I have been in- 
formed by public newspapers, all these addresses are printed 
in the Gazettes, but none of the Petitions for lenient meas- 
ures. Probably the Gazettes will be sent to America, to 
convey the Idea that this Country is in a most vindictive 
temper towards America. As far as I can judge the body 
of the people are cold, and uninformed, but since these 
addresses have been set on foot, the spirit of petitioning has 
been roused thro' the Country. Sir G. Savile has presented 
a petition from Halifax with 1800 hands, and another from 
New Castle with 1200. The Addressers began in general, 
at Halifax the Addressers began, and got perhaps 40 or 50 
hands. The Petitioners who otherwise perhaps would not 
have moved yet, amounted to 1800. It was just the same 
case with the County of Berks; The address was brought 
ready drawn, but when proposed at an open meeting was 
voted down ten to one, however no one can hinder a few 
addressors from signing their address. The addressors in 


Berkshire have made so lamentable a figure that they could 
not have made any tolerable show as freeholders, therefore 
their address is entitled from freeholders and Inhabitants. 
As for Inhabitants of a County you may pick them up as 
you walk the streets of any Town. But freeholders make 
the respectable body of any County, you know my opinion 
as to this unhappy dispute. I do not think that it is the 
people of England, but the Minority who have been the 
Aggressors, and I take that to be the cause chiefly, which 
makes the People of England so Cold. They are not con- 
scious of any ill designs in themselves, and do not know 
the aggressions of Ministry, or the conduct of Governors, 
Judges, Custom house officers, and place men in America, 
and above all they are deceived by the misrepresentations 
of Ministers at home. They do not know the history of 
the year 1768, and of the first introduction of Troops into 
Boston &c. &c. &c. Therefore not being conscious of evil 
towards America themselves, and being in the dark as to 
the conduct of Ministry towards America, they do not know 
what is to be said in justification of America. Ninety nine 
in the hundred are quite in the dark. But I hope the 
People of England will not be Nationally alienated from 
America, and tho' Ministers may keep us asunder for a 
time I hope that we shall some day or other come to a 
good understanding with each other. I write in great 
haste. My Brother joins with me in the most earnest 
wishes for restoration of peace, and of health and pros- 
perity to yourself. 
I am 

dear Sir 

Yours most affectionately 

G. B. 




The enclosures sh d be forwarded to R. H. L. of Vir- 
ginia as soon as possible. Such as are fit for Publication 
will no doubt be reprinted. A Bill is ordered by the 
motion of L : X. to be brought into the H. of C. to repail 
(sic) the two restraining Bills of the last Session of Parlia- 
ment respecting the Xorth American Colonies ; and to pro- 
hibit all kind of entercourse or communication whatsoever 
between those Colonies and every other part of the World, 
untill by Royal Proclamation, the whole or any part of 
them shall not be deemed in Rebellion, as they now are, 
by the late Ministerial Proclamation all Vessels whatsoever 
bound to or from Xorth America are to be legal seizures if 
taken by the Kings Ships or Privateers of G. B. Also all 
Vessels that can be seized in the Xorth American Har- 
bours are to be in the same Predicament. This Bill is also 
to be an ex post facto Law, orders having been sometime 
since privately sent by the Ministers to the Commanders 
of the Men of War in America to make all the seizures 
they could which seizures by this Bill are to be deemed 
legal prizes, — in short it is to indemnify the authors of 
every violence that has or may be committed in America, 
or against American property. 

London, Xov. 23? '75. 


London Xov! 15 th 1775. 

My Good Sir, 

I can't excuse myself from troubling you at this critical 
Juncter, having a very momentous affair to communicate, 


with my poor sentiments on it ; and when a proper convey- 
ance offers, I should be glad of yours in return. 

A Peace and Union between Great Britain and America, 
is certainly worth some Sacrifice on each part, and if a 
middle line could be drawn, tho' it should not come up to 
the sanguine Ideas of Either, it might perhaps be Wisdom 
to adopt it. 

Such a Plan is now in Contemplation, and I am not 
without hopes, that it will be carried into execution ; so 
far at least as concerns Government here ; it originates 
with a worthy member in the lower house, who is zealous 
in the great cause of Conciliation ; and as he will explain 
himself fully to you, by this very conveyance ; I shall not 
weary you with a repetition, of what will come so murh 
better from his pen than mine. 

My whole design, is to assure you, that I have considered 
his Plan, as minutely as I am able; and am of opinion, 
that it is highly eligible, and worthy the attention of 
America ; and tho' it may, and must appear a degree of 
presumption in me ; unequal as I am, to pronounce on 
Questions of such magnitude ; yet I trust that my known 
zeal and integrity, will afford some apology ; and as our 
friend here, has flattered me so far ; as to consult me on 
the occasion ; I am in hopes to escape without any severe 

I wish this may meet yourself and family in good health ; 
and permit me to assure you, that among other happy 
advantages that will flow from this Reconciliation ; — that 
of your probable return to England, will not be thought 
the least, by your many friends here ; and I must be vain 
enough, to thrust myself into that circle. 

Interim I salute you and yours and remain 
your ob* hbl. Serv* 

Benj* Franklin Esq. Philadelphia. 




London 22 a Nov! 1775. 

My Good Sir, 

Tho' I have already addressed you by this Conveyance ; 
yet as my mind is not quite clear, I must trouble you 
again ; and I trust to your friendship and candour, to im- 
pute my presumption to the best motives. 

Always sanguine in my Ideas, I am already looking 
forward ; and supposing, that the fair and equitable terms, 
which our friends will offer to the house on Monday next ; 
will produce a lasting Peace and Union, between the con- 
tending Parties ; I have therefore turned my thoughts 
towards the consequences of this happy iEra. 

The old mode of Requisition, is undoubtedly the most 
eligible; but I imagine' that I foresee an evil, that may 
even arise out of this ; and which should I think be pro- 
vided against in Time ; and I think farther, that no Time 
is so proper as the present ; now that the Congress is sit- 
ting, and that such implicit obedience, is paid to all their 

If the requisition for future supplies is made by the 
Minister, to each particular Assembly ; it is possible (nay 
probable) that some may be for complying, and others for 
refusing, or limitating ; this may create Jealousies among 
yourselves ; and the Ministry taking advantage of your dis- 
sensions, may by cajolling and favouring the more pliant 
Assemblies, effectually disunite you. 

But if the Congress should now take it into considera- 
tion, to establish the proportionate Quota of each Colony ; 
so that the supply required, might be furnished in a col- 
lective manner, by the whole Continent ; it would be in 
my humble opinion, the means to cement you more closely ; 
indeed I could wish, that all supplies, might be furnished 


by a Congress, to be held at certain stated periods ; and I 
believe that some thing of that kind would be best for both 

I am aware that it will require great abilities and great 
application, to investigate and settle this complex Business 
but I confide, that the present Congress, are fully com- 
petent to it ; and tho' it will assuredly appear, that some 
Colonies can more readily supply men, others money, and 
others again Provisions ; yet it might surely be adjusted 
and proportioned, by the wisdom and Patriotism of the 
present Delegates. 

I shall trespass no farther on your Time and Patience ; 
than only to recommend an ernest consideration of our 
friend's proposal, and a speedy answer ; and I must confess 
that I think it of such importance, as to deserve a special 

I salute you most respectfully and 
am your assured friend and serv* 


Benjamin Franklin Esq. Philadelphia. 

(Qf If not the Hosier of Fenchurch Street.) 


London, Nov! 20* 1775. 

My Good Sir, 

I sincerely wish this may meet Mrs. Searle and your 
good self happily arrived in Philadelphia happy in your 
minds and happy in your friends, as much so however as 
the State of affairs w T ill permit, and now Sir a Truce to 
compliments, as I have Business with you of the utmost 



This Business is no less than the accommodation of the 
unhappy dispute between Great Britain and her Colonies, 
a dispute that I know you will go any lengths to settle, and 
as I have not time, nor do I think it prudent to write to 
all my Friends, I have selected you with the bearer of this 
and Mr. Dillwyn to make what use you can of my present 

You are conscious that the Americans have universally 
both in their private capacities and public acts declared 
that they wished for nothing on their part, but to be rein- 
stated in their situation of 1763, the Congress have lately 
assured us that they wish for no Reconciliation on Terms 
that may be inconsistent with the dignity of the Legisla- 
ture of Great Britain, and on our side Lord North has 
lately said openly in Parliament, that Administration had 
entirely given up the Ideas of Taxation or Conquest, and 
that he wished that all that had passed since 1763, was 
buried in oblivion, and America stood once more on that 

Well Sir dont you begin to perceive though perhaps at 
a great distance that as both parties have appealed to the 
same Era, that something may be struck out of this ; but 
least your sanguine conceptions should carry you on too 
far, I must call your attention back to the dignity of Gov- 
ernment, this must be maintained right or wrong for it is 
not to be supposed that with such an overbearing majority 
in both Houses they will suffer you to make your own 

But dont be disheartened the Terms held out may pos- 
sibly be better than you expect, tho' not so advantageous as 
you wish, surely something may be sacrificed for peace and 
Union, something must be sacrificed on both sides or the 
flames of war will grow hotter and hotter. 

And now Sir for our Olive Branch, which I must tell 
you originates with that friend to Great Britain and Amer- 
ica David Hartley, and who has flattered me highly by 


his condescension in asking my advice on all the Particu- 
lars, this Gentleman will make a motion next Monday and 
has already communicated it to Lord North, that, as a 
previous step to the accommodation the Boston Port Bill, 
that for removing offenders for trial, and that for altering 
the Massachusetts Charter, be suspended and that an Act 
of our Parliament be framed binding on all the Colonies 
but inoffensive in its nature such as for instance to oblige 
them to allow Negroes a Trial by Jury, this is to keep up 
the legislative authority of this Kingdom, which by repeal- 
ing all the obnoxious Acts without some sort of acknowl- 
edgment would suffer an indelible stain and as there is 
no doubt that the Colonies would have submitted readily 
in 1763. to such an Act, it can now be no Grievance, this 
Act is to be enrolled by the Assembly of each Province, 
and without any other concession or hardship, all the Acts 
fifteen in number as I think are to be instantly repealed 
and a Bill of Indemnity brought in to bury all such things 
in Oblivion, including in it the revival of the old mode of 
requisition with some usefull regulations as set forth more 
minutely in that Gentleman's Motion of last year and to 
which I refer you. 

I sincerely hope that these terms may be thought admis- 
sible, by you by your friends and by the Colonies in Gen- 
eral. For my own part I cannot hesitate a moment to recom- 
mend them earnestly, and the more so, as I am assured you 
will not obtain any better, nor indeed would I have you 
too sanguine on these, as many difficulties may and will 
occur to impede their success, however if the Ministry 
should be so obstinate as to reject, yet if the Congress 
should be inclined to accept them, it will make them innu- 
merable friends here and vice versa. 

As you are now in possession of this matter I must re- 
quest that you would with your wonted zeal, put the Idea 
in circulation among your friends, not as a real measure 



but a measure in contemplation collect all their senti- 
ments, and tlont fail by all possible means to furnish me 
with the result, and that very shortly, as it will be of the 
highest importance to have such Documents to produce in 
February or March next, or however, before our Parliament 
rises ; a Member of the Congress has been wrote to very 
fully on this subject, and we wish to have their sentiments 
as soon as possible to produce to Administration. 

And this leads me to expatiate on a very serious Com- 
plaint which is charged on the Colonies by their friends 
here, and which I desire you will attend to. You must be 
conscious that several Plans have been proposed by Lord 
Chatham, Mr. Burke and Mr. Hartley, all tending to make 
Peace between G. Britain and her Colonies, and evi- 
dently favouring the claims of the latter, and yet neither in 
Congress, in Assembly, Provincial Meeting or even in con- 
fidential Letters between friends, have the Americans ever 
declared their approbation of any one of them or that they 
would accept them with such or such alterations, on the 
contrary a sullen silence has prevailed, as if they were not 
desirous of an accommodation and were fearful of con- 
senting to any Terms least they should be accepted on our 
part. This is the language of Administration in both houses, 
and makes the declarations of your Congress very problem- 
atical. Talk no longer in general Terms of Peace, Liberty 
and Safety, but speak out and say such a plan is fair and 
equal and we consent to abide by it, and then your friends 
here have some Ground to stand on. 

Nov r 21 s . fc I am just now informed that Lord North made 
a motion last night and carried it three to one, to cut off 
all communication Avith America, and to commission his 
Majesty's Ships to make Prizes of all American Vessels 
that belong to the Rebel Ports ; but I am yet in hopes 
that our conciliatory Plan will succeed first or last however. 
It has superseded another favourite Plan that we had in agi- 


tation that of fitting out a small Vessel by subscription to 
go between Portsmouth and New York and carry the 
Merchants Letters. 

I am about to conclude, but must first furnish you with 
my apology to any of my earlier friends, who may think 
themselves rather slighted in this matter, by the Preference 
given to you. Say to such that it would have puzzled me, 
but that you were luckily acquainted personally with the 
Author of this Measure, and were therefore better quali- 
fied to speak to it. 

The Duke of G. has quitted the Ministry and is in 

opposition, so is the Bishop of P. and Gen : Conway 

the Earl of D. has quitted the North American De- 
partment which is supplied by Lord Geo : Germaine, 
Lord H. is no longer Secretary and it is even whis- 
pered that L* N. is going up stairs ; for my part it is not 
a change of Men that I want, but a change of Measures. 
I remain yours very sincerely 


P. S. Nov' 22* It will be very necessary, in case any 
accommodation should take place, that the Congress should 
duly consider, the proportionate Quota, that each Colony 
should be rated ; towards any requisition of Supply, that 
may hereafter be demanded ; as it will always be the inter- 
est of America, that the Proportions should be settled 
among themselves ; and the Grant be in one Lump, for 
the whole Continent ; for if this or any future Ministry, 
should adopt the mode, of treating with each Assembly 
separately it will be a means of disuniting you by cajoling 
and favouring some at the expence of the rest. 



FROM THE 4th TO THE 10th OF FEBRUARY, 1776. 


In a letter from dated Montreal 6 th January 1776, 

he gives the following relation of the attack, made by the 
Eebels, under the command of Gen! Montgomery & Col. 
Arnold, on the Town of Quebec on the 31 st of December. 
After expressing his distress of mind on that event, he in- 
forms him — that the attack began between the hours of 4 
& 6 in the morning, in which fell Gen! Montgomery, his 
Aid de camp M c Pherson, Capt. Cheeseman, Capt. Hendricks 
of the Riflemen, and 2 or 3 subaltern officers, & between 
60 & 100 privates, the number not certainly known, and 
about 300 officers & soldiers taken prisoners ; amongst 
which are L fc Col. Green, Major Bigelow, Major Meigs and 
a number of Captains & inferior officers. — That Col 
Arnold was wounded in the leg in the beginning of the 
action, as was Major Ogden in the shoulder and carried off 
to the General Hospital. — That in consequence of this 
defeat, their prospects were rendered very dubious ; and 
unless they can be quickly reinforced, the consequences 
may be fatal, not only to those who are stationed here, but 
to the Colonies in general; the frontiers especially greatly 
depending upon their keeping possession of that country ; 
— says that the temper & character of the Canadians are 
not that of persevering in adversity, that they are not to 
be depended upon, but like the Savages are exceeding 
fond of chusing the strongest party ; — that the clergy re- 
fuse absolution to all who have shown themselves their 
friends, and preach damnation to those who will not take 
up arms against them — concludes with earnest entreaties 


that a reinforcement of men may be instantly sent him 
from Connecticut and sent out by 10, 20, 30, 40, or 50, as 
fast as they can be collected together. 

Substance of a letter dated Montreal, 1th January, 177 6. 

Begins with expressions of great grief & sorrow on 
account of so many great men falling — the battle was 
fought the 31 st Dec r — Worsters account from Arnold 
was that forty odd of the principal officers such as Colonels, 
Majors and Captains were slain, and sundry other officers 
of inferior rank with 1 60 privates killed and three hundred 
taken prisoners, all of his (Arnold's) party ; Montgomery, 
his Aid-de-Camp and two others killed on the walls, with 
10 privates killed, and several officers wounded of Mont- 
gomery's party. — This was all the account Arnold could 
give, as he was dangerously wounded. 

Extract of a letter from Montreal, dated 8th January, 1776. 

" I am sorry I have nothing but bad news to begin this 
year with. Last week our troops under General Montgomery 
& Col Arnold attempted to storm Quebec at a particular 
hour of the night, it being very stormy with hail and snow, 
but by a signal, given by Col Arnold half an hour before 
the time (and before our soldiers could come up the rocks, 
as we were to enter different ways,) the city was alarmed 
and fired upon them from all quarters, killed Gen 1 
Montgomery, his Aid-de-camp & Capt. Cheesman, wounded 
Capt. Lamb and have taken him prisoner, with most of the 
party under his command, wounded Col Arnold in the leg, 
and have killed and wounded 150 of his rifle men and have 
taken about 500 of his men prisoners, likewise have taken 
most of his cannon & mortars. Major Lock wood is like- 
wise a prisoner. We are about 1000 strong before the 
place, and keep firing as usual. They behaved very well 
to the wounded & prisoners, and suffered all the prisoners 
to attend the General's funeral." 



Substance of another letter, dated 28th January. 

That General Carlton ordered two parties from Quebec; 
one marched under the command of Col M c Lean and 
posted themselves between Col. Arnold and Gen 1 Mont- 
gomery who were one mile asunder — That upon a signal 
given by the fire of a cannon, Gen 1 Carlton with the second 
party attacked Arnold in front, and M c Lean in the rear, by 
which manoeuvre Arnold's party were all killed or taken. 
The alarm then reached Montgomery's Intrenchment, which 
lie mounted with his Aid de camp, who were immedi- 
ately shot. His party fell in confusion and was routed 
totally. Gen 1 Worster had shut up the Mass Houses in 
Montreal on Christmas eve, which with other matters had 
turned the Canadians. The priests are very warm in the 
Kings service, so that it is imagined Worster and Eaton 
with 200 men are fled from Montreal. Their people pass 
daily through and will not stay. Several died in attempt- 
ing to get over the Lake George, frozen to death, in some 
places six, in some seven lie dead together. The Lake is 
not passable by land or water, nor do I imagine it will (be) 
this winter, before General Carlton clears Canada. No 
provincials have passed yet nor do I believe any body 
can get to Canada to be feared. In the spring the wheel 
will turn. Things here w T ear a better face. General 
Washington wants 8000 men but they are not to be had. 
They talk of raising 3000 men in Connecticut for Canada 
and 2000 in Massachusetts, but the people will not turn 
out for Canada. The Multitude would willingly accept of 
Lord North's speech but are led by bad heads that begin to 
totter. Powder is much wanted. They have it not. I 
hope Lee's expedition will do more good than hurt. 

Substance of further Intelligence, dated New York, 25th January, 1776. 

Yesterday arrived from Philadelphia a Col. Dyer one of 
the Delegates from Connecticut who says that a deserter 


from General Montgomery informed the garrison the even- 
ing before that an attack was intended at four next morn- 
ing the 31 st Decf On which L* Col. M c Lean with about 
five or six hundred men stole up the River S* Lawrence 
keeping the banks of the River on his right to a copse of 
wood where he lay until Gen 1 Montgomery had passed 
him towards his intended storm, when Col M c Lean gave a 
signal for the attack from the city by a sky rocket and at 
the same time fell on himself with the greatest resolu- 

Subsequent accounts from Canada inform us that Gen 1 
Carlton had sent out a strong detachment from Quebec and 
had routed the remaining part of the Rebel forces in that 
neighborhood ; and had killed and taken prisoners up- 
wards of 200 men, — That he afterwards sent a party in 
quest of certain disaffected Canadian gentry who brought 
in about 40 — That orders were given that they should 
be tried by a jury of Canadians which was accordingly 
done and 22 being found guilty were sentenced to death 
& hanged. No accounts are yet received from Gen 1 
Carlton of either of the actions. 

A circumstance is said to have taken place previous to 
the attack upon the Town of Quebec, which is stated in 
the following manner : — That Gen 1 Montgomery made a 
present of 100 dollars to a Canadian to carry a letter to 
certain disaffected persons in Quebec, who were in con- 
federacy with him to open one of the gates for his recep- 
tion, — that the Canadian, instead of delivering the letter 
i to them, carried it to Gen 1 Carlton, who commending his 
fidelity, promised him 200 dollars more, on condition that 
he should deliver the letter to the persons directed, with- 
out taking notice of its having been communicated to him, 
and watching their motions afterwards, he discovered them 
in a house near the gate, prepared to give the desired 
assistance ; upon which he ordered them to be secured, 
and planted a number of cannon & howitzers in a situa- 


tion, proper for execution upon the approach of the 
enemy to whom the gate was opened according to the plan, 
concerted. Arnold's corps upon this side of the Town; 
but they were soon made sensible of their errour by the 
great havoc which ensued. In the mean time Col M c - 
Lean fell upon their rear with so much success, that it was 
reported, the whole of that corps were either killed or 
taken prisoners. 

Further articles of Intelligence. 

Upon Gen 1 Clinton's departure from Boston it is re- 
ported, that Gen 1 Lee was directed to follow him upon the 
coast, and to watch his motions. On the 4 th instant he 
arrived in this town with about one thousand Connecticut 
militia, under the command of Col Waterbury, who it is 
said are inlisted for a month or six weeks, and on condition 
that they shall not be obliged to march, either to the East- 
ward or Westward. . On the 7 th they were joined by about 
500 Jersey troops, under the command of Lord Stirling. — 
There are besides 2 Battalions of Town guard consisting 
of about 400 men. — There are now lying in the East 
River the Asia, Phoenix and Mercury. — Nothing hostile 
has yet happened nor is it known what the intentions of 
Tryon. the Rebels are. The Governor is still on board the Ship 
Dutchess of Gordon, without any prospect of getting on 
shore. None of the officers of the Navy go on shore, , 
but the King's ships are supplied with fresh provisions j 
from the Town. The inhabitants of Long Island and 
Staten Island had been disarmed by the Jersey troops | 
under Col. Heard before our arrival. 

By a letter from Philadelphia, dated the 4 th of January, j 
it appears, that on that day, the ships Alfred & Columbus 
sailed from thence with two brigs. The Alfred carries 36 j 
guns 9 & 12 pounders, 60 marines, and about 200 sailors. J 
The Columbus, about the same number of men, and 32 
guns. The brigs carry 16 guns each. They sailed with 5 



or 6 merchant ships, laden with flour from the Congress ; 
which are supposed to be bound to Spain & Portugal, Hol- 
land, or France for powder &c in exchange for their car- 
goes. The ships of war are said to be victualled for 9 
months, and their destination is variously spoken of. Some 
suppose, they are to pay Lord Dunmore a visit ; others, 
that they are to cruise for Boston store ships, or to proceed 
to the Island of S* Helena to intercept the homeward 
bound East Indiamen, or to Bermuda, or East Florida, to 
seize the Kings stores deposited at those places. The 
same letter says, that the Army at Cambridge, the latter 
end of November, consisted of 15000 men including 1000 
Riflemen — that they had upwards of 100 Flats, carrying 
3 cannon and from 40 to 60 men each, and about 60 
whale-boats — that there is 13 Eow gallies in the River 
Delaware, which carry 18 pounders & 40 men each, and 
that they are making a large chain across the Channel — 
and that upwards of 100 Flats are to be filled with Pitch, 
Tar &c which are to cross the river in two rows and to be 
set on fire, in case any fleet comes up. It is reported, that 
Willing & Morris of that place have received 80,000 dollars 
from the Continental Congress to trade for military stores. 

Intelligence has been received that the Aurora one of 
the merchant ships mentioned in the above letter, laden 
with 3000 Barrels of Flour has been taken in the West 
Indies by one of the King's ships with 13 or 14 other 
American Vessels & that orders were given to seize all 
vessels belonging to American subjects. By the same con- 
veyance we learn that 7 or 8 of the store ships bound to 
Boston had been blown off the coast and had arrived at 
some of the Islands 

From Connecticut we have a copy of the Governors 
Proclamation for raising a Regiment to be sent immediately 
to the relief of their brethren in Canada ; but recruits go 
on very slowly. — Two privateers were ready to sail from 
one of the ports in that colony, and it was imagined they 



would be directed to proceed to Bermuda in quest of the 
Kings stores and ammunition. — An expedition it is said 
is also going forward in Georgia, from whence 600 men 
are to be sent to take possession of S fc Augustine. — We 
are assured that Gen. Schuyler has lately paid a visit to 
Sir John Johnson with a large corps from his Province, 
who after plundering his house and robbing him of a con- 
siderable sum of money obliged him to give a bond not to 
engage in the Kings service and have confined him to a 
certain district in that neighborhood. — It is reported that 
Congress are now striking off the Ninth million of dollars 
in paper currency. — It is said Gen. Lee gives out as a 
justification of his coming to N. York that he had inter- 
cepted a letter from Gov r Tryon to Gen. Howe requesting 
a reinforcement of troops from Boston. — By the latest 
accounts from Boston things were perfectly quiet there. 
Dissentions were said to prevail in the rebel camp upon 
new modelling their* Army, and desertions became very fre- 
quent. Admiral Shuldham in the Chatham was arrived 
with the Centurion, Renown & Niger and a number of 
large store ships for the supply of the Garrison. 

Preparing to sail. — This day Centinels were on the 
wharfs to prevent all further communication with the Gov- 
ernor on board the Duchess of Gordon. 

Capt. Parker signifies his intentions of removing the 
Kings ships under his command (viz* the Phoenix & Asia) 
to Sandy [HooJc] on account of the ice in the East River. 


Roebuck Delaware Bay, 8 th April 1776. 

My ~D r . Lord, 

A Thousand thanks to you for your letter, and good 
wishes towards me. Be assured I have every inducement 


to wish to be with you, but the hopes of intercepting the 
bold Admiral Hopkins, which I am in hourly expectation 
of seeing, is an object of too much consequence for me to 
lose sight of. I think the Roebuck a match for half a 
dozen of them, but still I most anxiously wish for another 
ship, to make the intercepting of them more certain ; but 
as I am equally desirous of giving protection to Virginia, 
and preserving the little footing we have there, I am sure 
I wont desire you to spare me one of y r ships unless it is 
your opinion that one of them might be spared for a short 
cruise & to return in a week or so, when in all probability 
by that time I shall be reinforced from the Northward. 

You find what we may expect from G. C. I wish to 
God you would set to work heartily about the floating Bat- 
tery. I have desired Cap* Bellew to give y r Lordship 
every assistance — be assured it will be of great use. 

I found it necessary, in my present situation, to strengthen 
my ship, and thinking it unsafe to trust my Men & Am- 
munition on board so miserable a vessel as the L d Howe 
upon this Coast, I have dismantled her and sent her round 
to y r Lordship to be laid up. Not that I wish to give up 
the Idea of a Tender, but on the contrary if there should 
be any one at Norfolk that has the Character of sailing- 
fast and can be made to carry ab* 10 Guns I should be 
exceeding glad to have her. Apropos, I understand y r 
Lordship has met with a Prize of Ten 4 P d . s you will per- 
haps wish to keep them for y r ship, but if there are more 
than you want I shall hope you will bestow y r charity on 
the Roebuck. 

I have taken 6 or 8 small Vessels of little Value, which 
I rather chose to destroy than to put men on board them. 
I hope a few days will give me an opportunity of shewing 
you something of more consequence. 

I am sorry to tell y r Lordship I have lost my 3 d Lieut, 
who with three seamen are Prisoners with the Rebels : 
from an accident of being flriven ashore in the Night in a 


Pilot boat. I send the Sloops round in a great hurry, as 
a favorable opportunity offers, therefore have not time to 
write to G. C. nor do I know how to get it to him if I 
did. All that I could say to him is that I must remain 
here until I know the event of the Phil a Fleet, and receive 
the Adm 1 ? orders, both of which I expect daily. If you 
should write, tell him this, and desire him to continue his 
correspondance and express my wishes that we may be 
soon acting together. 

That all & every happiness may attend y r Lordship is 
the sincere wish of yf most faithful F* & Serv* 



Roebuck Delaware Bay 26 th Apr! 1776. 

A Thousand thanks to you, my Dear Lord, for your 
kind present, which is doubly acceptable as it convinces 
me I am not forsaken & neglected by every body. Is it 
not most unaccountable that I should have been so long 
without hearing from Admiral Shuldham'? Sure some 
accident must have happened to the Kingsfisher, or she, 
at least, must have returned to me before this time. Nay, 
even supposing her to have been found so bad when she 
came to Boston, as to make it necessary to heave her down, 
or to send her to Halifax for that purpose, there is suffi- 
cient time elapsed for all that business ; so that if she does 
not arrive very soon, I shall quite give her up. 

I am also au desespoir about my Philadelphia Admiral, 
my hopes of seeing him this way being much damped by 
my last accounts from Philadelphia. In short I find he 
did not chuse to run the risque of returning to his own 
Port after his g fc feat at Providence Island, but rather chose 
to make for New London, whicTi I suppose he concluded 


was more open: however, on his way thither he got 
damnably thrashed by the Glasgow (and I believe after- 
wards by the Swan.) How exceedingly unlucky it was 
that they were not together ! They chased the Glasgow, 
and a Brig (who I conclude was the best sailer) came up 
with him, whose business was very soon done. The Co- 
lumbus then came up and lay alongside, whose Tiller being 
shot away, lay entirely exposed to the Glasgow fire, and 
was exceedingly shattered. This brought the great Ad- 
miral himself down, who soon began not to like his situa- 
tion, and made the Signal for the two sloops to windward 
to bear down to engage the enemy, which as soon as the 
Glasgow percieved, she made sail from them, and as far as 
I can learn they made very little attempt to stop her. 
Hopkins in his letter to the Congress says he should cer- 
tainly have taken the Glasgow if the two sloops had come 
down earlier ; but he adds, he can hardly blame them, as 
they were well employed in taking one of the Tenders, a 
Brig with two mortars and 10 Guns. The Rebels lost a 
good many Men and a number of officers. Several Lieu- 
tenants, the Masters of the 2 ships and 1 surgeon, I un- 
derstand, are particularly mentioned. 

My Account says, the Congress has sent an express to 
New London to order Hopkins round here immediately to 
attack the Roebuck. How far this is to be depended on 
I cannot say : but I confess I dont think it unlikely, as 
they have a ship of 20 Guns (whose bottom they Tallowed 
last week) ready now to come down the River, and a Brig 
of 16 Guns laying in the shoal water under Cape May, 
ready to assist them. 

It is with great concern I acquaint y r Lordship, that 
My Boger, on returning to the Capes of Virginia from 
Conveying the Packet, was taken by this Brig I mentioned 
to you in my letter by My Mason. The story I have heard 
about it is this, when he saw the Brig he gave chace to 
her, and she suffered him to come up with her : as soon as 



he began to fire to bring her too, she opened her Ports, 
and returned his fire, upon which M r Boger engaged him, 
but I should rather think made a running fight, as he re- 
ceived a shot in his stern between wind & water, which 
killed a man in the cabin, and let in so much water that 
they soon called out for quarter, not having, it seems, any 
Plug ready to stop it with. The Lexington then took pos- 
session of her and carried her towards Egg Harbour, 
where he landed M r Boger & his People, who were 
marched from thence to Philadelphia. The Vessel he sent 
thro' Cape May Channel in the Night, with his Pilot and 
two Men, who arrived safe with her at the Town ; and she 
is now fitting out with great expedition as a Privateer and 
will undoubtedly be sent to the Capes of Virginia : and by 
not being known for an Enemy, might of course, do a 
great deal of Mischief among our small Tenders. I have 
for that reason lost no time in dispatching the Lady Stan- 
ley back to y T . Lordship with this intelligence ; and had 
she not arrived as she did, I should this very day have sent 
my Pilot schooner round to you for that purpose. 

I really wish most sincerely to be with you, and in fact, 
from what you tell me, think it highly necessary, but as I 
am positively ordered here by the Admiral, and have such 
very flattering expectations of having an opportunity either 
to destroy the ships expected in, or those intended to be 
sent out, to which I must add my hourly expectation of 
hearing from the Admiral, that I do not look upon myself 
at liberty to return as yet. But if you have any particular 
reason to think that Lee meditates an attack upon the 
Fleet & Lines, I would have you request Cap* Belle w to 
move up the lliver, to place his ship in the best situation 
and to take such other measures as he may think necessary 
to prevent the designs of the Enemy, which he has my 
directions immediately to comply with. 

1 would give more than I can express to have the Otter, 
or even the Otters Tender here for a few days, as without 



a small Vessel that can go in shallow water it is totally 
impossible (or at least very unlikely) that I shall be able to 
do any thing with this Brig Lexington. All the North 
side of Delaware Bay is encompassed with shoals & shal- 
low water, having a channel of about 13 or 14 foot water 
within them : and this passage M r Barry is at present mas- 
ter of. I have chaced him several times, but can never 
draw him into the Sea. The day before yesterday as I 
was coming in from the offing, he streched along to the 
southward with an Easterly wind, a back of the shoal 
called the overfalls, where I was very near doing his busi- 
ness. He at first tryed to stand round the shoal, and lead 
me up the Bay, but on finding I drew nearer to him than 
he wished, he tacked to the Northward, and was just able 
to tread his ground back, and I believe with some difficulty 
weathered the shoal. I was far from being in an eligible 
situation, as I run with all my studding sails, blowing very 
fresh, right before the wind, into 4i fath^ water, which is 
as near, my Pilots tell me as was possible for me to go. 
However, I trust if my good stars will be but propitious 
enough to me to send me any Vessel that can carry 50 
Men, his reign will be of short duration, especially as his 
success of late has made him bold. I forgot to mention 
that the Liverpools Tender killed him two men. 

I have taken nothing since I last wrote to you except a 
ship laden with Flax seed & staves, which I have sent to 
Halifax, and a Pilot schooner laden with Flour & Hams 
bound to S* Eustatia for dry Goods & Powder. There 
were two sloops that came down the River with them, that 
I understand were York boats with 2 or 3 Guns & 20 
Men that are gone to cruize for West India Men. I was 
obliged to let them get so far off before I gave chace, on 
account bf a shoal being between us, that the Night came 
on before I could get within a distance to keep sight of 
them, and as they put right before the wind they sailed 
confoundedly fast. 



I hope & trust Sf Peter Parker is with you before this 
time. I shall be very glad to resign my command at Vir- 
ginia to [him] for two good reasons, for his having both 
the ability & means of executing his Maj^ 9 service, which 
has never been in my power, nor was likely to be, and also 
as I am in no degree equal to him but in zeal. 

What is y r Lordships opinion about Gen! Howe & 
Adm! Shuldham's destination? In my part I conclude 
they are both gone to Quebeck. 

I send you my last News Papers. I have always had 
them weekly. 

I met the other day with a poor, miserable Brig from 
S* Croix, under a pretence of a Flag of Truce granted by 
the Governor to certain Persons inhabitants of the Island, 
for the purpose of fetching their children & familys from 
Philadelphia. I at first intended seizing her, but as she 
was not of the least value, I thought it best to send her 
back to make it known to his Exc^ that no pretence of that 
kind or any other would be allowed of to enable him or 
his Island to hold correspondance with the Rebels, and 
that if any Vessel was found upon the Coast in future or 
near it, authorized by their Government on any pretence 
whatsoever, after this warning, it would be considered as a 
breach of the neutrality subsisting between the two nations. 
If I had not rec d the Water, I should have gone up the 
River and filled my Casks, as it is, I shall let it alone for 
some time. 

[From A. S. HAMMOND.] 

To His Excellency The Earl of Dunmore 

Governor of Virginia &c. &c. &c. 




My D k Lord, 

The News Paper you found at Brents House too truly 
related the Particulars of the Charles Town Expedition, 
and contains an exact account of our loss. I confess, my- 
self, that I am not in the least disappointed, for I never 
did conceive that any good could come from such an 
undertaking, with so few Troops at this Season of the 

Clinton with his army (all the one with the poor unfortu- 
nate Highlanders who fell a sacrifice to the Enemy thro' 
some cursed mistake, blunder, or treachery) sailed for New 
York the 21 st July; and Sir Peter writes me word that he 
shall sail about the 28 th for the same place, but as I have 
sent Whitworth down to you, he will have told you of 
everything that has happened there. 

I hope this wind will continue until we reach the Capes 
and that the Weather will admit of our anchoring in Lynn 
Haven bay, when I shall do myself the honor of waiting 
upon you to consult on our future Plan. 

I had very nearly lost the Row Galley this morning. 
With every thing in her she filled, and with great difficul- 
ty I got the Gun out. I have her still astern with a Cable 
fastened to her. 

There is a schooner by the Tangier Island that I think 

looks like a Rogue. 

I always am most aifec ly yrs. 

Sat d 7 Morn. 



Roebuck 11 at Night Wed" 

My Dear Lord, 

I have written the letter we talked of, and have enclosed 
the two orders under which I am obliged to act. Be as- 
sured it is with the utmost regret & concern that I leave 
this Province (tho' perhaps only for a time) as I am really 
of opinion, that was a respectable force, both by land & 
sea, once established in this Country, it would give a great 
change to His Majesty's affairs in America for the better. 
Clinton I think will certainly be here, by the last words he 
said to me in confidence ; and as Sir Peter Parker in a 50 
Gun ship with several other large ones are, I understand, 
to convey the five Regiments to Cape Fear, I think there 
can be no doubt but in a very short time you will find 
them all in Hampton Road. 

I had a very unpleasant passage down here, and did not 

get on board till nine o'clock. 

I always am my D r Lord with 

the most affectionate attachment 

y r faithful humble serv* 

A. s. H. 

P.S. Be so good as to send back tjie two orders. 

The Night is so bad that as I did not see Cap* Bellews 
schooner come down the River before dark, I am sure she 
can not get down till to-morrow ; therefore shall delay my 
schooner till I see her come down. 


My D r Lord, 

We are extremely unfortunate in the wind's having 
shifted to the westward ; and unless it again changes, we 


may be some days before we reach Sandy-Hook. This 
part of Long Island is a bad coast to be upon, as there are 
many flats lay off it a great distance from the shore : there- 
fore beg you will order the Dunmore to make what sail 
she can. 

I take all those vessels we see to be a nest of Rebel 
Privateers, and there may be others we know not of. 
They will certainly be troublesome to us in the night, and 
as there is no foreseeing what may happen, I beg your 
Lordship will take it into Consideration whether you had 
not better come on board here: at least until we fall in 
with some other Man of War. I should be much easier I 
confess if you would. 

I am my D r Lord 

most truly & ah 01 ? yours 

Roebuck Monday off Long Island. 


My D k Lord, 

What shall we do for a Vessel to send to the Rendezvous, 
fixed with those People that went to the Eastern Shore last 
night ? could you not prevail on Steward to send his Sloop, 
with the Stanleys Guns, or something of that kind. In 
short some Vessel must be got. 

The ship thumped so confoundedly when I got on board 
her, that my barge was obliged to be detained to tow out 
an anchor, which kept me so long on board. I gave the 
6 men ammunition & Provisions, and they left the Ship at 
11 o'clock. 

There is a Major Gardner & his wife on board the 
Lively, who with Cap* Bishop I have asked to dine here 
to day. I wish y r Lordship would do me the honor to meet 
them. The ship is going express to Clinton therefore must 



not be detained one minnte longer than the wind keeps ont 
of the Way. The Victualer stays with us. Do you know 
any body that would go Pilot to Charles Town, as they are 
entirely without any \ 

Gen! Howe was not arrived at New York, nor was the 
Fleet from England, but both were hourly expected when 
they came away which was 9 or 10 days ago. 

Howe Commands the Fleet, and besides English Troops 
has 17,000 Foreigners, M r Stanley writes me and there will 
be 35,000 in all. By way of letting Shuldham off easy, 
they have made him a Vice Admiral, over many heads, and 
also an Irish Peer. Mr Stanley, says the Nation called out 
for L d Howe and would not be satisfied without him. 

Your Lordships 

faithful serv* 

Monday. A. S. HAMOjSD- 


RoeBuck 9 at Night Thursday. 

My D r Lord, 

After waiting the whole day with the fullest expectations 
of seeing the Transports get under way to join me, and 
grudging every hour that was lost of so fair & fresh a 
wind, M r Orde is just returned to me, and informs me that 
the Anna will not be ready until tomorrow evening. I 
confess this disappointment and delay is more than I have 
temper & patience to bear ; therefore cannot help tres- 
passing so far on your Lordship as to beg the favor of you 
to make enquiry into the cause of it, and satisfy yourself 
there has been no neglect of duty, or the ship encumbered 
with other goods than what your Lordship has been ac- 
quainted with. It is now five days since the Transports 
were ordered by y r Lordship to take in the empty casks, 
and one of them is not yet clear of her cargo, which if she 
was under my command I should look upon as sufficient 


cause of dismission from the service or at least of turning 
the master out of his employment. 

I beg pardon for troubling you so long on so trifling a 
business, but you must attribute it to the great uneasiness 
I suffer, at seeing three of the Kings Ships in a state of 
perfect inactivity at a moment when it is necessary to 
strain every nerve to its utmost exertion in prosecuting 
the war. 

I am sorry there is no Pilot to be got for the Anna — 
however I will make a further enquiry thro' the fleet. I 
must also again request the favor of the draft of the Kiver, 
which shall be returned when we come back. 

M r Orde tells me he thinks your Lordship still means to 
accompany us. 

I hope I need not tell you how happy I always am in 
having your Company, but should I be disappointed of 
that pleasure, I submit it to you, whether it will not be 
necessary for your Lordship to give Captain Leslie orders 
to put himself under my command. I am sorry to say that 
the disgrace of Gwins Island evacuation, hangs so much 
about me that, I cannot help thinking it necessary to issue 
positive orders where the 14^ are to be concerned. 

I have seen one of the Rebel lookout boats this after- 
noon that came down to look at us. I sent the Otter to 
chace her, but the former was too nimble & went off. 
The Otter & Ranger will sail up the River in the Night, 
& perhaps get above her : in that case we may stand some 
chance of seeing her again. 

If, my Lord, there should be likely to happen any new 
delay to the Transport, why should not the Troops come 
on board the Roebuck, or on board the other Transport 
and the ship follow when she is ready ? 

I fear y r Lordship will think me very troublesome & im- 
portunate, however you must on this occasion forgive me, 
as I am always, most truly & affect ly 

Your Lordships faithful, Hble serv*. 






My Lord, 

I have ordered the Fowey up to the Fleet to land her 
recruits, which seems to be a parcel of fine fellows. I 
have talked with Gatagan & Atkinson this morning, and 
find they have had a conversation yesterday with M* Eden. 
The former say they can still raise a considerable number 
of Men, and hope to obtain Commissions from y r Lordship 
according to the Numbers they shall bring : are willing to 
serve under you, but upon conditions that in case M r Eden 
shall take an active part & chuse to put himself at the 
Head of the Tories of the Eastern shore, they shall be at 
liberty to go with him. I think these are terms your 
Lordship may safely accede to. 

I have refused the Attorney Gen! of Maryland permis- 
sion to proceed in the sloop : and for forms sake will refer 
him to you. His pass is only from G. Tonyn and has not 
the least scrape of a Pen from the secretary of State in 
England, or did he ever acquaint him with his intention of 
coming to America. 

I shall be glad your Lordship will give Orders for my 
Marines to be embarked as the sooner the Roebuck gets 
away the sooner the Liverpool will be here which may 
now be in great distress & want of every kind of provi- 
sions. Your Lordship's most faithful & obedient humble 



(Ship) Liverpool, April 15 th 1776. 

My Lord, 

The Affair of the Sloop is settled, as I meant to have 
settled it on her return from a short Expedition ; but the 


Gentlemen being very anxious to get away soon, I have 
waved that scheme. 

I know your Lordship will rejoice with me to hear of 
Capt n Hammonds recovery from a dangerous Illness. If 
the Tides would admit me to make sure of going & coming 
the same Day I could be easy at leaving the little ship at 
single anchor; hitherto, & now by long Habit, I cannot 
leave her in y fc situation. I wisht to shew your Lordship, 
Cap* Hammonds Desire to have one of us with him, if 
your Lordship thinks the remaining one a sufficient secu- 
rity for this Place, will your Lordship do me the favour of 
your Opinion on that Head. He says, he expects the 
Rebel Fleet to return soon & thinks one ship is not enough 
to make the Destruction of the whole certain. 

Would your Lordship likewise be so obliging to give me 
your Opinion on my taking a small Cruise up the Bay. 

I suppose Capt n Squire informed your Lordship of two 
Shirtmen coming off to me here, one of whom came out 
in the ship with Lady Dunmore, they give me an Account 
of their destroying every Boat in their Power to prevent 

Inclosed is a Newspaper which possibly your Lordship 
has seen. And now I have to claim a Promise your Lord- 
ship made me on my leaving Norfolk, that of having the 
Honour of your Company to Dinner & give me leave to 
expect it to-morrow. I dare say Capt n Squire will most 
readily attend your Lordship. 

I am apprehensive for the old Pilot Jo : White least he 
may be fallen into the Hands of the Philistines. 
I have the Honour to be 

Y r Lordships most devoted 

Humble Servant 


To His Excellency the Earl of Dunmore, Norfolk. 




My Dear Sir! 

In my last I mention'd to you that we were going on a 
cruise which we performed but without success in the prize 
way, still cannot call ourselves unlucky as we escaped a 
very severe scowering in the Equinoxial gale during 
which we remained at Sandy Hook. Most of the Vessels 
that were out in the gale lost Masts & many their Guns. 
Immediately on our return here we were sent with a Con- 
voy to Rhode Island to evacuate it, & the which we accom- 
plished. Its a very pleasant Island and whether the quitting 
or keeping it is to advantage shall not pretend to say as it 
was ordained by wiser Heads than mine, only that I hope 
never to see a sight like it again for to any person of the 
smallest degree of feeling it was truly affecting, you scarce 
saw a face but what wore a melancholy aspect. Some who 
had given up almost their all by way showing their Loyalty, 
others who were staunch to their King & had declared 
their sentiments publickly were obliged to leave their 
property and trust to Providence, others to leave Family 
property & every thing thats dear to Man to the Mercy of 
a set of scoundrels who are capable of every Villainy, and 
others, who had great Families & had not been quite so 
violent, obliged to stand the brunt and hold a Candle to the 
Devil, and I can assure you there were some as busily 
employ'd in preying on those poor peoples misfortunes by 
amassing every thing the(y) could not carry at a very 
cheap rate or for nothing (they previously having prepared 
conveyance for them to York) by which means they have 
feathered their nests tolerably well & made the Prov- 



erb good (Its an ill wind that blows nobody good) On 
our arrival here we were order d immediately for Sea & 
had the pleasure of being inform'd that instead of being 
commended for the evacuating Rhode Island so well that 
we had been acting the Comedy All in the Wrong, for 
the Express being sent in a little Schooner to counter- 
mand the same, she unfortunately fell into the Hands of 
the Eebels (& no duplicate of the same being sent) ob- 
structed our keeping the place, which I believe we might 
as well have done. Understanding that the Daphne is not 
as yet sail'd and that she is just on the eve of going away 
and prefering that opportunity to the Packet will prevent 
my saying so much as I could wish. Please to make my 
duty to my Mother and let her know I proposed writing to 
her by this occasion but shall not have time. Let her know 
that I am very happy in the Company of my old Friend's 
young Morris's who are very kind and always desirous of 
seeing me at their Father's House, who I think looks as 
well as ever Pray don't forget me to Mr?. Morris, remem- 
ber me to all my friends particularly and believe me to be 
My Dear Sir, 

Your most dutiful son, 


Blonde, New York, Oct 30 th 1779. 
Mr. George Findlay. 

I can assure you I am ashamed that all my letters should 
be Hurried and so short but really our time is so here, and 
for the three last times I have been here, have not been 
twice on shore, no person being allow'd to go on shore. So 
goes on this grand hurly burly and to but little purpose. 




New York, Aug' 20* 1780. 

Dear Sir, 

On my return from Carolina I was favored with your 
very obliging letter, I must confess that I received more 
pain than pleasure from your intelligent communication 
of the national discords gravesque principum inamicitias. 
Your just remarks on the national resources & finances 
are very satisfactory. We have long respected the abilities 
of Lord North and we cannot deny him firmness. His pay- 
ing the interest of his late loan, by taxes scarce alarming to 
luxury is alone sufficient to rank him with the Colberts. 
His assurance that supplies for the ensuing year altho' 
more considerable than the present, can be raised with 
facility has given us great spirits. This declaration is 
alarming to the Insurgents who assured themselves that the 
Ministers could not raise the supplies. I think, Sir, you 
cordially agree with your discerning worthy patriot Pul- 
teney that such opinions do as certainly prolong as they 
tended to create this unhappy war. Deplorable is your 
state of the factions ; their petitions, associations & medi- 
tated Congress. Those demons of discord seem to exert 
their machinations, proportioned to the national success, 
conscious that such acts of parricide can only prevent a 
happy termination of the war. I cannot however suffer 
myself to believe that the nation is on the brink of rebel- 
lion. The unhappy example of America must deter from 
such flagrant acts of desperation all those who are not 
phrentic or fitted to fish in muddy streams. 

Doubtless you have your llichmonds, Wilkes's, Gordons 
and many thousand desperadoes up for revolutions ; but 


surely the majority will scorn, supinely to permit them- 
selves, their Prince and country to be undone by the dregs 
of human kind. I perceive you have altered your opinion 
respecting the war in America, which you wish transferred 
to the West Indies. You seem to think the Revolted 
Colonies are not to be brought back to their duty ; In which 
sentiment you are almost confirmed by the information of 
certain officers of rank and particularly by the testimony 
of Major General Grey. I acknowledge my surprize, as 
you must have seen Letters to a Nobleman by M r Gallo- 
way which do honor to that gentleman's discernment and 
patriotism and will constantly remain an indelible proof 
against the evidence in question. In the sequel I hope 
Sir to convince you that you are in error and that the 
relied on testimony founded in misapprehension is gener- 
ally if not wholly inconclusive. Were I not encouraged 
by your candor I would apprehend a degree of impropriety 
in submitting my opinion of public affairs even, Sir, to you. 
But I trust you will generously remember that I have had 
opportunities of acquiring information respecting the Colo- 
nies and that the existence of my numerous family depend- 
ing on a happy conclusion of the war, I cannot wilfully 
mean to mislead or impose on your understanding. I hope 
you will not censure remarks because they originate from a 
person whose entire property being in the revolted Colo- 
nies may speciously be supposed to contribute his very 
humble mite to reinstate himself in his possessions even at 
the expence of Great Britain. I know that faction robed 
in eloquence has often asserted that the last reason destroys 
the degree of credit otherwise due to such Informants. 
i This assertion, however, is equally cruel & unjust. An 
American Loyalist, in our days can have no interest dis- 
tinct from that of Great Britain. He never can regain his 
property and consequence in American Independance nor 
discover new resources in the ruin of England. An Engi- 
neer, Commissary, Quarter Master general or other pecula- 



tor, whose legal appointments do but suffice to subsist him, 
who nevertheless accumulates immense property, can hardly 
be said to be disinterested. Such must eminently possess 
amor patriot, if not biassed in favor of those patrons from 
whom their rapid fortunes so recently originated. It is 
said they generally wish this country separated from G. 
Britain. No enquiries into their conduct or actions in such 
case could properly be instituted against them. No one is 
more assuredly an enthusiast for the honor, for the gal- 
lantry, for the humanity of English officers than your in- 
formant. But as an empire distracted by party, can we 
suppose that demon has not in some degree pervaded the 
Army ? Men of fortune and family chiefly attain high rank 
in the Army. But genius, or even capacity, is not the 
indiscriminate lot of men of fashion. In quarters it is not 
impossible that certain of them, may devote their hours to 
the table and other fashionable agremens. They generally 
possess ample fortunes, and accustomed to all the luxuries 
of Europe, it is imagined they regard America as a Siberia 
or exilement from their pleasures. It is alleged that such 
characters possibly may possess a meanness of pride seldom 
or ever attendant on true genius — a quality ever ob- 
noxious to the attainment of information in America, where 
equality of manners renders such pride more odious than 
in any other country. If these men view a Gazette fabri- 
cated expressly for them HJJgp 5 — if they see a Livingston 
most speciously and boldly assuring the world that his 
militia would certainly endanger, if not destroy the Kings 
Army on their route to Sandy Hook, they seem amazed, and 
conscious of their native truth, do hardly conceive that men 
exist who avoid no means however nefarious to effect their 
purposes. In short you may discover that the first descrip- 

A gazette containing the terms of the surrender of Savannah was struck off, 
and Bent, via Sandy Hook, to a certain naval officer of high rank, avIio beyond all 
doubl is litter for returning, than for commanding. Had the fleet destined for Charles- 
town remained two days longer at Sandy Hook, it would, I mean the whole armament, 
have perished miserably. 


tion of men may possibly be warped by their interests and 
attachments and the last influenced by their passions & 

To return, Sir, to our subject, — I wish to see Great 
Britain acknowledged mistress of the Main, and even then 
employed one or two years, by her cruisers, in annoying 
the French settlements ; at the end of which time their 
garrisons weakened by want and the climate, might prob- 
ably be more successfully assailed than at present. I 
believe Sir, I need not inform you, that even the French 
possessions in S* Domingo are more truly valuable than all 
the English West India Islands, and that I would not be 
displeased to see our group of Windward Islands ceded to 
an enterprizing ally for aid to conquer that invaluable 
French settlement. Be this as it may the Inhabitants of 
these Islands — S* Christopher's excepted — would be 
much more advantageously employed for themselves and 
their country in cultivating the inexhaustibly fertile plains 
of S* Domingo than in painfully labouring their too gen- 
erally ungrateful possessions. The obviously disadvanta- 
geous situation of these Islands requiring in war an immense 
force for their defence pleads strongly for their cession, if 
the supposed conquest takes place. In the interim if the 
war is prosecuted with some additional force in the Colo- 
nies and if France is not suffered to throw in considerable 
reinforcements, it must terminate happily in course of this 
and next Campaign. The Rebels certainly grow weaker, 
more friends to order daily arise, from their multiplied 
miseries ; and the people generally are averse to the French 
alliance. The gentleman at the head of the army con- 
vinced that the country contends for her all, is, I verily 
believe fully bent to terminate the war speedily and 
gloriously. Their pretended currency is no more ; the 
Bayonet now extorts supplies, and Provinces, wont to 
export much grain, with great difficulty furnish their 
quota of provisions to their Army. It certainly does not 



exceed 5500 men ; even after great exertions comparatively 
few militia can be assembled, and fewer yet would appear, 
if serious measures were in agitation ; perhaps few cir- 
cumstances in war are more liable to misrepresentation 
than military numbers. In this instance candor is often 
susceptible of imposition. The number of men paraded at 
a review, is almost always exceeded in the opinion even of 
officers present. No wonder then, if a person unaccus- 
tomed to troops is misled on this subject. The Rebel 
chiefs perfectly sensible of these circumstances, exhaust 
every art to establish an opinion that their armies are 
numerous, which better promotes their purposes (as mat- 
ters have been circumstanced) than if they effectually 
possessed Armies which they could not maintain. To illus- 
trate this matter you are to remember that Virginia fur- 
nished fifteen battalions. Two were sent in 1778 to 
Charlestown, and the remaining thirteen, reduced to three 
last winter, were also sent to that place. On their sur- 
render, they composed from 850 to 900 men. This, Sir, 
is a very just emblem of the remaining battalions. Vir- 
ginia certainly was as able to recruit her Regiments as the 
other pretended States. This suffices to prove their loss of 
men during the war and may truly intimate that their 
armies never can be recruited in this country which never 
contained half the three millions insidiously ascribed to it 
by Congress. In America, the order of men, emigrants 
excepted, destined to fill armies lived too happily and 
equally to be charmed with the life of a soldier. At 
this time in New England, twenty men sooner offer for 
cruizers, than one for a continental regiment. Finally on 
this subject, which has been most unhappily misunderstood, 
to avoid imposition, it requires a certain strength of mind, 
joined to a knowledge of the infinite frauds and stratagems 
practised by the Chiefs of Rebellion, to give plausible credi- 
bility to their varied and numberless impostures. 

You seem to reply that many similar intimations aimounc- 


ing the extreme weakness and misery of the Eevolters are 
daily obtruded on the public, and that as the predictions 
never became realized they probably now from over-heated 
imaginations. Nothing however is more certain than these 
reports are generally well founded. Dispassionately recal 
events and you must acknowledge that the consequence of 
the Insurgents has principally arisen from a combination 
of circumstances which no human foresight could have 
foreseen and that it may now be said to depend on their 
Allies the murderers of the British Constitution and on the 
French nation. 

No country of equal extent is more vulnerable than 
America, to a power possessed of the Sea. Early in Sum- 
mer, the winds favor operations to the New England prov- 
inces, where even a moderate body of troops could destroy 
all or most of their seaports, and so powerfully harrass 
them as to prevent their raising Crops, which, circum- 
stanced as they now are, would alone suffice to compel 
them to submission. Every rational American now per- 
ceives, that his country is not mature for Independance ; 
consequently that he must depend on France or England 
and that the last connexion is natural and every way pref- 
erable to the first. Wherefore when proper measures can 
be pursued, such enthusiastic conduct as heretofore will 
probably not be seen even in New England. On this oc- 
casion I expect to be reminded of the great strength of 
New England, and the loss of the Canada Army by 18.000 
veterans of that province. I would reply that in this in- 
stance faction overshot its aim ; for if Gen 1 Burgoyne sur- 
rendered only 2000 fighting men, (and according to his 
evidence his Auxiliaries do not merit that description) 
18000 veterans derive no credit from that event. The 
truth is that the New England men were not nearly so 
numerous, and, humanly speaking became victors by the 
continued blunders of Gen 1 Burgoyne, who, notwithstand- 
ing the capital error of not being supported by the North 



Kiver, nevertheless might have maintained his ground. 
This circumstance is strengthened by the then consterna- 
tion which prevented the Militia from arming, which cause 
unhappily was soon removed by his inexplicable conduct. 
This and other melancholy facts are well known to every 
sensible man in New England, and will be manifest to the 
world, soon as the Revolters may acknowledge truth with- 
out injuring their present views and pretensions. 

If we view the Southern Colonies with attention, we 
will acknowlege their certain return to their duty, if Great 
Britain is not wanting to herself. In these colonies, prop- 
erty, in the manner of the West Indies is very unequally 
divided. Very many of the indigent settlers recently from 
Europe, in every sense oppressed by the present anarchy 
are truly attached to their parent state. The province of 
South Carolina may be said to be owned by 4 or 500 
Primores who in their lust for dominion forgot that even 
in the beginning of .this war, a law then in full force com- 
pelled them when at divine service, to appear armed that 
their slaves might not embrace the opportunity of exter- 
minating them. Gates with about 600 of the Maryland 
and Delaware line is in North Carolina where he may as- 
semble 2 or 3000 men, and for some time trouble the 

Virginia is every where open to insult. The rivers are 
large, deep, and, intersecting the most valuable portions of 
the Province render them different peninsulas. The nu- 
merous slaves are averse to their owners. The militia, 
few comparatively from their extended plantations cannot 
readily be assembled or defend their Province. A small 
body of troops marched from Petersburgh opportunely 
will end or greatly tend to finish rebellion in North Caro- 

The adjoining Province of Maryland,* especially the 13 

* At this time (1780) there certainh' are 12,000 non Jurors in Maryland, and a much 
greater numher in Pennsylvania. In Somerset County, Maryland, an insurrection at this 



counties of the Peninsula formed by Chesapeak & Dela- 
ware is by its maritime situation and variety of happy cir- 
cumstances excellently adapted to be possessed to shut up 
Delaware River and to command Virginia. 

If according to Gen 1 Grey this is a war of posts, the 
last mentioned district is, unquestionably, the first post to 
be occupied by Great Britain in America. It incontestibly 
injures rebellion more than the loss of any other province, 
and proportionably increases the resources of Great Brit- 
ain, by supplying amply her West India Islands, giving 
bread to all her Armies & Navies and the attainment of the 
Commerce of the Chesapeak more consequential at this 
period than all the remaining commerce of the Revolted 

Deprived of these valuable Provinces, the Revolters in 
effect must depend on New London for external supplies 
& on part of Pennsylvania & New Jersey for Provisions. 
Most certain it is, that the New-England Provinces never 
produce sufficient grain for the Inhabitants. — The Rebel- 
lious part of New York, at present affords little Indian 
corn or wheat. Jersey in tranquil times exported no con- 
siderable quantity, and it is a truth most evident that a 
large share of the provisions, formerly exported from Phil- 
adelphia, were previously extracted from Virginia, Mary- 
land and the Delaware Government. 

It is therefore obvious, that possession of the Peninsula 
must reduce the Rebel armies and New England Provinces 
to depend on part of Pennsylvania & Jersey. Now, it is 
notorious, that the last province hardly maintains its Inhab- 
itants, and that Pennsylvania, disabled by the recited causes, 
cannot long sustain their Armies and Naval Armaments. 
If the contrary is even admitted, the farming part of Penn- 
sylvania & Jersey may be ruined with more facility, than is 

hour is hardly quelled. They have killed their Collector of taxes, which they refuse to 
pay. In short, a doubt cannot remain, but a militia might be formed to preserve tranquil- 
lity in the Counties, and that a number might be armed to guard the Isthmus, provided 
the measure is permanently adopted. 




apprehended. A strong post on the neck of the Isthmus 
might constantly awe, vex and ruin Pennsylvania by occa- 
sionally penetrating into its best counties, when favored by 
the co-operating army from New York ; which army it is 
conjectured might surely disperse Washington's army, if it 
deserves that name, or ruin about forty miles square of the 
Jersies. Either of these points attained, Rebellion in ap- 
pearance must expire, for we cannot readily suppose that 
France would pour armies into Provinces which could not 
maintain their own levies. If mistaken humanity revolts 
at the temporary ruin of part of these Provinces ; the suf- 
ferers, especially the Loyal ones, might be settled and cher- 
ished in part of the Peninsula. 

This mistaken tho' generous principle, if pursued, will 
eventually ruin Great Britain as certainly as it did her 
brave unhappy first Charles. God forbid that I suggest 
that cruelty, which next to the Parliamentary opposition 
has been the firmest' prop of Rebellion — that detestable 
principle which invariably condemns to death the unhappy 
generous Loyalists for virtues honorable to human nature. 
Horrid abuse of power, the dread of which pervading all 
ranks is the only temporary soul & spring of their wretched 
obedience. Most certainly, sublime policy exacts that 
Great Britain should not constantly absolve the foulest 
crimes, since imaginary ones daily cost Her generous sub- 
jects their lives. The ungrateful unprincipled Rebel is in 
no pain for his life or estate, is dazzled by Empire and its 
imaginary lustre and as it were bribed to oppose govern- 
ment & to punish its friends. Unhappily the unfortunate 
Loyalist, having every thing to apprehend, is almost pre- 
cluded from hope, being by the Conciliatory Acts almost 
equally certain of ruin in the victories as defeats of his 
country. The criminal part of the Militia, easily ascer- 
tained, are infinitely more guilty than the Continental sol- 
diers, often deluded into by want, fraud or youth and 
therefore ought to be sent to visit the Forts in Africa or 


the East Indies. One or two examples would render such 
severity needless in future. 

Nor should Great Britain dread for her prisoners but 
eternally remember that timidity as certainly attracts insult 
from men insolent in prosperity as dejected in adversity, as 
magnanimity insures respect. A doubt cannot arise but 
that the very gallant Major Hamilton (and I hope many 
others) would glory in the example of Eegulus if essential 
to their country's safety. 

In exchange of prisoners, the Rebels invariably mask 
their native perfidy. To release British troops for their 
wretched bands, they well know is to give great value for 
little consideration. Therefore it is humbly apprehended, 
that the prisoners should be incorporated with the Kings 
troops in the West or East Indies. The Prisoners, espe- 
cially the Europeans by far the greatest number would 
think their conditions highly improved by this measure, 
which indeed would more effectually deter natives from the 
service than any other expedient. 

If to these obvious truths you oppose interested infor- 
mations or the passionate declamations of factious men, 
you would, Sir, do well to remember that early in 1778, 
they declared that the Kings army in Philadelphia was in 
danger or rather certain to share the fate of the Canada 
Army — that no number of troops to be spared from home 
defence were sufficient to reduce the invincible colonies to 
reason &c. &c. — Since that period this Army has been 
weakened by detachments to S* Lucia, Pensacola, Georgia, 
to Carolina, Halifax and Quebec at least 19 or 20,000 
men. For the recruits of 1779 did little more than supply 
casualties of every nature, since the abandonment of Phila- 
delphia — Now the Army thus weakened, was so far from 
being captivated that the part thereof remaining last win- 
ter at New York and its numerous dependencies cannot 
be said to have been insulted although the severity of the 
winter, by the ice, offered the most favorable opportunity 


that could have been wished. Incontestible proof of their 
weakness. Nay, this pretended formidable Army daily 
insulted by the garrison, was on the point of losing its 
Heaven-born General, who in all probability had graced 
New York with his celestial presence, if his kindred skies 
had not sent a well timed fall of snow to disconcert the 
well concerted enterprise. I repeat that the Army thus 
weakened, in all human probability, was equal to suppress 
the rebellion, if France had not this year interfered. That 
this truth was dreaded by the Leaders of the Rebellion is 
most manifest by their calling [in] French troops ; an expe- 
dient so odious to their prejudices & pride, so generally 
execrated by the people that extremity of danger or insanity 
only have produced it. That such event was regarded 
as inevitable, is, and ever will be acknowledged by the 
most considerate in and out of the Lines. It is moreover 
confessed by the Declaration of the Congress of the 28 th 
of March to the pretended States, and lately has been ex- 
plicitly recognized by the extraordinary proclamation of 
Heed titular Governor of Pennsylvania. That the affair 
was not thought remote may be inferred from Gen 1 Knyp- 
hausen's late march with his small army into Jersey and 
that very Competent Judge perhaps had signally eclaircized 
this matter, if the intervention of foreign circumstances 
had not induced the Commander in Chief to postpone 
operations for the present. 

I shall conclude my letter with certain brief remarks on 
Major General Greys evidence, the inutility of which I am 
really amazed you did not discover. The general seems 
to forget that the Middle & Northern colonies in spring 
almost every where afford fields of green wheat, or at least 
rye, — and abound with dry Fother and Oats Sec. — He 
thinks that the Southern operations were much preferable 
to removing the seat of the war to the banks of the North 
River &c. Sec. (as may be seen in his evidence.) In an- 
swer 1 reply that for the honor of General Grey, I do 



most sincerely believe that he was utterly unacquainted. 
The rebel armies in Jersey in 1777 never exceeded 8500 
or 9000 men indifferently appointed & disciplined. This 
truth is notorious by many incontrovertible circumstances. 
Indeed on their march through Philadelphia to Brandy- 
wine they were numbered by different respectable Loyalists 
appointed to that end. The state of Washington's army 
which at one time this spring did not exceed 3800 or 4000 
men, strongly declares this truth. They have sustained 
little more loss than the recruiting service made good. 
Now if their armies were then so numerous how shall we 
account for their present weak state? That the consider- 
able naval & land force at the command of Sir W m Howe 
incontestibly at all times gave him the command of the 
North River, and had he fortunately detached even one 
fourth or fifth of his Army to the Canada forces nothing 
seems clearer in human affairs than that Gen* Burgoyne 
had saved his Army and perhaps given law to New Eng- 
land. Indeed one third of his army as numerous as 
k Washington's was surely sufficient to block him up at 
West Point or prevent his crossing the river, which pru- 
dence deterred him from doing. But admitting Gen 1 Howe 
with three fourths of his Army had advanced, even to Al- 
bany, and Washington had crossed the North River, I 
believe that no reasonable person can imagine that he 
would have attacked New York, or that in case of such 
temerity he would have succeeded against a place defended 
by a vast naval force garrisoned by 5 or 6,000 men, sup- 
ported by a considerable number of loyalists. What acts 
of prowess previous to this affair had Washington dis- 
played to warrant or even create an opinion that he would 
have succeeded in a much less arduous affair. Surely it 
was not the battles at Long-Island or White plains, nor 
the affair of Fort Washington, nor his bloodless and certain 
surprise of Trenton, nor the impotent attack of his army 
on the 17 th Regiment of 300 men near Princetown. 



The attack, says the General, at Middlebrook was utterly 
impracticable ; the innumerable posts and number of de- 
fences which forbid such attempt and the making our way 
to Philadelphia without giving a decisive defeat would 
have been foolhardiness &c &c. The first part of the sen- 
tence is not explicable ; but Sir Henry Clinton's march 
through the Jerseys conclusively answers the last part of 
the sentence. 

Unfortunately an unhappy belief that the Eebel Army 
was as numerous as artfully suggested and perhaps recol- 
lection of the obstinacy at Bunker's Hill (the attack on 
which was as unhappily ordered by Gen 1 Gage, as if directed 
by Congress) probably induced General Howe to abandon 
the Jersies. Had he known the real state of Washingtons 
army he could have destroyed it either by action or by 
blockading it into surrender which he could have done with 
two thirds of his Army whilst the remainder had destroyed 
the Jersies. Indeed Washington had prepared batteaus to 
pass his Army over the Delaware at Cornels & Howard's 
Ferrys,. and would have retreated soon as he had perceived 
General Howe in earnest to engage ; but such retreat 
would have been equivalent to defeat for 6 8 ths of his 
army being emigrants, forced into the service by every sort of 
misery and fraud would then have safely deserted in com- 
panies as they have often since clone in defiance of hazard. 
No new position as has been falsely alleged could have 
endangered the safety of New York. By whom was it to 
be besieged ] By the New England men replies folly or 
design to Simplicity. The answer is that if they, when 
encouraged by Sir William Howe's absence in the Chesa- 
peak, found infinite difficulty in oppressing 2000 men at 
Saratoga, they would not unaided by a miracle have taken 
New York garrisoned as asserted. To this siege they 
must have marched with their artillery (if possessed of 
ordnance) nearly 200 miles and in roads rocky & moun- 


No time, continues Gen. Grey <&c. &c, and the only 
probable means of success was to land at the head of Elk 
at Chesapeak and not in Delaware. In answer to this 
most singular assertion, let us suppose an ignorant Minister 
had ordered Sir William Howe to proceed to head of Elk 
via Chesapeak and from thence commence his operations. 
As the inutility of embarking to proceed to Pennsylvania 
instead of proceeding from Brunswick about 50 miles to 
Red bank near Philadelphia has already been judiciously 
exploded, I shall content myself by observing that the Gen- 
eral ought to have held the following language on his 
approaching the Delaware. is At this season a trade wind 
constantly opposes the passage of all fleets to Chesapeak, 
more especially of a fleet composed generally of Colliers 
and it probably may protract their passage, until over- 
whelmed by the dreadful storms, peculiar to this coast 
early in September, & even sooner, (as Lord Howe's fleet 
the following 10 th of August experienced). I will there- 
fore put into Delaware. A continued plain stretches from 
its Capes to Wilmington in any part of which aided by 
my ships of war I can land the troops in defiance of the 
first Army in Europe commanded by the King of Prussia. 
These facts, he would have added, are unknown to the 
Minister, to whom I aver on my honor, that Newcastle is 
but 15 miles from Head of Elk and 10 miles to Couches 
mill (from whence the first resistance was made, if it de- 
serves that name) ; and I do moreover aver on my honor 
that in this distance of ten miles from Newcastle to 
Couches mill, General Grey would not be able to water 
his horse unless he ordered it from a well. I will there- 
fore land at Newcastle and by an easy march will reach 
Head of Elk, from which place, I will commence opera- 
tions in obedience to orders, which it seems have in con- 
templation the avoiding of 9 creeks and rapid streams 8 of 
which do not exist but in imagination. I am therefore 
justifiable on every principle of reason to break the Min- 



isters orders which by the length and danger of the 
voyage, promises to destroy my horses, protract the cam- 
paign, encourage the New Englanders to arm and in 
every other sense to injure the king's service." I shall 
not insult your understanding in supposing you so egregi- 
ously weak as to conceive danger from Gallies, fire rafts 
and such nonsense, or creeks and streams, none of which 
as suggested exist, save the Schuylkill, which may be passed 
in many convenient places under the fire of the Artillery 
and without loss. The sequel notoriously proved the futil- 
ity of these bugbear dangers. Certainly the Rebels were 
as much interested to destroy our shipping when besieging 
Mud Island Fort as on any other occasion ; nor were their 
efforts wanting, but in that instance produced rather de- 
rision than terror. I have not sufficient experience to 
admire, with General Grey the greatness of the manoeuvre 
at Brandywine, but I must ever believe that on that occa- 
sion General Howe perfectly knew his enemy else he 
would not by a long and circuitous march have exposed 
General Knyphausen's division of 6000 men to be cut in 
pieces by Washington who undeniably had the finest op- 
portunity with his whole army to assail that body for sev- 
eral hours, during which attack no manner of aid could 
have been derived to it from Lord Cornwallis's distant di- 
vision. If as General Grey affirms Washington's army 
was 16000 veterans, and was not a contemptible enemy, 
why did they forego so glorious an opportunity of combat- 
ing a force so comparatively trivial ] If such an army as 
described by General Grey in high from our retreat from 
Jersey, possessed of the strongest ground, considerable 
artillery and other advantages, on the day which ought to 
have decided their empire, fled after sustaining little loss & 
destroying only 68 of their enemies, for Gen 1 Howes returns 
ascertain the number, — I appeal to your judgement, to 
your honor, if it has the most distant pretensions to General 
Grey's eulogiums "? 



Charmed as the General is with the manoeuvres at 
Brandy wine I perceived one which gave no satisfaction. 
About sunset, he advanced with his command, the reserve, 
to the village of Brandywine, and I believe soon after re- 
ceived orders to encamp to the right of a wood distant 
about half a mile from Head quarters. Immediately on 
getting to his ground a most tremendous fire, well sup- 
ported was made on the unoffending wood which had not 
lodged one Rebel for two hours before this spirited attack. 
Indeed there was not one Rebel within 6 miles of the 
wood attacked with such ardor. To us who have not 
served in Germany, this manoeuvre did not seem to merit 
uncommon applause. Nor can we really discover the 
events which warrant his encomiums on the spirit and 
skill of the Insurgents. It was not at Brandywine nor 
at his trifling affair with Wayne which surely discovered 
no skill on their part and I am sorry to add, no humanity 
on his. Nor, with due deference, is the affair of German- 
town, tho' so much extolled, proof in point. He forgets, or 
affects so to do, that they were not pursued at Brandywine 
and as they suffered little, it cannot be thought extraor- 
dinary that, soon after, they ventured to attack, by surprize 
the Kings army, when very considerably weakened by the 
grenadiers being in Philadelphia and several excellent 
regiments in Jersey. Yet notwithstanding all these great 
advantages the Insurgents were repulsed with disgrace 
after a feeble attempt. 

I can by no means reconcile, to General Grey's candor, 
his affirming that the disposition of the people of America 
is unfriendly towards Great Britain. After the unfortunate 
passage to Head of Elk when horses & cattle became so 
necessary, they were obtained without firing one shot. If 
the proprietors had been enemies, they had only to have 
removed the stock a few miles to a place of the utmost 
safety. On the route to Philadelphia the inhabitants (save 
for a few miles near Elk) almost to a man remained at their 




habitations and ordinary avocations and most liberally sup- 
plied the King's troops with provisions. On that long and 
naturally strong route not one musquet, was fired by the 
inhabitants who on every occasion gave unequivocal proofs 
of their Loyalty, as you may clearly perceive by M r Gal- 
loway's very judicious testimony & letters. 

I must observe that if Gen. Grey regards America as 
extremely unfavorable to the operations of war, in what 
view will he consider the West Indies, a country of inac- 
cessible mountains, a climate so mortal to troops that had 
the Havanna resisted a few weeks longer, the victors 
could not have taken possession of its gates ; — a climate in 
every sense so destructive of men, that a Roman army, 
under a Pompey or Csesar had there almost forgot to be 
pcdiens pulveris atque soils. 

Finally Sir, I think you cannot but perceive that the 
testimony you so much esteemed, is, as asserted, founded in 
error, nugatory, delusive, groundless. 

I ardently wish you, Sir, to observe that justly vener- 
ating General Howe as I do, I never can presume ungener- 
ously to suppose that his errors w r ere of the heart. No, 
many of them were generated by difficulties in some degree 
arising from this unhappy and singularly circumstanced 
war. Remember, Sir, the innumerable misfortunes and 
even national disgraces sustained with Roman fortitude 
during the first years of the last war. If an unrelenting 
cruel faction had then existed, ardent to chain the springs 
of Government, to debase the national spirit and by every 
flagitious art to rouse, animate & augment her enemies, 
Great Britain had ceased to be an Empire. In 1738 when 
Jenkins, mutilated by a Spanish Corsair presented himself 
before the House of Commons, every member of that 
illustrious body exclaimed Revenge ! At this unhappy era, 
Faction would depress & erase every Idea of National 
honor virtue and spirit. It seems unmoved or rather 
gratified by seeing a Col Campbell or Hamilton buried in 



chains in the dungeons of these unprincipled men whom 
they have created. They are torpid and unmoved at the 
sufferings, poverty, exilement and death of thousands of 
their virtuous fellow subjects. Indeed such is the arro- 
gance & cruel refinement of Faction, that they upbraid 
these very unhappy men as pensioned mercenaries eager to 
combat alternately as interest dictates. 

Nevertheless they have too much patriotism and magna- 
nimity to derive the least consolation in the cruel reflection, 
that even many of their enemies soon must be involved in 
equal misery, from the certain catastrophe awaiting the 
Constitution, if America is lost, which can only happen in 
consequence of a continuation of their criminal conduct. 

Anxiously, my dear Sir, expecting to hear from you, I 
ever remain with the utmost sincerity and respect 
Your obedient 

humble Servant 


L* Col Comd' Maryland Loyalists. 

New York, Aug. 23 d 1780. 


My Dear Sir, 

I did myself the pleasure of enquiring after your health 
and my Mothers the latter end of last Month. We have 
had odd Work here. General Arnold the Rebel Chief has 
joined us openly. He has been inimical to the American 
cause sometime. He corresponded with Gen! Clinton for a 
long while. One of the deepest schemes ever known was 
laid between them, which by the most unhappy accident 
was discovered within a few hours of its crisis, that would 



have been the overthrowing of the revolted States. The 
French having a Fleet and Troops at Rhode Island, an 
Expedition was embarked and wisper'd destined for that 
Place. Washington got scent of it, and knowing the 
weakness of the French, was on the eve of Marching to 
their reinforcement leaving Arnold with the Command of 
the North River where their chief Magazines are, and 
when Washington had got a proper distance, the Trans- 
ports were to push up the River with Troops on whose 
approach Arnold was to Surrender the Garrison & Forts 
&c. [by which means we should cut off the communica- 
tion between the Northern & Southern Provinces, opened 
one for ourselves through Albany into Canada.] Gen 1 Clin- 
ton, to make the matter more compleat, sent out a Flag by 
a very Trusty Officer (& one of an unblemished Character) 
who, it was reported, went to settle the Exchange of Prison- 
ers, but by the bye to spy the Market. He had a conference 
with G. A. from whom he procured a pass and being 
rather too Sanguine for the wellfare of his Country dis- 
guised himself and exceeded the Gen ls intention, but ac- 
complished his own by making himself acquainted with 
the Strength of their Camp, through which he passed & 
made minutes of every thing he thought requisite, but un- 
fortunately within a few miles of his return, he was dis- 
covered & searched and the minutes with other Papers 
found on him, by this unlucky accident the Plot was blown. 
Arnold made his escape from them, the Light Horse was 
just ten minutes too late after him. Poor Major Andrie 
who was the Officer sent was try'd and being above telling 
a Lye when his Life was at stake frankly owned that he 
came out as a Flag but when taken was a Spy, his Elo- 
quence had such an effect on many of the Court that when 
his sentence was pronounced they shed tears lamenting the 
fate of so great a Man which the laws of war had con- 
demned to die. His Oratory & steadfastness (its reported) 
late years have not seen before and is to be equalled only 



by some old Roman Stories we read of. Every method 
was taken to procure his existance ; Gen 1 Robertson the 
Commandant with the Principal of the Council went out 
with a Flag, but to no effect, nothing but his forfeit life 
would serve. He has died a sacrifice to his Country, & 
tho' an Ignominious Death, an Honor to it & his Connec- 
tions, loved & esteemed by those who knew him and ad- 
mired by those that did not. Thus ends the Life of a 
great Man. Gen 1 Arnold is made a Rrig dr in our service. 
He has published a Memorial to his Countrymen in behalf 
of the step he has taken. It is very long or I would send it 
you. We are going on a expedition, I believe, to the South- 
ward. The Troops are embarked ivho vow Revenge with 
Vengeance on those who fall into their Hands for Andrie's 
Death. The first news you hear of the expedition expect a 
great Carnage. When the account arrived at York the 
Soldiers lips vibrated Andrie Andrie & the street reechoed 
Vengeance with the Bayonet to the sons of Rebellion. I 
must now conclude, with my Duty to my Mother & beg 
you to except of the same from 
My dear Sir 

Your Most dutiful son 


Blonde New York 11 Oct! 1780 

Our first Lieutenant M r Doun is going home, a worthy 
Man who has been very Civil to me, not only as a mess 
mate, but a friend, in advising me at my first embarking. 
On my giving your address he has promised to call on my 
mother when he goes to London, which I suppose will be 
some time after his arrival, as he resides in the Country & 
bas not seen his family for near 4 years. He says he will let 
you know how I go on. 

Let me intreat you Sir to use all your Int'rest for me in 
behalf of an Adjutancy, as I know you are my friend & 
wish to serve and this is the time or never. 





Agreeable to your request of knowing how I was treated 
when taken prisoner at Moots house. After being obliged 
to surrender at discreation, owing to the houses being set on 
fire — when I ordered the Chamaud to be beat a Conti- 
nentall officer with a file of men mounted the parepet one 
of them mad (e) a push at me with his bagnet (sic) which 
I paried of and sprung over the works when I was meet by 
Doctor Irven of Lee's Lejon (sic) who behaved with all 
manner of politness to me and the rest of the British and 
Hessian officers who had the misfortune to be taken 
prisoners at the same time. Doctor Irven asked for my 
sword, But on my expressing a wish to deliver it to Lieu* 
Col. Lee I was conducted to that Gentleman who I ac- 
quainted that I was his prisoner and had reserved my sword 
from Doctor Irven as I wished to deliver it to him and that 
I expected to be treated as an officer and a person who had 
don his duty. He adressed me in a very impolite manner, 
told me to deliver my sword to a Serg* of his on which I 
threw the sword from me. He then told me that the in- 
solence of the British could not be put up with and desired 
that I should prepare myself to be mad an imediate 
example of and asigned for his reason that I was guiltie of 
insolence and obstinacy in not giving up the post sooner — 
I told him I had only don my duty and that my Country 
would revenge insult offer'd me or any other British officer 
his prisoner on which I was ordered to be conveyed of by 
Doctor Irven who behaved to me with his usual politness 
— I remained two hours in Confinment every minute ex- 
pecting my fate when Col! Lee sent for Lieu' M c Phersou 
and myself. We remained one hour and a half at his door 



when he came out and Informed us that he would at 
present forgive us but if ever we would exceed our duty 
(as he pretended we had don) that we might expect to 
receive the execution of the threat that he formerly threat- 
ened us with — from that time we were treated with the 
greatest politness by all the Continentall officers and by 
Gen 1 Green in particular. 

It gives me particular uneasiness to find from a Corprall 
of my Comp° y that two of the Militia were hanged without 
any reason being asigned for it, but their being well affected 
to goverment. I remonstrated with Col! Lee on the subject 
he blamed Gen! Marian, I was afterwards informed that 
Gen 1 Marian threw all the blame on him for. I had no 
opertunity of seeing Gen! Marian afterwards. 
I am Sir 

Your most ob* & most 
hum: Serv? 


Capt n SI 3 .' RegJ 

Charleston 12 th August 1781. 
To Mr. . 



Nov. 3 d 1620 King James y e 1 st Grants to y e Council of 
Plimouth all y e Lands in New England between Forty & 
Forty eight degrees of Northerly Latitude in Breadth 
& from y e Atlantick Sea on y e East part to y e South Sea on 
y e West part in Length. 

2. The latter end of y e same year or in y e next (for y e 
accounts differ) the Council grants to Capt. John Mason 
that Tract of Land beginning at y e mouth of Salem River 
& up s d River to the head thereof & then from y e mouth 



of Salem Eiver afores d along y e Sea coast to the mouth of 
Merrimack River & then up s d Eiver to the furthest Head 
thereof but gives him no Head line. 
3. The Council of Plimouth by their Deed Dated March 19 

1627 Granted to Sr Henry Eos well &c the undertakers to 
bring forward a settlement in y e Massachusetts Bay all y e 
Land from three miles South of Charls Eiver & three miles 
South of any & every part of it, on y e South part to three 
miles to y e Northward of Merrimack Eiver & to the North- 
ward of any & every part of it on the North part & from 
y e Atlantick Sea on y e east part to y e South Sea 
on the West part. 

4. These Adventurers finding themselves weak as to Juris- 
diction applyed to King Charles the first the then Eeigning 
king for remedy who by Letters Patents Dated March y e 4 th 

1628 makes them a Corporation, in those Letters he refers 
to y e afores d Deed of y e Council of Plimouth by a Large & 
particular recital of y e contracting parties & of y e Date 
& y e particular Boundaries & expressly confirms y e s d 

5. Sometime in y e year 1629 the before mentioned 
Council of Plimouth granted to Capt. John Mason all 
y e Land thus described & bounded vid. beginning at y e 
mouth of Merrimack & up s d Eiver to the furthest head 
thereof & thence Westward into land whilst Sixty miles 
were finished from y e mouth aforesd & then beginning at 
y e s d mouth & running alon(g) y e Sea Coast to y e mouth of 
Piscotaqua Eiver & throug(h) the same up into y e Eiver 
Newichwannock & to the furthest head thereof & thence 
Northwestward into Land till Sixty miles are finished from 
y e mouth of Piscotaqua Eiver aforesd & from y e end of y e 
last mentioned line to cross over Land to y e end of y e first 
mentioned Sixty mile Line. 

6. Sometime in y e year 1635 the same Council of Pli- 
mouth grants to Capt. Mason all y e Land beginning at y e 
mouth of Salem Eiver & thro y e same to y e furthest head 



thereof & thence Westward into Land till Sixty miles are 
finished & then from y e month of Salem River along y e 
Sea Coast to Piscotaqna River & thro that into y e River 
Newichwannock & thro that to y e furthest head & thence 
Northwestward into Land till Sixty miles were finished & 
to cross over Land to y e end of y e other Sixty mile Line. 

The Corporation of y e Massachusetts Bay considering y e 
Northerly course of y e Inland part of Merrimack River & 
also those expressions in their charter w h gives them three 
miles North of Merrimack River & three miles to y e North- 
ward of any & every part thereof & also those other expres- 
sions, all Lands within the Limits aforesd North & South in 
Latitude & breadth & in Length & Longitude throughout 
y e main Land from Sea to Sea — extend their Jurisdiction 
as far as an East & West Line laid three miles North of 
y e most Northward part of Merrimack River which swal- 
lowed up all Mr. Masons Lands his heirs complained of this 
usurpation & y e matter came to a tryall in y e year 1677 
King Charles y e 2 d & y e Privy Council then expressly set 
aside that construction of y e Massachusetts Deed & charter 
& determined that y e North & South boundaries of y e Prov- 
ince was to follow y e course of y e Rivers as far as y e Rivers 

Mf Walker at M 1 . Curries in S! Martins Street 
Leicestr. fields. 


The Charter to Maryland was passed by which the scar.i. 
Province of Maryland is vested in Propriety to Lord Bal- 
timore and his Heirs and free and common Soccage with 
very large and ample powers and (inter alia) a power of 
calling an Assembly to consist of the Representatives of 




the People of that Province to be elected for that purpose, 
and with their advice & assent to pass all manner of Laws 
whether relative to the publick State of the Province or to 
the private utility of the Inhabitants so as the said Laws 
were consonant to reason and not repugnant nor contrary, 
but as near as conveniently could be agreeable to the 
Laws Statutes and Customs of England. 

With power of erecting Courts civil and criminal, and 
of punishing Criminals with loss of Limb or Life — With 
power to the proprietor to make Ordinances during the 
recess of the Assembly under the like restriction as their 
Laws were subject to, but so as not to affect Member, 
Life, Freeholds, Goods or Chattels — With a power to 
Erect Castles and other Fortifications and appoint Captains 
thereof and to form Camps for the public defence. 

And whereas in so distant a Country scituate near so 
many barbarous Nations incursions might be apprehended 
as well from the Barbarians as from other Enemies, Pi- 
rates and Robbers — Therefore full and ample power is 
given to Lord Baltimore and his Heirs by themselves Cap- 
tains or other officers to levy muster and train all the In- 
habitants in Martial array and to make War and pursue 
the Enemies and Robbers aforesaid as well by Land as by 
Sea that should invade those parts and to pursue them 
even without the limits of the said Province, and to Van- 
quish and take them and being taken to put them to 
death by the Laws of War or to save them of their pleas- 
ure, and to do all other things which unto the charge and 
office of Captain General of an Army belongeth or hath 
accustomed to belong with powers to suppress Rebellions, 
quiet Tumults or seditions, and to punish Mutinies and 
desertions and inflict Military discipline on Delinquents by 
Military Law in as full and ample manner as any Captain 
General of an Army by virtue of his office could or had 
accustomed to use. 

Connecticut Charter was passed by which this Colony 



is incorporated — consisting of Governor, Deputy Gover- 
nor, 12 Assistants and Freemen, and the General Assembly 
— It consists of the Governour, Deputy Govf, Assistants, 
and two Freemen Elected from Each Town, who are re- 
quired by the Charter to meet twice a year — and the 
Governor, Deputy Governour, Assistants and all the 
Officers of the Company are required to be chosen annu- 

They have likewise a power in their General Assembly 
of passing all manner of Laws, Statutes &c, not contrary 
to the Laws of the realm of England. 

"With power to the Chief Commanders, Governors and 
officers of the said Company for their special defence and 
safety to assemble Martial Array, and put in Warlike pos- 
ture the Inhabitants of the said Colony & to commission- 
ate, empower and authorize such Persons as they shall 
think fit to lead and conduct the said Inhabitants, and to 
encounter, expulse, repell, and resist by force of Arms, 
as well by Sea as by Land, and to kill, slay and destroy by 
all fitting ways enterprises & means whatsoever all such 
Persons as shall at any time attempt or Enterprise the 
destruction, invasion, detriment or annoyance of the said 
Inhabitants and Plantations and to use and exercise the 
Law Martial in such cases only as occasion shall require, 
and to take or surprise by all ways and means whatsoever 
all such Persons with their Ships"; &c. as shall in Hostile 
manner invade or attempt the hurt of the said Company 
and Inhabitants — And upon just Causes to invade and 
destroy the Natives or other Enemies of the said Country. 

Rhode Island Charter was granted, by which the Inhab- is car. 2. 
itants of this Colony are Incorporated by the name of the 
Governor and Company of the English Colony of Rhode 
Island and Providence Plantations — And this Company 
consists of the Governor, 10 Assistants and of the Free- 
men, and a like power is vested in the General Assembly 
of this Colony to pass Laws as is given to the Colony 
of Connecticut. 



And power is given to trie Governor and major part of 
the Assistants at any time when the general Assembly is 
not sitting to nominate, appoint and constitute as many 
Commanders, Governors and Military Officers as they shall 
judge requisite for the leading, conducting and training up 
the Inhabitants of the said Plantation in Martial Affairs 
and for the defence and safeguard of the said Plantations. 

And it is declared to be lawfull for every such Com- 
mander Governor and that shall be so as aforesaid or by 
the Governor, or in his absence the Deputy Governor and 
6 of the Assistants and major part of the Freemen pres- 
ent at any General Assembly appointed according to their 
Commissions and directions to assemble, Exercise in Arms, 
Martial Array, and put in Warlike posture the Inhabitants 
of the said Colony for their Special defence and safety and 
to lead and conduct the said Inhabitants and to Encounter, 
Expulse, repell and resist by force of Arms all Invaders, 
in the same Words as the Connecticut Charter. 

Pensilvania Charter was granted in propriety to William 
Penn Esq r and his Heirs in free and common Soccage with 
the like powers of Legislature vested in the said W m . Penn 
and his Heirs and the Freemen by their Representatives in 
Assembly as is by the Maryland Charter vested in Lord 
Baltimore and the Inhabitants of that Province, with a 
like power to the said W? Penn & his Heirs to make Or- 
dinances in the Recess of the Assembly. 

With like power to the said W? Penn and his Heirs by 
themselves or Captains or other their Officers to levy mus- 
ter and train all sorts of Men in the said Province and to 
make War and pursue the Enemies in the very same Words 
as in the Maryland Charter. 

Massachusetts Bay Charter reciting former Charter 18 
Ja. 1 st This Company consists of a Governor, Lieutenant 
Governor, and Secretary to be appointed and commissioned 
by the Crown and 28 Assistants or Councillors to be chosen 
annually & by the general Assembly and to be advising 


and assisting to the Governor, and the Gov! and 7 of the 
Assistants are made a Council for the ordering and direct- 
ing the affairs of the said Province. 

The Assembly consists of the Gov!" and Council or As- 
sistants & of the Freeholders Elected to represent them, 
two for Each Town. 

This Assembly is vested with the same full power of 
Legislature as the other Colonies. 

And it is granted established & ordained by this Charter 
that the Governor shall have full power by himself, or by 
any Chief Commander or other Officer or Officers to be 
appointed by him from time to time to train, instruct, ex- 
ercise and .govern, and for the special defence & safety of 
the said Province to assemble in Martial Array and put in 
Warlike posture the Inhabitants of the said Province and 
to lead and conduct them, and with them to Encounter Ex- 
pulse, repell, resist and pursue by force of Arms as well 
by Sea as by Land within or without the limits of the said 
Province and to oppose and kill all persons as shall 
attempt the invasion, detriment or annoyance of the said 
Province and exercise the Law Martial as in time of actual 
War, Invasion or Kebellion as in the said former Charter 
to — 

With a power to Erect Forts and fortify any places 
within the Province and the same to furnish with all nec- 
essary ammunition and Stores of War for offence or 
defence and to commit the custody of the same to whom 
he should see meet and the same to demolish at pleasure, 
and to take all Ships &c? as should in a Hostile manner 
Invade or attempt the invading or annoying the said 

Provided that the Govf should not at any time transport 
any of the Inhabitants of the said Province or oblige 
them to march out of the limits of the same, without their 
free and voluntary consent or the consent of the great and 
general Assembly — Nor grant Commission, for Exercis- 



ing the Law Martial, upon any of the Inhabitants of the 
said Province without the advice & consent of the Council 
or Assistants. 
5 Geo. 2. Georgia Charter — By this Charter a certain number of 
Trustees were appointed and incorporated who resided 
here, in whom the power of preparing Laws was invested 
in order to lay them before the Crown for approbation, 
and they were the very same powers of raising a Militia, 
Exercising Martial Law, repulsing and killing Invaders 
&c, as in the preceeding Charter to the Massachusetts Bay. 
This Militia when raised to be under the command & di- 
rection of the Governor of South Carolina. 


Dear Sir, 

I was very glad to learn from Capt. Bell that you were 
in good Health and had resumed your Ranke at Madrass. 
I hope connubial Happiness and the pleasures of Society 
will over balance the ills attending the torrid zone. I wold 
have taken the liberty to have troubled you with a few 
lines long ere now if I had known of an opportunity, but 
our petty traders have hitherto made a secrit of their voy- 
ages and under the general name of India conceled their 
destination — I have been in this Country a little more than 
4 years and like most of the Europeans who have come 
since the peace, sincerely wish I had never set a foot on 
shore or returned by the first opportunity. The number 
that have been disappointed afford some consolation, al- 
though the extreme ignorance of Great Britain and the 
egregious vjllany of America adds bitterness to disappoint- 
ment and excludes all hope. Home was founded by Hob- 



bers, but these States only by Thieves, the Regency of 
Algiers may boast of good men but in vain will you looke 
for them here ; however, we have Merchants without Capi- 
tals, Soldiers without honour or principal, and a degraded 
people ripe for any thing. Their heatred to Great Britain is 
almost astonishing ; but when we reflect a little, our wonder 
ceases, inferior minds are allways implacable, especially 
when aggresors " odisse quern laeseris " has not escaped 
the sagacity of Tacitus, if inconsistency is a never failing 
mark of depravity we will not hesitate to pronounce even 
Washington a fool or a knave ; since he has renounced his 
principles and used all his influence to establish a form of 
Government quite opposite to what he fought for. The 
New System will be in force soon with Washington at the 
heade of it. In all probability it will be as short lived as the 
present, although the science of government is well under- 
stood in any other Country. You are acting the part of 
Christians by rendering good for evil ; it wold not be possi- 
ble to exclude them from trading in India, and if they 
brought money, they should be made welcome ; but I can- 
not see the policy of purchasing the same articles from 
them on equal terms with yourselves. 

I have been for some time passed exceeding ill, my old 
complaints are worse than ever, existence has been long 
insuportable, Death only can put an end to my sufferings. 
I earnestly wish it may be in my power to satisfy some 
people in Bengali before that awful Period, and hope 
Providence will grant my request although the prospect at 
present is unpromising. I beg you will excuse me for Rec- 
ommending the Bearer, Captain Tingy to your civilities, 
an Englishman who has commanded a shipe in this Coun- 
try for some years, and notwithstanding his attachment to 
great Britain is loved and Respected by the intolerent 
1 Whigs, he is first officer of the Shipe, they mean to make 
a trading voyage and may go to China before they return, 
he is an honest man worthy of your patronage, has a share 



in the shipe with considerable property besides, your ad- 
vice may be of essential service, I am sure the pleasure of 
doing good will be a sufficient inducement if the objecte 
was less worthy. 

My old friends the Turks have behaved well this Cam- 
paign, although I imagine they owe more to the remissness 
of their enemies than themselves, if they are once drove 
from behind their old Fortress they are undon ; for they 
can never stand in the field before well disciplined troops. 

Dear Sir, I shall be convinced you have pardoned me 

for troubling you, when you deign to let me hear from you, 

in the mean time believe me to be with unfeigned regard 

your most obliged friend and Servant 


Philadelphia Dec! the 13 th 1788. 
William Petrie Esq? 


Green Street 22 Mar. 1789 

D R Sir, 

When I received your note I was sitting down to write 
you for information how I was to communicate the little I 
had to say on the dark subject of the Pensylvania Claim. 

1* As to the Map of Mr. Eeading: — Having never 
seen it I will only say, what I would say on oath, that the 
Pens have at all times have very readily found men to 
make Maps to suit their pretensions. Whatever may be 
the Charter boundaries of Pensylvania they might be over- 
ruled by the prior Charter and limits of Maryland, which 
running up to the 40 Deg. of North Lat must equally 
carry up the South Boundary of Pensylvania to the 40 
Deg. of N. Lat, particularly in a claim of this kind. True : — 


There was a decision of the Privy Council on this very 
boundary, namely the Northern of Maryland and the 
Southern of Pensylvania in 1685: — But it was plainly a 
decision founded on misrepresentation and mistake. And, 
at last it was a decision in favor, not of Penn, but of the 
Crown, as Penn pleaded at the time. My inference there- 
fore is, that on this occasion, the 40 Deg. of N. Lat ought 
to be considered as the South boundary and the 43 Deg. 
the Northern ; having the River Delaware for the Eastern 
limits ; and running due West on the 40 Deg & on the 43 
Deg of N. Lat five Degrees of Longitude, to be bounded 
on the West by a line drawn between the extreme points 
of the two Longitudinal or West Courses on the 40 & 43 
Deg of Lat just mentioned. But as there are many curves 
in the Piver Delaware, or Eastern boundary, it has been 
insisted heretofore, that the Western boundary ought to run 
in parallel curves. The Charter says, that the Northern 
limit is to be the beginning of the 43 Deg of N. Lat. 
These circumstances render it very difficult to calculate the 
number of acres in Pensylvania, till these doubtful points 
as to the true boundaries are settled. Of the two mathe- 
maticians, Mason, and Dixon, who were sent from Eng- 
land to measure a due West line from New Castle, one is 
still living; and, if the Board be disposed to proceed with 
Mathematical exactness, they may learn from Sir Joseph 
Banks where this living Mathematician may be spoke with. 

2 d . Pensylvania is doubtless a very large Country, by 
whatever boundaries it shall be circumscribed. It might 
throw additional light on this subject, were the Claimants 
called upon to produce all the Indian purchases they have 
made from the first to the last, and the number of acres in 
each, if they have not already done this. 

3^ As to the Saleable Land claimed ; It seems to me to 
stand on the footing of the Lands granted to individuals, 
who having made no improvements or otherwise complied 
with the terms of the grant, have not been considered as 



very meritorious claimants. The claim and the calculation 
of the Saleable Land is founded on the supposition, That 
this Nation had guaranteed Pensylvania to the Proprietors 
for fifty years to come against foreign conquest and domes- 
tic Rebellion. But I know not if the Nation has entered 
into such an engagement. 

4 th I am unable after all my research to trace minutely 
the progress of population in Pensylvania, as the Proprie- 
taries have always concealed carefully the state of their 
Province from the British Government. This progress 
however has been very rapid. From its settlement in 1682 
till its Independence declared, in 1776, this Province had 
acquired more than three hundred thousand souls. I can 
demonstrate that Virginia and Maryland have doubled 
every five and twenty years since the beginning of this 
Century. Tho' the natural increase was great, a good deal 
of this hot bed growth was owing to importations both of 
Whites and Blacks, and to the overflowings from the super- 
abundance of Pensylvania. I can evince, That New Eng- 
land, during the same period, has doubled in every four or 
five and thirty years, by natural increase, though the D r . 3 
Franklin and Price have talked, I think, of four and five 
and twenty years. I am of opinion, That from the settle- 
ment of Pensylvania it has increased as much as any of 
those Colonies by natural increase and more than any of 
those Colonies, in that period, by importations from Ireland, 
Germany &c. This increase has been particularly great 
during the ten years preceding the He volution of 75. 
And at this epoch, Pensylvania contained rather more than 
302,000 Souls, of whom 2000 were Souls contained in 
Black bodies. I know the Congress stated this population 
at 350,000 ; but they were told at the time what they 
wished not to hear, that they were going far beyond the 
truth. But, where is this rapid increase of natural popula- 
tion to stop I The answer is — when it shall be as difficult 
to subsist in Pensylvania as it is in Europe. This is per- 


haps the case even now in Philadelphia ; except indeed, 
that Parents even there may look to the Western Wilder- 
ness as a capacious reservoir for all their seed. But, let 
us suppose, that there were no channel to this reservoir, 
and that emigration were confined within the boundaries 
of Pensylvania, then, I think, the progress of population 
would go on nearly thus 

The number in 1775 302,000. 

Add— 25 

in 1800 604,000. 

Add— 25 

in 1825 1,208,000. 

It is however proper to add, That all accounts agree, in 
stating the Emigration since the Peace to the fine Country 
on the West of the Ohio, and consequently beyond the 
limits of Pensylvania, as almost incredible. And, I am of 
opinion, that these emigrations will continue for a Century 
to come ; 1 st because this Western Country is unbounded ; 
2 ly because the desire of Emigration Westward is very 
ardent in American hearts. 

5 th These observations go to show, that the Pens would 
not be able to sell all their saleable Lands in fifty years ; 
and that they would be obliged to reduce the price, or pur- 
chase money, w T hich was never well collected. 

This, I fear, is all the light I can throw on this very 
obscure business : And, this I have written with the same 
sincerity as if I had said it upon Oath. Perhaps it would 
not be wholly impertinent, were I to add, that I have 
formerly perused the correspondence, such as it is, between 
the Secretary of State and the Penns, at the epoch of the 
Kevolt, of which I now have notes: — That when the Tea 
Ship, which was not permitted to enter at Philadelphia, 
arrived in England the King sent for the Governor's dis- 



patch but, the Secretary had only a Pensylvania newspaper 
to send ; which newspaper I have seen, with an Indors- 
ment that the King had read it, containing the proceedings 
about the Tea : — The Spring-garden Penn was sent to ; 
but he had no dispatches : — Governor Penn was written 
to ; but, he had scarcely an excuse, for giving no account 
of a Transaction which was deemed ^Rebellious in England. 
The subsequent correspondence of Govf Penn is mere 
lullaby, which was probably taken from the Philadelphia 
Gazettes. I have notes of curious correspondence from 
other persons. It is an incontrovertible fact, That from the 
epoch of the Stamp Act to the sad period of Inde- 
pendence, the Penns never would or did act, and scarcely 
would, or did correspond. 

When you lay this letter before the Board will you be 
so good as to beg their excuse for one or two strokes of 
impertinence, for the sake of my endeavours to show how 
much I am 

Their and your 

Mo. Ob. and faithful Servl 

Cuf Monroe Esq. 


Harbour Island, Bahamas, 6 Septm. 1799. 

My dear Sir, 

You will probably be surprised, at the Place, from 
whence this letter is dated, but I had for this month passed, 
been much indisposed by a Feverish Complaint, which left 
me so weak, as to make a change, of air, & scence, necessary 
towards my Recovery, and I intend to remain here, till 



nearly the Meeting of the Legislature, or as our friend 
Gov. Beckwith terms it, The Colonial Parliament. I had 
a similar complaint last year, but the effects of which, were 
not nearly so severe, as what have lately oppressed me. 

This Letter will be delivered to you by the Hon! Col. 
Murray. He is going home, on his Private affairs, nor can 
I conceive, that He will ever again return to this Country. 
His object I believe to be, the procuring of some Prefer- 
ment in the Army, to which he has lately had some en- 
couragement to hope for, from some favorable inclinations, 
which the Duke of York has expressed for him. His 
manners are mild, & pleasant, and he appears to be, by 
no means deficient in information. His long residence in 
the Islands, added to his own observation, will enable you 
by conversing with him, to procure some useful intelligence 
in regard to the expediency of opening The Land office, 
as well as what the real state, and value of The Land in 
the Bahamas may be, a misunderstanding upon this subject, 
I take to be the reason, of no steps having been taken 
upon it. 

The Admiral has at length added the Sloop Fox, L.* 
Woolridge, to The Prompte, now on the Station, and as I 
understand, she is to remain with us. In the Fox came 
passenger, Gen! Bowles, and L*. Woolridge has orders to 
Land him, at the Creeks, but nothing further. M? Bowles, 
brought me a Letter from Lord Balcarras, to acquaint me 
of his having paid his expences at Jamaica, — considering 
such a charge would meet, with the approbation of Minis- 
ters — I consequently have agreed to the same thing here, 
the amount of which will not exceed Thirty Pound. This 
General talks boldly, and in good language. He appears 
to be a most extraordinary character, and I shall be curious 
to learn how far his interest with the Indians really ex- 
tends, and what may be the issue of his operations. He 
told me, it would be two months, before any thing decisive 
could be done. That his Dispatches to Government would 


be transmitted through Lord Balcarras, and if military 
operations were resorted to, it would be in concert with 
His Lordship, but that He would take an opportunity of 
communicating with me, on the Measures He should adopt 
— I am still in the dark, as to how far, He is encouraged 
to expect support from G. Brittain, but am inclined to sus- 
pect, He has not so much as he professes to have. 

I have not for some time, been able to write any Letters, 
you will therefore excuse the inaccuracy, and confusion, in 
the lines I now trouble you with, and forgive my now only 

That I am ever, 

Your very aff. & most Faithful servant 

G. Chalmers, Jr, &c. &c. &c. 

P. S. Gen 1 Bowles told me, He had a Petition from 
Lord D. to him, for a grant of 20,000 acres of Land in 
the Creeks. 


Office Trade Whitehall, 22 Oct. 1816. 

Dr Sir, 

I have perused and considered the letter of Mr Bar- 
clay of the 10 th and 12 th of August last, relating to the 
Nova Scotia boundaries under the Treaties of 1783 and 
1814 which you put into my hands and I now beg to 
submit what has occurred to me, on the several points so 
well suggested by his majesty's commissioner. 

The United States have arisen within time of memory : 
and of course, cannot claim those various pretensions, 
the various topicks which arise from long usage : Their 
rights must be made out, from the positive grant of the 



prior occupant and owner : In this case Great Britain 
was, and is, the prior occupant, and owner of the islands, 
in question from the distant epochs of colonization and 
discovery. The United States may claim, however, under 
the Treaty of 1783, all islands within 20 leagues of any 
part of the United States, with this defeasance ; " excepting 
such islands as now are or heretofore have been within the 
limits of the said province of Nova Scotia." It follows, 
then, as a fair consequence from the foregoing premisses, 
that the United States, cannot claim any island that has 
ever been deemed to lye within the limits of Nova Scotia. 

This leads on to the enquiry what has been, at all times, 
the limits of Nova Scotia. It is curious to remark, that 
M r Barclay has at once appealed to the royal grant of 
Nova Scotia to Sir W m Alexander Lord Stirling, in the 
same manner as Mess. T. Shirley & Mildmay did, in 1749, 
at Paris, when acting as British Commissaries, for settling 
the Boundaries of that colony. The Board of Trade, with 
Lord Halifax at its head, disapproved of this : & so in- 
formed the Duke of Bedford, the Secretary of State. The 
objection of the Board was, that to appeal to that grant of 
Nova Scotia was to make Nova Scotia a part of Acadie ; 
whereas those two colonies were identified, as one and the 
same ; they were so indentified by the Treaty of Utrecht 
art XII, which ceded to G. Britain, all Nova Scotia or 
Acadie with its ancient boundaries and all other things in 
those parts, which depend on the land & islands together 
with the Dominion, & propriety and possession of the said 
islands, lands and places.* Upon this point of identifica- 
tion, it may be observed from the Books of the Board of 
Trade: The first commission which was granted, in 1712, 
to Col. Nicolson for that Colony, empowered him to 
take under his government Nova Scotia or Acadie; but 
without any boundaries ; plainly referring, virtually to the 
ancient boundaries of Acadie or Nova Scotia as stated in 

* The remainder of this paragraph was struck out of the original draft of the letter. 



the peace of Utrecht. This form, and that policy, were 
continued in all the subsequent commissions to Governors, 
including that of 1749, which is the epoch of the present 
province of Nova Scotia, properly so understood, till the 
commission of 1763 to Montague Wilmot, when those 
were special assigned, in the place of the virtual reference, 
in former commissions, to the ancient boundaries of Nova 
Scotia or Acadie. 

With regard to the ancient boundaries of Nova Scotia 
or Acadie, the Board proceed in the following manner: to 
evince the Truth of those limits and demonstrate His Maj- 
esty's just Title to all the Lands, Continents, Islands, Shores, 
Bays and Rivers, comprehended within them. In doing 
this we shall argue upon no facts which are not authentic, 
and no evidence which is not conclusive, and we are so 
fortunate as to be able to support every part of this claim, 
not only from several declarations and acts of State on the 
part of the Crown of France, but also from the uniform 
possession of that Crown for many years, both before and 
after the Treaty of Breda, which Crown as often as it 
claimed, and possessed Acadie, claimed and possessed it in 
that extent and with the same limits we now contend for. 

In 1617 the Crown of France being then in possession 
of Acadia, Charles de Menon, Chevalier Sieur d'Aubray, 
obtained a Commission under the sign manual of Lewis the 
13 th — which recites " that the said Sieur d 1 xlubray having 
been appointed by the late King, Governor and Lieutenant 
General of Acadia in New France had exercised that office 
for 14 years and had expelled the Foreign Religionaires 
from the Fort of Pentagoit and restored to the obedience 
of that Crown the Fort of the River S l John ; for which 
and other Services he is confirmed and reestablished in the 
said office by the following words, viz. Gouverneur et 
Lieut. Gen 1 en tous les dits Pais, Territoires, Cotes et Con- 
fins de la Cadie, a commencer de le Bord dc la Grande 
Riviere de S fc Laurent, tant du long de la Cote de la Mer 



et des Isles adjacentes qu'en dedans de la Terre ferme et 
en icelle etendue tant et si avant que faire se pourra, 
jusques aux Virginies," and in another part of this com- 
mission, where power is given to the said d'Aubray to 
traffick with the Indians, the limits are described in the 
following words, " Dans toute l'etendue du dit Pais de 
Terre ferme et Cotes de 1'Acadie depuis la dite Riviere 
S fc Laurent jusqu'a la Mer tant que les dits Pais et Cotes 
se peuvent etendre jusq'aux Virginies." 

To explain the word " Virginies " made use of in this 
Commission to denote the Western Limits of Acadia, let 
us observe that King James the First in 1606 granted a 
certain Territory to two Companies, allowing the one to 
settle at any Place on the Coast of Virginia between the 
Degrees of 34 and 41 the other between the Degrees of 
38 and 45 North Latitude ; and that in consequence of 
this Grant all that Country, which has since been divided 
into separate Provinces, passed for many years under the 
names of North and South Virginia ; as will further appear 
from the ancient History of its first Planting by Sam 1 
Purchas, and from Neale's History of New England. 

It results from this evidence that the Country of Acadia 
was then deemed by the Crown of France, to extend 
Northward as far as the Southern Banks of the River S fc 
Lawrence ; and to the Westward, as far as the River 
Pentagoet ; and that the Western Boundaries of Acadia 
abutted upon the British Territories. 

The Board of Trade go on to strengthen that reasoning 
and conclusion by facts. To this effect, they show, that 
during the civil wars, which were closed by the Restora- 
tion, Cromwell in 1654, dispossessed the French of several 
Forts along the shore from S fc Croix to Penobscot, and par- 
ticularly of a fort at Penobscot ; These forts not only 
retained the possession of the intermediate country, but 
protected the French Colonists from the depredations of 
the Indians. On the Restoration they solicited to be re- 



stored to what they had been dispossessed of, which was 
agreed to by Charles II. In order to confirm the posses- 
sion, the country of Acadie, extending westward to the 
River Penobscot, was ceded in 1667 by the Treaty of Breda, 
which was carried into full effect, by solemn instrument for 
that purpose. In consequence the French remained in 
possession of Acadie till the Treaty of Utrecht, by which, 
as we have seen, Acadie or Nova Scotia, according to its 
ancient boundaries, were ceded by France to G. Britain. 
From that epoch G. Britain has possessed Nova Scotia. 
From that epoch the Colony has been ruled by Governors, 
in virtue of Commissions from the Crown, by the name of 
Nova Scotia or Acadie, without any specific boundaries 
down to the Peace of 1763, when a Commission being 
granted to Montague Wilmot, special boundaries were 
thereby assigned. 

The Board of Trade having proved incontestibly the 
ancient right of G. Britain to Nova Scotia or Acadie pro- 
ceed to show how the two countries came to be identified, 
by the names of Acadie or Nova Scotia. They trace this 
indentification to the grant of King James, in 1621, and 
the supplement thereto by Charles I. in 1633 to Sir W m 
Alexander, when the country from the River S fc Croix north 
eastward was called Nova Scotia. They show clearly, that 
the grants to Sir W m Alexander could not be carried fur- 
ther to the westward ; as the country had been already 
granted to two great companies ; the Southern called the 
Virginia Company, and the Northern the Plymouth Com- 
pany, of which Sir W m Alexander was a copartner, being 
in possession. The Board go still further : They show 
not from tradition, but from Documents, that Sir W m 
Alexander obtained from the Plymouth Company, a right 
to the country, from the S fc Croix, westward to the Penob- 
scot, so that the name of Nova Scotia was thus extended to 
the intervenicnt country, coextensive with the Title of Sir 
W m Alexander. This point is very important, because it 


relieves the anxieties of M r Barclay, as to the narrowness 
of t s he line, from Cape S* Mary's to the mouth of S* Croix, 
which intersects the island of Grand Manan, so as to leave 
only \ within the Nova Scotia boundary. 

After reasoning all those topics with great knowledge, 
and success, the Board went over the several French charts 
and maps, and show that from the beginning of the 18 th 
Century, the French geographers had included the Bay of 
Fundy, within Nova Scotia or Acadie ; by laying down the 
territories of Nova Scotia on both its sides of this Bay so as 
to environ this long body of water on every side. Now, 
as the island in question, of Grand Manan lies, geographi- 
cally in the Bay of Fundy ; so is this island in Nova Scotia 
or Acadie. But if the American Commissary should dis- 
pute the authority of the French charts which were made 
under the eye of the French government, an authority may 
be quoted which the American Commissary cannot reject. 
The American geographer the intelligent M r Morse in 
treating of Nova Scotia places expressly the Bay of Fundy 
within that Province, as one of the most extensive bodies of 
water within Nova Scotia. Of consequence M r Morse de- 
cides the present enquiry, with regard to the local position 
of Grand Manan, in favour of G. Britain, by placing this 
island in the Bay of Fundy. 

Thus much then with regard to the ancient boundaries 
of Nova Scotia or Acadie, which was so ably stated by the 
Board of Trade ; and which so appositely applies to the 
present question. They left not a doubt as to his Majesty's 
title to the Grand Manan in the Bay of Fundy. The next 
enquiry is with regard to the pretensions of the United 
States, who seem to be fishing in the Bay of Fundy, for 
what they can catch. 

We have already seen in the preliminary paragraph, that 
they can claim nothing but from their treaties with G. 
Britain. Under the fundamental Treaty 1783, whereby 
they acquired independence, they may claim all islands, 



within 20 leagues of any part of the United States, with an 
exception of those islands, which have at any time been 
within the limits of Nova Scotia. They cannot claim then, 
any islands which have ever been deemed within the 
ancient boundaries of Nova Scotia. For this defeasance 
nullifies all pretensions to any islands, within such ancient 
boundaries of Nova Scotia. The Board of Trade clearly 
proved in 1749, that the ancient and modern limits of Nova 
Scotia, comprehended the Bay of Fundy, which is quite 
sufficient, for the present purpose. But the Board went 
further in their profound researches : they showed clearly, 
that the ancient boundaries of Acadie, which they identified 
with Nova Scotia, went far to the westward of S t Croix; 
and extended even to Penobscot : We now see how far G. 
Britain, under that reservation of all islands, that had ever 
been within such limits to the westward, may carry her 
right, and her possession. And it must always be remem- 
bered, that whatever was excepted or reserved by G. 
Britain, was not granted, or conceded to the United States. 
Add to this, that it is a maxim of Diplomacy, as well as 
of Jurisprudence: Melior est conditio jiossidentis. The 
United States form their pretension in opposition both to 
the Title and Possession of G. Britain ; supposing they 
can take the concession of those islands, disregarding the 
Defeasance, which nullified the concession, as far as relates 
to the Islands within the most ancient limits of Nova 
Scotia. As if in fair discussion, this were fair dealing. 

It is mentioned, indeed, by M r Barclay, that there was 
some change made in the boundaries of Nova Scotia, when 
the Commission was granted to Governor Wilmot in 1763, 
which the United States mean to found upon: and he 
deems it of importance that his majesty's agent, M r Chip- 
man should be furnished with the instrument, by which 
this change was effected, in order that the principle and 
policy of that change of boundaries may be seen. It is 
undoubtedly remarkable, after so many commissions had 



been granted to Governors of Nova Scotia, in a different 
form. The first commission was granted to Col. Nicolson 
in 1712, when he was empowered to govern Nova Scotia 
or Acadie ; but without any specification of boundaries ; 
referring virtually to the ancient boundaries of Acadie or 
Nova Scotia. Even when Nova Scotia was formed into 
regular provinces in 1749, the commission to Governor 
Cornwallis was in the same indefinite form : and this form 
and that policy, continued till the granting of the commis- 
sion to Montague Wilmot, in 1763, when specific bounda- 
ries were substituted for virtual reference to ancient limits. 
There is no other Instrument upon that occasion, but the 
Commission to the Governor, and the Representation to 
Ms Majesty, by the Board of Trade, according to the lauda- 
ble practice of that period. A copy of this representation' 
consisting of three pages, may be sent out to M r Chip- 
man, for exposition and argument. The cause assigned 
is, the decision of the attorney and solicitor general, in 
1732, as to the country lying between the S fc Croix and 
Penobscot, which they supposed, upon the case laid before 
them, to belong to Massachusetts; and which the Board 
did not think fit to disturb ; though the Board was of 
opinion " that there were many material circumstances in 
favour of your Majesty's right to the country as far west- 
ward as the River Penobscot, which were not stated in the 
case laid before the attorney and solicitor in 1732, upon 
which case their opinion, and the decision of the Council, 
were founded. We do not think it advisable, that this 
restriction of the Western boundaries of Nova Scotia to 
the River S* Croix should pass, without some reservation 
of your Majesty's right to the country between that River 
and Penobscot, being entered upon the Council books." It 
was also intimated by the Board, that this reservation 
would enable the Government to make the better bargains 
with the Massachusetts, in case the Southern boundary of 
the Quebec Province, should trench upon the Northern 
limits of Massachusetts. It is perhaps more important, 



in the present enquiry, to advert, that when the discussion 
was depending before the attorney and solicitor general in 
1732, the Massachusetts avowedly acknowledged, that the 
Massachusetts did not form any pretensions to Nova Scotia ; 
as we learn from the attorney and solicitor's Report. The 
Massachusetts thus relinquished any pretensions to Nova 
Scotia according to its limits as understood in 1732 : If the 
Massachusetts relinquished any pretensions to the Bay of 
Fundy, as a peculiar part of Nova Scotia, this would an- 
swer the present purpose of preserving to G. Britain the 
several islands in the Bay of Fundy. 

But what were the special limits of Nova Scotia, in Gov- 
ernor Wilmot's commission, which apply to the present 
question 1 " Bounded to the Westward by a line drawn 
from Cape Sable across the entrance of the Bay of Fundy 
to the mouth of the River S fc Cr©ix." But at the conclu- 
sion of the whole specification of boundaries, there is this 
reservation : "• And to the Southward by the Atlantic 
Ocean, from the said Cape to Cape Sable aforesaid, includ- 
ing the island of that name, and all other islands within 
forty leagues of the coast, with all the rights, members and 
appurtenances whatsoever thereunto belonging." Upon 
this specification two questions may be made : (1) whether 
the line drawn from Cape Sable (not Cape S fc Mary's, as 
M r Barclay has it) across the entrance of the Bay of Fundy 
to the mouth of S* Croix, may not be deemed the western 
coast of Nova Scotia? (2) whether the Grand Manan isle 
does not lye nearer than 40 leagues of the eastern bank of 
S fc Croix 1 In both cases the Grand Manan would come 
within the forty leagues reserved. If so the claim founded 
upon this specification is nothing to the purpose. 

Yet, says M r Barclay, " I have reason to believe, it will 
be attempted to support the claim of the United States to 
Grand Manan and the islands in the Bay of Passamaquod- 
dy, by the limits of Nova Scotia, as described in his Maj- 
esty's commission to Lord W m Campbell in 1766, and to 
Francis Legg in 1773 as Governors of that Province." 



The specification, as to this Western boundary is the same 
in both as those in Governor Wilmot's commission in 1763. 
There is an obvious remark to be made as to all those 
commissions, from 1763 downwards, that they were all 
prior to 1783, when the Treaty allowing the independence 
of the United States was made ; and the reservation was 
made of such islands as had ever been deemed within the 
limits of Nova Scotia. Now the United States, when the 
Treaty 1783 was made were content to take the grant of 
the islands within 20 leagues of their coast, with the said 
reservation of all islands, that have at any time, belonged 
to Nova Scotia, And this reservation operates as a Defea- 
sance, which nullifies any pretension to such reserved 
islands. But it cannot be allowed in argument, that a grant 
shall be taken without the defeasance, which accompanies 
it. If this could be successfully done it would put an end 
to all fair discussion and honest meaning. 

With regard to that part of M r Barclay's letter, which 
relates to the 5? article of the Treaty of Ghent, I have 
but little to say. The origin of the boundaries of the 
United States therein mentioned maybe traced to his Maj- 
esty's proclamation 1763; settling the boundaries of the 
conquered countries, that were ceded by the peace. Those 
boundaries seem to have been adopted into the American 
Treaty 1783 and were recognized and referred to by the 
Treaty of Ghent. Having reference to the Map, in 
Morse's Geography of the Northern and Middle States 
which precedes page 33, the River Connecticut is made to 
rise from two Streams, the one much longer and more 
western than the other and rising from a small lake sit- 
uated upon the high grounds, that send their waters north- 
ward to the S* Lawrence and Southward to the Atlantic ; 
the same high grounds being very distinctly marked in the 
said Map of Morse by the name of Albany Ridge, or 
Mountains of Notre Dame 

I am ever D r Sir Your most faithl ob* Ser* 

[Not signed.] 




New York, 11 th Jan'y 1817 


I this day had the honor to receive thro' H. M.'s Minf 
at "Washington your letter of the 9 th of Nov 1 " together with 
the Copy of a Letter from the Board of Trade, detailing the 
result of researches which have been made respecting the 
original limits of the Province of N. Scotia. The Infor- 
mation contained in Mr Chalmers's letter is of primary Im- 
portance ; & will when Mr Chipman H. M.'s agent is fur- 
nished with authentic copies of the documents referred to 
in it, satisfactorily shew that the Islands, to which the 4 th 
Art. of the Treaty of Ghent relates, heretofore have been 
within the limits of the Province of N. Scotia. No notice 
is taken by Mr Chalmers of that part of my Letter of the 
12 th Aug fc to Viscount Castlereagh, in which I suggested 
the propriety of furnishing Mr Chipman with authentic 
copies of all papers relating to Lord W. Campbell's appli- 
cation to H. M'y for a grant of the Island of Grand Marian, 
temporarily secured to him in 1773, by a reservation of 
the Governor & Council of N. Scotia. I beg leave to 
repeat that if such documents can be found, they will be 
of great service. In national Questions the greater the 
mass of Evidence the better, provided it is apposite ; & if 
in the event, the decision on the 4 th Art. of the Treaty 
must be referred to some Friendly Power, I must doubt 
whether any evidence, other than that which was laid be- 
fore the Comm rs ' will be received. 

As the Arguments & Evidence on the subject of the 4 th 
Art. of the Treaty of Ghent are to be delivered to the 
Comm™ at Boston on the 2S Ul May next, it is of moment 
tli at H. M.'s Agent is furnished without delay with legally 
certified Copies of the following papers viz 4 ., the Proceed- 
ings of the B d of Trade in 1769 on the subject of Acadie 



or N. Scotia, in part recited in Mr Chalmers's Letter, & 
which would contain the Concessions of Louis 13 th to the 
Sieur d'Aubray as Governor & L* Gen. of Acadie, likewise 
his reestablishment in both those Characters in Acadie — 
Copies of the Grant of James 1 st in 1606 to the 2 Com- 
panies, the one to settle at any place between the Degrees 
of 34 & 41, & the other between 38 & 45 of N. Lat— A 
copy of the Treaty of Breda & the "solemn Instrument" 
(mentioned by Mr Chalmers) " under which that Treaty 
was carried into effect " — Copies of the Documents by 
which Sir W. Alexander obtained from the Plymouth 
Comp y a right to the Country from the S fc Croix westward 
to the Penobscot — All the papers & documents relating 
to the Opinion of the Atty & Sol r Gen 1 in 1732 (noticed in 
Mr Chalmers's letter) with the decision of the Privy Council 
thereon, & the acknowledgement of Massachusetts, that it 
did not form any pretensions to N. Scotia. 

. Mr Chalmers in his Letter makes mention of Morse's 
Geography or Gazetteer, & the Map therein, & appears to 
consider it of consequence, that in treating of N. Scotia, 
Mr Morse " places expressly the Bay of Fundy within the 
Province of N. Scotia." — It would be dangerous to cite 
Morse as an authority, because it would authorize the 
American Agent to rebut Mr Morse's statement by that of 
Mr Bouchette the Surveyor Gen. of Lower Canada, & H. 
M.'s Surveyor under the Treaty of Ghent, who in his map 
lately published in London, has heedlessly & incorrectly 
described not only Grand Manan but also all the Islands 
in the Bay of Passamaquoddy within the limits of the Un d 
States. The preponderance naturally to be given to the 
representation of Mr Bouchette will appear evident, when 
it is remarked that he is an Official Character under H. 
M'y, & Mr Morse a private Citizen of the United States. 

I am &c 


William Hamilton, Esq. (Under Secretary, Foreign Office.) 





Downing Street 13 th Feb: 1817 


I am directed by Earl Bathurst to transmit to you the 
copy of a letter from Mr Commissioner Barclay, relative to 
the information furnished by you respecting the original 
limits of Nova Scotia and requesting authenticated copies 
of the several Papers therein mentioned ; and I am to 
acquaint you that Lord Bathurst is of opinion that it is 
very important that these Papers should be prepared with 
as little delay as possible in order that they may be trans- 
mitted to Mr Barclay by the earliest opportunity. 
I am, Sir 

Your most obed. Serv* 


George Chalmers Esq! 


Whit. 4 Mar 1817 

My Lord, 

In reference to your Lordship's commands signified to 
me by Mr Goulburn's letter of the 13 February and my ex- 
planatory letter thereof in my letter to your Lordship dated 
18 February I beg to lay before your Lordship the Repre- 
sentation of the Board of Trade setting forth the right and 
title of the Crown to the whole of Nova Scotia, otherwise 
called Acadie as the same was bounded on the Westward 
by the river Penobscot, with the islands along the shore 
thereof; and as the same was possessed at various epochs, 
by G. Britain. 


I will only presume to add the sincere assurances of my 

profound respect being on all occasions 

Your Lordships 

most faith. & most ob* ser* 

G. C. 


Office for Trade and Plantations, 
Whitehall, 18 th Feb y 1817. 

My Lord, 

I have had the honour of receiving your Lordship's direc- 
tions, touching the Islands in the Bay of Fundy, claimed 
by the United States, under certain Treaties. 

The direction is so large, and the responsibility of giving 
or not giving such a variety of documents, on so important 
a subject, so great that I have presumed to think it the 
safest course, both with regard to the rights of the Crown, 
and to my own character for discretion, to submit some con- 
siderations, to your Lordship's judgment before I proceed 
much farther in the execution of the business thus com- 
mitted to my charge. 

I presume to think that I understand the Nature of this 
negotiation with the United States, which is very simple in 
itself, but it may be made very complex, by going into ex- 
traneous matter. 

By the treaty of 1783, all islands, lying within 20 leagues 
of the shores of the United States were granted by the 
Crown of Great Britain to the United States : " excepting 
such islands, as now are (1783) or heretofore have been 
within the limits of Nova Scotia." 

The United States in forming pretensions to the islands, 
within or near the bay of Fundy, act upon a very safe 


speculation ; as they may gain something in the scramble, 
but can lose nothing. The Treaty of Ghent, without alter- 
ing the title of either party, has declared, that Commis- 
sioners shall be appointed to decide upon the pretensions, 
and the proofs, of both parties. It is interesting to remark, 
that this is a negotiation on the same grounds, and about 
the same subject, namely the ancient limits of Accidie, or 
Nova Scotia, which was carried on at Paris, by Mess™ Shir- 
ley and Mildmay, in 1750-51-52. On that occasion, the 
King appointed a very able Board of Trade, with Lord 
Halifax at the head of it, to draw up the Arguments, which 
were to ascertain the rights of the Crown. It is unneces- 
sary to remark, that the papers which were written on that 
occasion, are distinguished for great critical acumen, much 
political prudence, and profound research. On this occa- 
sion, there is a Commissary appointed under the Treaty 
of Ghent, and an agent for the King, who, I suppose, is to 
show and support, the rights of the Crown. But as far 
as I know, there is no Board or Commission appointed, 
by the King, at Whitehall to draw up arguments, on the 
title, or to write Representations on the pretensions of the 
Crown. This last intimation will, I trust, justify me in 
troubling your Lordship with my difficulties in fulfilling 
your Lordship's wishes. 

The British Commissioner has written for a vast body of 
Documents, in order to sustain the pretensions of the Crown 
to the Islands in question. With your Lordship's leave, I 
will run over the whole, in order to submit to your judg- 
ment, what can be given, and what cannot, in the time 
required, and what is not in my power to give. 

A List of Papers required by Colonel Barclay" s Letler of January 11, 1817. 

1 Authentic copies of the Documents referred to in Mr 
Chalmers's letter touching the Islands in the Bay of Fundy, 
claimed by the United States under the Treaty of Ghent. 

'2 All papers relating to Lord William Campbell's ap- 



plication to His Majesty for a grant of the Island of Grand ahdreq™ 

dozen cler 

Man an to copy th. 

3 The proceedings of the Board of Trade in 1749 on m 2 nt Ther. 
the subject or Acadie or Nova Scotia. tkeiathe 

J ^ Books of i 

4 The concessions of Louis the 13 to the Sieur d'Am 2£ r gi$J 
bray as Governor and Lieut. Gen! of Acadie &c SSI Si" 

tliG Privy 

5 Copies of the Grant of James the First in 1606 to council 

which ha^ 

the 2 Companies, the one to settle at any place between edfo/Se 
the Degrees of 34 & 41 and the other between 38 & 45 of pu 3 rp iS s 

calls for tl 
the N. Lat. same doer 

ments as ] 

6 A copy of the Treaty of Breda and the solemn In- therefore 6 
strument for carrying that Treaty into effect. Kami 

7 Copies of the Documents by which Sir W. Alexander 4. This 

L J concession 

obtained from the Plymouth Comp y a right to the country J^Kd 
from the S* Croix westward to the Penobscot. SfLTpr. 

. .. pared to r. 

8 All the papers and documents relating to the opinion sent - 
of the Attorney & Sol r General in 1732 with the decision JS^Jy; 
of the Privy Council thereon & the acknowledgement of S^a* 
Massachusetts, that it did not form any pretensions to Nova oftheeari 

J L history of 

OLUUd,. land Stat* 


are in the 

Col. Barclay, in order to justify his calling for so many b?u*i ^. 
papers, makes the following remark, " In national questions JHJ£n B 
the greater the mass of evidence, the better, provided it is C opies? ate 
apposite ; and if in the event, the decision on the 4 th art. of fceenoftw 

printed ; 
in every c 
lection of 
The origii 

that, which was laid before the Commissioners will be re- paper om 

over whic 
this office 
no jurisdi 
tiou. Th 

the judgment of the Board of Trade in 1750-1. For the Paper oa 

7. This 
Doc u in en 
not Docu 
ments, is 
the Uhapt 
the Rolls. 
Upon sub 
qm-nt in- 
quiry I h 
that this 

the Treaty, the question must be referred to some friendly 
power, I much doubt, whether any evidence, other than 

ceived." This last intimation is very probably true : But 
the first part of his observation is directly contrary to 

French Commissioners having demanded copies of the 
Charters, and other papers, which were annexed to 
the Board's representations ; they advised the Secretary of 
State to resist this claim, as those Charters and Papers, con- 
tained extraneous matters, which would only enable the 



\ln is French Commissaries to form objections, and to raise dis- 
SEf flf putes upon irrelevant points. Now this applies much more 
Paper forcibly to the American Commissioner ; the Americans 
f 1 ';;" having' not one iota of evidence, and documents, and merely 

for the 

i a sort 

!f rjsly on our producing a cartload of Papers, which will 
rt,and furnish them with a cartload of quirks and quibbles, obi ec- 
tions and altercations. By supplying them with such a 




iStor. number of papers, more than our Title requires, we furnish 
ud * ' an irascible people with a bundle of rods to flog us for our 

^: t fore follies. 

Having thus submitted to your Lordship's judgment, 


I them 



Board w hat Documents ought not to be sent to the King's Com- 

n by 

missioner, I will now with your Lordship's leave, proceed 
to show what ought to be transmitted, for making and sup- 

il may & O 


af the 


ll and 
i' a l'or- 


as the 
8 inti- 
by the 

porting the claims of the Crown to the islands in question. 

Your Lordship -will easily forgive me, for intimating to 
your Lordship's notice, that the King's negotiators at 
Ghent, have by inattention, enfeebled his majesty's title. 
The expressions in the original Treaty of 1783, as I have 
already shown, were that " all islands within twenty 
leagues of any part of the shores of the United States," 
were granted to them " excepting such islands as now are, 
or heretofore have been, within the limits of the said prov- 
ince of Nova Scotia." Now, when the claim of G. Britain 
to those last mentioned islands is recited in the IV article 
of the Treaty of Ghent, the former words in the disjunctive 
are changed to these terms in the conjunctive " which said 
islands are claimed as belonging to his Britannic majesty ; 
as having been at the time of, and previous to the aforesaid 
Treaty of 1783, within the limits of Nova Scotia." Your 
Lordship's discerning eye now perceives distinctly, that the 
Terms of the original Treaty ought to have been used, as 
containing his majesty's claim, and no other words. It 
must be, at the same time, remarked that the same article 
in the Treaty of Ghent does stipulate, that the decision of 



the points in question " shall be made in conformity with 
the true intent of the said Treaty of Peace of 1783." 

With this preliminary observation, I now proceed to 
submit to your Lordship's prudence, how and by what 
documents, the claim of his majesty ought to be made and 
supported, under the Treaty of Ghent. When the same 
claim was made, and the same title was to be made out at 
Paris, in 1750, the important trust was invested in an able 
Board of Trade and Plantations; and Mess rs Shirley and 
Mildmay, had only to obey instructions sent, and to deliver 
Representations, drawn by the Board, and transmitted to 

The question now is, whether this important trust 
ought to be transferred to the King's Commissioner, and 
agent in America, or reserved to the joint wisdom of the 
King's Ministers at Whitehall ; in other words, whether 
the drawing of Eepresentations of the Claim, and Title, 
should be left to the said Commissioner, and agent, from 
indistinct views of the subject, and disjointed documents 
proving separate points : or if a Representation of the said 
Board of Trade, drawn from a comprehensive view of the 
whole subject, and sustained by a continuity of, and a con- 
catenation of circumstances, from the epoch of colonization 
to the era of the peace of 1748, amounting to moral demon- 
stration, should be sent out to the said Commissioner and 
agent, as his majesty's claim and title to the islands in 
question. For your Lordship will have the goodness to 
recollect, that the point to be made out, in 1750, was the 
King's title to the whole of Nova Scotia, and the point at 
present, is the King's title to a part (some islands) of Nova 
Scotia. Now the same Representation which was drawn 
by the Board of Trade, for maintaining the King's claim to 
the whole of Nova Scotia, still remains, to maintain the 
King's claim to a part of Nova Scotia, namely, the Islands 
in question. It may be here properly remarked, that it 
was, from this Representation that I wrote my former letter, 



which is deemed by Col. Barclay, of primary importance ; 
and that this Representation contains, perhaps three fourths 
of the documents requested by the King's Commissioner, 
though in an argumentative form. 

Suppose this Representation were sent out and delivered, 
as the King's pretension, and proofs of his title to the 
Islands in question, it would only establish one alternative 
of the Reservation, in the Treaty of 1783, namely, that the 
islands in question heretofore have been within the limits 
of the said province of Nova Scotia. If the said Represen- 
tation should be deemed however, by the two Commis- 
sioners satisfactory proof of that point, this would be alone 
decisive of the question at issue, as those islands were not 
to be ceded to the United States, but to remain with his 
Majesty if the same islands had heretofore been within the 
limits of Nova Scotia. 

The other alternative of the Reservation, or exception in 
the Treaty of 1783, -namely, "such islands as now are, 
within the limits of Nova Scotia" is, I submit, of more 
difficult proof; at least from such Documents as remain at 
Whitehall. The Commissions, which were formerly granted 
to the Governors of Nova Scotia, consisted of a mere au- 
thority to govern Nova Scotia, with a virtual reference, 
merely, to the ancient limits, or the known limits, or the 
practical limits. Soon after the peace of 1763, the prac- 
tice was adopted of assigning in the Governor's commis- 
sions specifick boundaries to Nova Scotia, and it happened 
unfortunately, that the southwestern limit was made to 
cross the bay of Fundy, in such a direction, as to sever the 
island of Grand Man an, and to divide the islands in ques- 
tion. Certainly, in fair discussion, it cannot be supposed, 
that it could have been the intention of the Crown to 
transfer those islands to a different Colony, or to leave 
them without a Government. And it appears clearly from 
the well known exception in the American Treaty of 1783 
that it had been the purpose of the Crown, to retain the 



several islands in question, within the limits of Nova 

In this doubtful view of this particular enquiry, touching 
the islands that were, in 1783, deemed within the limits of 
Nova Scotia, the only effective step, that can be taken, if 
the Crown mean to contest the point, with wisdom and 
vigour, is to have a fast sailing cutter in readiness, to sail 
express to Halifax, with an intelligent Clerk of your Lord- 
ship's office on board in order to carry directions to the 
Lieut. Governor of Nova Scotia, that he would call to his 
assistance the Chief Justice, and Attorney General, or 
other persons, who are in the habit of accurate research ; 
for the purpose of searching the Books of his majesty's 
Council there, the Journals of the assembly, the Land 
Records of that province, for any Grants of land that 
would show, whether the Islands in question, did belong, 
or were deemed to belong to Nova Scotia in 1783 or be- 
fore, or soon after that year. Affidavits of old men might, 
also be taken, as to what they remember in respect to 
the question at issue. Information, in particular, should 
be there obtained, from the Council Books, or Land Eecords, 
of what Col. Barclay has intimated touching Lord William 
Campbell, having obtained in 1773, a reservation of one 
half of the island of Grand Manan. If this could be 
established, and the probability is that it may, this circum- 
stance would go far, to prove the point at issue, namely 
that the islands in question, were deemed, in 1773, to be- 
long, practically speaking, to Nova Scotia. For nothing 
can be stronger proof, than those lands were then granted 
within those islands, by the Government of Nova Scotia. 
I have already said, that, there is no proper proof of this 
fact at Whitehall. 

If Mr. Chipman the King's agent should be at Halifax, 
at the arrival of the express there, he should be directed 
to take charge of those inquiries to be made there, and to 
have them properly authenticated. If Mr. Chipman should 




be absent, the Clerk sent ont, should be instructed to take 
upon him the same charge ; and when completed, to fol- 
low in the cutter Mr Chipman wherever he may be, and 
to deliver him, the Dispatches from the Secretary of State, 
with such informations, as he may have obtained at 

I have now submitted to your Lordship's judgment, with 
great deference, I trust, a plan, for supporting the King's 
title to the islands in question. 

There is another point or two, which may perhaps re- 
quire some observation. Col. Barclay desires, that the 
Documents to be sent should be legally certified ; but he 
does not specify what would be deemed a legal form. On 
this head, Mr Chipman might be instructed, in this man- 
ner : Ever since the treaty of 1783, the people, and authori- 
ties of the United States, have applied year after year, to 
the plantation office, for Documents, either to settle some 
boundaries, between States, or to establish titles, in Courts 
of Justice between individuals. Those Transcripts have 
been, constantly, certified to be true copies, from particular 
books, by the Chief Clerk of this Establishment, being, by 
the King's appointment, keeper of the Books & Papers of 
the late Board of Trade ; and in testimony of the truth 
of which, he caused to be affixed the seal of this office. I 
have never heard of any objection being made to this 
authentication : To this may be added, that if the Agent 
for the United States, should, on this occasion, object to 
such authentication, he will do a great injury to the States, 
and the people who compose them, by depriving both of 
this source of evidence. 

Having mentioned in my letter to Mr Hamilton a copy 
whereof was sent to Col. Barclay, Morse's American Geog- 
raphy, for showing, that he includes the Bay of Fundy in 
Nova Scotia, without any serious purpose, the King's Com- 
missioner is induced to intimate what is of great importance : 
That Mr Bouchette, the surveyor, of Canada, and of this 


Commission, has heedlessly placed the Bay of Fundy and 
the islands in question, within the limits of the United 
States, and has thereby weakened the King's title : It may 
thereupon be observed, that in the discussion of 1750-1, 
the French Commissaries quoted Popple's Map of America 
(he being Secretary of the Board) as supporting their pre- 
tensions: The Board disavowed Popple's map, as being 
made, without their knowledge, and certainly without their 
authority: Mr. Bouchette, it seems, has skill without 
knowledge ; and his ignorance will not overthrow the pro- 
found Representation of the Board of Trade 1750-1. 

I shall be happy to receive your Lordship's Ulterior 
commands, either personally or otherwise, as may be most 
agreeable to your Lordship. 
For I ever am 

with the greatest respect 

your Lordship's 

most humble & faith, ser* 

[No signature, but the handwriting is that of G. Chalmeks.] 







VOLUME I. (1852) 

(Committee of Publication: William Jenks, Alexander Young, 
George Ticknor, Nathaniel B. Shurtleff.) 

Lists of Members and of Officers of the Society from its Foundation, 
Resident Members. Officers elected, April 15, 1852. 

Caulkins, Miss F. M., Memoir of Rev. William and Eliphalet Adams . 1 
Hunter, Rev. Joseph, Collections concerning the Early History of the 

Founders of New Plymouth 52 

Hunter, Rev. J., Biographical Notice of Philip Vincent 86 

Lowell, Rev. Charles, Notices 90 

Savage, Hon. James, More Gleanings for New England History ... 91 

Wadsworth, Rev. Benjamin, Journal of a Tour to Albany, 1691 . . . 102 

Ashton, Rev. Robert, Memoir of Rev. John Robinson Ill 

Robinson, Rev. John, A Manvmission to a Manvdvction, 1615 . . . 165 

Winslow, Gov. Edward, Good News from New England, 1648 . . . 195 

Strachky, William, Account of the Settlement at Sagadehoc, 1607 . . 219 

D'Ewes, Sir Symonds, Extract from his Autobiography . . . . . . 247 

Dunster, Pres. Henry, Letter to Prof. Ravis, 1648 ? 251 


Danforth, Rev. Samuel, Letter, 1720 255 

Newell, Timothy, Journal during the Siege of Boston, 1775-76 . . . 261 

Lowell, Rev. Charles, Memoir of John Pierce, D.D 277 

VOLUME II. (1854) 

(Committee of Publication : George E. Ellis, Chandler Bobbins, 
Nathaniel B. Siiurtleff, Charles Deane.) 

Act of Incorporation, By Laws, Officers and Members. 

Clark, Dr. John, III Newes from New-England, 1652 1 

New England Ministers, Letter to Cromwell on Settlement in Ireland 115 

Bradford, Gov. William, Letter to Gov. Winthrop, 1615 119 

Downing, Emanuel, Letter to J. Usher, 1620 120 

Mather, Cotton, B.J)., Supposed Letter to Judge Sewall, 1720 . . . 122 

Frothingiiam, Nathaniel L., D.D., Memoir of Thaddeus M. Harris, D.D. 130 

Deane, Charles, LL.D., The First Plymouth Patent 156 

Douglass, Dr. William, Letters to C. Colden, 1721-36 161 

Dunster Papers 190 

Quincy, J., Letters relating to the Memoir of J. Q. Adams .... 199 

Jenks, William, Memoir of T. L. Winthrop 202 

Shattuck, Lemuel, Memorials of the Whites 215 

Leverett Papers 221 

Beauchamp and Leverett's Patent, Detail of 226 

Cromwell, Oliver, Instructions to Major Sedgwiek and to Gov. Leveret 230 

Dudley Papers 234 

Prince, Rev. Thomas, and Ciiauncy, Rev. Charles, Correspondence . . 238 

TRUMBULL, David, Letter to Jeremy Belknap, 17!»4 240 

ROBBINS, Chandler, D.D., Memoir of Alexander Young, D.D. . . . 241 

Massachusetts Charter, Exemplification of Judgment (or vacating it . 246 

Orders in Council, 1630-1693 279 

Bradstreet, Gov. Simon, Letter to Sir Lionel Jenkins, 1682 .... 305 

M vtiikr, Increase, D.D., Letter to the Earl of Nottingham, 1692 . . 307 

Dudley, Gov. Joseph, Letter, 1716 308 


VOLUME III. (1856) 

(Committee of Publication : Charles Deane, William P. Lunt, Lucius 
R. Paige, Ellis Ames.) 

Officers and Members. 

Lothrop, Samuel K., D.D., Memoir of Samuel Appleton vii 

Bradford, Gov. William, History of Plymouth Plantation, edited by 

C. Deane 1 

Appendix: Passengers of the Mayflower, 447; Commission for regulating Planta- 
tions, 456; Verses in Memory of Mrs. Alice Bradford, 460. 

VOLUME IV. (1858) 

(Committee of Publication : Richard Frothingham, Jr., Thomas Aspin- 
wall, George Livermore, Lorenzo Sabine.) 

Acts of Incorporation, By Laws, Officers and Members. 

Boston Donation Committee, Correspondence with Contributors for 

the Relief of Sufferers by the Boston Port Bill 1 

Scottow, Capt. Joshua, Narrative of the Planting of the Massachusetts 

Colony, 1694 279 

Washburn, Prof. Emory, Extinction of Slavery in Massachusetts . . 333 

Cushing, Thomas, Letters, 1767-75 347 

Chalmers, George, Queries, with Gen. Gage's Answers, on Braddock's 
Expedition, the Stamp Act, and Gage's Administration of Massachu- 
setts 367 

Boston, Destruction of the Tea in the Harbor, 1773 373 

Adams, Samuel, Letter to James Warren, 1774 390 

Hawley, Joseph, Letter to Thomas Cushing, 1775 393 


Eliot, Andrew, D.D., Letters to Thomas Hollis, 176G-71 398 

Jenks, William, D.D., Notice of the Siuur D'Aulnay, of Acadie . . . 462 

Williams, Roger, Petition to the General Court of Massachusetts, 1651 471 
Pratt, Phinehas, Declaration of the Affairs of the English that first 

inhabited Massachusetts 474 

Pratt, P., Petition to the General Court of Massachusetts, 1668 ... 487 

Pratt, P., His Relation as given by I. Mather 488 

Mitchell, Nahum, Memoir of Nathaniel Morton Davis 492 

Appleton, Hon. Nathan, Memoir of Abbott Lawrence 495 

Frothingham, Nathaniel L., D.D., Memoir of William Parsons Lunt . 508 

VOLUME V. (1861) 

(Committee of Publication : Solomon Lincoln, Alonzo H. Quint, 
Williams Latham, Joseph Palmer.) 

Officers and Members. 

Hinckley Papers 1 

Niles, Bev. Samuel, History of the French and Indian Wars in New 

England, continued 309 

VOLUME VI. (1863) 

(Committee of Publication: Robert C. Winthrop, Charles Deane, 
Chandler Robiuns.) 

Officers and Members. 

Winthrop Papers 



VOLUME VII. (1865) 

(Committee of Publication: Robert C. Winthrop, Charles Deane, 
Chandler Robbins.) 

Officers and Members. 
Winthrop Papers, continued 1 

VOLUME VIII. (1868) 

(Committee of Publication: Chandler Robbins, Henry W. Torre y, 
Samuel K. Lothrop.) 

Officers and Members. 

Mather Papers 

Appendix: A Prophecy, 687; Extracts relating to Indian Captives, 689; Letter 
from John Eliot and others, 690; Letter from the Church at JSew Ha- en, 392; 
Letter from the Corporation of Harvard College, 694 ; Letter from John Cory 
and others, 695; Address of the Congregations in New England to King 
James II., 697; To James II., 1687, 698; Letter from Stephen Mason, 699; 
Memorial of the Dissenters of New England, 699; Petition of Increase Mather 
and others, 701; Paper annexed to the Petition, 701; Warrant for the Arrest 
of I. Mather, 702; Letter to I. Mather, 702; Pleas in the Case of Edward Ran- 
dolph against I. Mather, 703; Invitation to Attend the Funeral of Samuel 
Nowell, 704; Petition of Sir William Phips and I. Mather, 705; Charge against 
Sir Edmund Andros, 707; Answer of the Council to the Representatives, 708;: 
Vote of the Governor and Council, 709; Order for Town Elections, 710; Order 
in relation to Andros, 710; Order for sending Andros to England, 711; Chron- 
ological Memoranda by Thomas Prince, 712. 


VOLUME IX. (1871) 

(Committee of Publication : Thomas Aspinwall, George E. Ellis, 
William S. Bartlett, John Langdon Sibley.) 

Officers and Members. 

AsriNWALL Papers 

Virginia Affairs, 1617-76 1 

Quakers, Persecution of 153 

Dongan, Gov. Thomas, to the Duke of York 187 

New England under Andros 188 

Waldo Patent 195 

PEAGEUM, John, 1o the Commissioners of Custom, 1737 203 

French and Indian Wars, 1755-61 210 

New York Affairs, 1761-63 441 

VOLUME X. (1871) 

(Committee of Publication: Thomas Aspinwall, George E. Ellis, 
William S. Bartlett, John Langdon Sibley.) 

Aspinwall Papers, continued 489 

New York Affairs, 1763, etc 489 

Paxton Riots 508 

Pennsylvania Affairs 608, 700, 729 

Maryland Affairs 617, 692 

VIRGINIA Affairs, Instructions to Lord DuNMOBE, etc 626, 717, 739 

North Carolina Affairs 698 

Congbess at Philadelphia, and Papers relating to the Revolution . . . 706 

Chabtkbs of the Colonies 815 

Miscellaneous Papers . . • 822 


[The dates, given for distinction in some cases where Christian names are wanting, 
correspond usually to the first reference only.] 


A, B, C, letters of Thomas Smythe (Robert 

Ryece), vi. 410, 422, 435. 
Aaron, a Mohawk, ix. 426, 429. 
Abachickwood, an Indian, vii. 415. 
Abaco, v. 273. 

Abbot, -, shot, 1748, v. 380. 

Abbot, Rev. Abiel, ii. 153. 

Abbot, Jeffrey, ix. 23. 

Abbot, Richard, v. 115. 

Abbot, Robert, D.D., i. 75. 

Abbott, Maurice, ix. 61. 

Abdas, an Indian, iii. 440. 

Abercrombie, Capt , 1710, v. 322, 472 ; Major-, 

Abercrombie, Gen. James, v. 463, 464, 466, 


Aberdeen, , 1764, x. 516, 523. 

Aberdikees, Abordikees, Indian, iv. 484, 485. 

(Aberdecest) 487, (Aberkiest) 490. 
Abigail, vessel, vi. 42m. lSln, 364ra. 
Acadie identical with Nova Scotia, x. 831. 

See Nova Scotia. 
Accomac, ix. 14, 15. 
Accomenticus. See York. 
Accord Pond, iii. 371. 
Ac k worth, Capt., iv. 460. 
Aclam, Peter, taken prisoner, viii. 213. 
Acoughcouss, iii. 373. 
Acrod, John, ii. 281. 
Acushente River, iii. 373. 
Adams, Mr., 1721, viii. 451. 

Adams, Mrs. (Hosmer), i. 51. 

Adams, Capt., 1710, v. 322, 415; ix. 214, 

Adams, Miss Abiel. See Metcalf, Mrs. 
Adams, Mrs. Abigail (Smith), her visit to 

Leyden, in 1786, i. 125m. 
Adams, Alexander Pygan, b. 1747, i. 47. 
Adams, Mrs. Alice (Bradford). See Fitch, 

Adams, Alice, daughter of the preceding. 

See Collins, Mrs. 
Adams, Anne. See Champlin, Mrs. 
Adams, Mrs. Anne (Richards), i. 47. 
Adams, Charles Francis, Hon., iii. p. xviii. 

Member M. H. S., i. p. x. ; ii. p. xvii.; iii. 

p. v.; iv. p. xxi.; v. p. viii.; vi. p. viii.; 

vii. p. viii. ; viii. p. x. ; ix. p. xiv. ; on the 

Committee of Publication, vols. 9, 10 of 

3d Series, i. p. xxi. Vice-Pres., ix. p. xiii. 
Adams, Rev. Eliphalet, of New London, i. 5, 

21, 22. Memoir of, 26-51. His Diary, 27. 

Adams, Elizabeth, daughter of Pygan. See 
Pool, Mrs. 

Adam*, Elizabeth, daughter of Rev. William. 
See Whiting, Mrs. 

Adams, Mrs. Elizabeth (Wass), i. 39, 50, 

Adams, Ferdinando, excommunicated, vi. 

Adams, Jasper, D.D., Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
i. p. xvi. 

Adams, John, brother of Rev. William, of 
Dedham, i. 6, 32. 

Adams, John, son of the above'?, i. 32. 

Adams, Pres. John, ii. 148; iv. 146, 173, 
174, 182, 185, 275, 339, 427, 436, 442, 443, 
740. Member M. H. S., i. p. vii. The 
author of the " Dissertation on the Canon 
and Feudal Law," iv. 426, 427, 434. 

Adams, Pres. John Quincy, ii. 135. Mem- 
ber M. H. S , i. p. vii.; on the Committee 
of Publication of vol. 10, 1st Series, p. 
xxi. Correspondence relating to a Me- 
moir of, 199-201; iv. 514. 

Adams, Joseph, iii. p. x. 

Adams, Lydia, b. 1720, i. 32. 

Adams, Lydia, b. 1757. See Hallam, Mrs. 

Adams, Mrs. Lvdia (Pygan), i. 28, 29, 30, 
32. Her death, i. 37-39. 

Adams, Mrs. Mary (Manning), i. 21,22,26. 

Adams, Marv, diughter of Eliphalet. See 
Bulkley, Mrs. 

Adams, Mary, daughter of Joseph. See Ap- 
pleton, Mrs. 

Adams, Mary, daughter of William, b. 1675, 
i. 22. 

Adams, Nathaniel, i. 6, 8. 

Adams, Pygan, i. 32, 47, 48. 

Adams, Robert, v. 371. 

Adams, Samuel, of Ipswich, 1665, i. 6, 9. 

Adams, Samuel, d. 1718, i. 32. 

Adams, Samuel, d. 1754, i. 51. 

Adams, Gov. Samuel, iv. 2, 3, 14, 15, 20, 25, 
32, 37, 52, 85, 86, 162, 164, 165, 168, 173, 
174, 182, 183, 185, 187, 188, 192, 206, 207, 
211, 228, 233, 234, 239, 240, 242, 245, 
261, 263, 275, 278, 379, 427, 442, 443, 456; 
x. 740. Letter to James Warren, iv. 390. 

Adams, Mrs. Sarah (Green), i. 32. 

Adams, Seth, ii. 140. 

Adorns, Thomas, 1685, ii. 250, 251, 252, 266, 
267, 268, 269. 

Adams, Dr. Thomas, d. 1758, i. 32, 46, 51. 

Adams, Thomas, b. 1761, i. 47. 

Adams, William, of Cambridge, 1635, i. 5, 22. 




Adams, William, Sen., of Ipswich, d. 1661, i. 
5, 6. 

Adams, William, .Tun., of Ipswich, d. 1659, 
i. 6. 

Adams, Rev. William, of Dedham, b. 1650, 
i. 32, 47 ; viii. 292«, 320. Memoir of, i. 5- 
26, 47, 49-51. His Diary, 8-22. His wives 
and children, 21, 22. 

Adams, William, b. 1679, i. 22, 26, 27. 

Adams, William, b. 1683, i. 22. 

Adams, William, b. 1710, i. 32, 43. 

Adams, William, b. 1747, i. 47. 

Adams, William, 1764, x. 534. 

Adamson, Patrick, Archbishop of St. An- 
drews, vi. 433. 

Addington, Mr. (Isaac, the elder f), vii. 463. 

Addington, Secretary Isaac, v. 244, 300, 
301, 313n ; viii. 538, 709. Letters to 
Thomas Hinckley, v. 197, 204, 239, 244, 
300, 301, 313n. 

Addresses of the Colonies of New Plymouth 
and Connecticut to Charles II., viii. 55; 
of the Congregations of New England to 
James II., 697, 698. 

Adelung, Friedricb, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
i. p. xv.; iii. p. vi. ; iv. p. xxii. His death, 
v. p. xi. 

Adjutators chosen by the army, vii. 436, 439, 

Adlard, George, ii. 279. Note from, 305. 

Admiral, ship, v. 445. 

Admiralty, Officers of, x. 657, 677. 

" Admittatur," Harvard.College, viii. 516. 

Adventurers. See Merchant Adventurers. 

iEneas, chief of the St. John's Indians, v. 

Agamenticus. See York. 

Agawam. See Ipswich. 

"Agawam Sagamore," title given John 
Winthrop, Jr., by Edward Howes, vi. 

Ahanquid, an Indian chief, v. 361. 

Agency to England, Paper by Cotton Ma- 
ther on the, viii. 389. Agents appointed, 

Agreement with the sachems, 1638, vi. 254. 

Ainsworth, Henry, teacher in the church at 
Amsterdam, i. 115, 120, 123, 163; ii. 17n, 

Airay (Ayry), Henry, D.D., viii. 77. 

Aires, Mr. See Ayres. 

Aix-la-Chapelle, Treaty of, 1748, v. 408. 

Akins, Thomas B., Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
ix. p. xvii. 

Alaman, Von Lucas, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
i. p. xix.; iii. p. vi.; iv. p. xxiii. His 
death, v. p. xi. 

Albanv, N. Y., ii. 288; (Fort Orange, Fort 
Omnia) iii. 234; v. 70, 212, 217, 218,230, 
232, 240, 244, 249, 251, 253, 260, 268, 284, 
296, 325, 329, 375, 386, 411, 421, 439, 448, 
463, 468, 50S, 518, 540, 585; viii. 81; ix. 
350, 440, 452, 455-457, 484, 493, 499, 502, 
514, 526. In 1694, i. 105, 106, 110. Ex- 
pedition to, 1690, v. 258. Indian murder 
near, 508. Congress of, x. 729. 

Albany Co., N. Y., assists Boston in 1776, i. 

Albany Ridge, x. 839. 

Albemarle, George, Duke of. See Monk, G. 

Albemarle County, \'a., v. 414. 

Albers, Hans, vii. 544//. 

Alchemy, vii. 72-75, 77-80. 

Alcott, Thomas, vi. 521. 

Alden (Aldin), Capt., 1689, v. 222, 273. 

Alden, Mr., 1678, viii. 298, 300. 

Alden,. John, v. p. xiv., 81, 86. Undertaker, 
iii. 227. Assistant, 306, 315, 327, 343, 351, 
362, 367. Arrested in Massachusetts, 318. 
Set at libertv, 319. Partv to a contract, 
382, 384. Settlement with", 400, 402. His 
family. 449, 452, 454. 

Alden, Lieut. John, son of the preceding, v. 
86; viir. 231. 

Alden, Mrs. Priscilla (Mullins), iii. 448, 452, 

Alden, Robert, iii. 213. 

Alden, Timothy, D.D., Cor. Memb. M. H. 
S., i. p. xiii. Librarian, i. p. xx. Cabi- 
net-keeper, p. xx. 

Aldersev, Samuel, ii. 250, 251, 252, 266, 267, 
268, 269. 

Alderton, or Allerton, John, seaman on board 
the Mavflower, iii. 83, 449, 454. 

Aldis, Deacon, 1673, i. 21. 

Aldrich, John, v. 370. 

Aldsworth, , 1626, iii. 154, 336. 

Alejoy burnt, 1761, v. 580. 

Alexander vn , Pope, Death of, viii. 215. 

Alexander, Capt., 1747, v. 376. 

Alexander, Nicholas, Banishment of, vii. 

Alexander, Sir William, afterwards Earl of 
Stirling, iv. 464, 470; v. 319. Grant of 
Nova Scotia to, vi. 518, 519; x. 831, 834, 
841, 844. Notice of, vi. 518n. 

Alexander Pokanoket, or Wamsutta, Death 
of, viii. 229, 232-234. 

Alexandria, Va., iv. 40«; ix. 405. 

Alford, Mr., 1653, vi. 523. 524. 

Alford, Elizabeth. See Sewall, Mrs. 

Alford, William, Acknowledgment of Jona- 
than Brewster to, vii. 70. 

Alfred, ship, x. 776. 

Algar, Andrew, vii. 365, 370. 

Algiers, Expedition to, viii. 170, 196. 

Alibamous, ix. 42S. 

Alison, Sir Archibald, Bart, Cor. Memb. 
M. H. S., i. p. xviii.; iii. p. vi.; iv. p. 
xxii.; v. p. x.; vi. p. x. ; vii. p. x. His 
death, viii. p. xiv. 

Alleghanv Mountains, v. 535, 539; x. 605. 

Alleghany River, ix. 268, 385, 397, 408. 

Allein, Capt., 1710, v. 322. 

Alleine, Rev. Richard (Allin), i. 44. 

Allen, , v. 242. 

Allen, Capt, 1745, v. 403. 

Allen, Capt, 1774-75, iv. 150, 157. 

Allen, Ensign, 1758, v. 481. 

Allen, Mr., 1660, vii. 247. 

Allen, Mr., 1681, viii. 601. 

Allen, Mr., a member of' the X. Y. Assembly, 
17 GO foil., ix. 300, 315, 320, 335, 410; x. 
504, 511, 516-518, 530, 531, 543, 568, 703. 

Allen, Mr., Stn., 1667, vii. 486. 

Allen, Eliza. See Stone, Mrs. 

Allen, Eunice, wounded by Indians, v. 372, 

Allen, Hannah. See Danforth, Mra. 

Allen, Jacob, iv. 260. 

Allen, Rev. James, v. 29, 41; vii. 316;/; 
viii. 95, 96«, 97, 189, 190, 193, 198, 204, 
235, 279, 283, 373, (Allin) 499V, 509, 
526 (V), (Allyn) 541, 615. Letter to Th. 
Hinckley and 15. Lothrop, v. 43; to In- 
crease Mather, viii. 674; to Samuel Now- 
ell, 675. From John Walley, 651; from 
John Cory and others, 695. 

Allen, John", of Barnstable, v. 29. 



Allen, Col. John, Secretary of Connecticut, 
i. 103, 106, 108,109; iv. 297, 298; (Allin) 
vii. 65, 155, 559, 561, 597. 

Allen, Rev. John, of Dedham, i. 212. 

Allen, Joseph, Sen., v. 242. 

Allen, Joseph, viii. 52, 53, 56. 

Allen, Hon. Joseph, Member M. H. S., i. p. 

Allen, Mrs. Mary, vii. 362, 374. 

Allen, Matthew, vi. 244, 247; vii. 185. 

Allen, Capt. Perkins, iv. 40, 156. 

Allen, Samuel, killed, v. 372. 

Allen, Rev. Thomas, of Charlestown, i. 212. 

Allen, Rfv Thomas, of Norwich, viii. 195. 

Allen, William, a Friend, v. 20. 

Allen, Ch. Just. William, x. 711. Letter 
of, to Monckton, 533. 

Allen, William, D.D., Cor. Memb. M. H. 
S., i. p. xvii. His " Biographical Diction- 
ary " cited, viii. 233m. 

Allerton, Bartholomew, iii. 448, 451. 

Allerton, Mrs. Fear (Brewster), iii. 166, 
256m. Her death, 300m. 

Allerton, Isaac, iii. 51, 198m, 267, 448, 451 ; 
vi. 4, 8, 12, 38, 40 6 , 165, 369, 478, 515, 
570; vii. 93m, 488; viii. 190. Assistant, 
iii. 101, 306, 477. Factor, 200. Mission 
of, to compromise with the adventurers, 
210, 212, 280-282, 373. His return, 211. 
Second mission, 221-238. Agent, 231. 
His accounts, 232, 248, 284, 288, 299, 304, 
308, 310, 316, 362. Engages in trade, 
226, 243, 261, 270, 271, 276, 291. Third 
mission, 244, 245. His conduct, 248, 250, 
252, 261, 271, 274, 280, 299; as to en- 
larging and confirming the patent, 250. 
Brings over Morton, 250, 252. Violates 
instructions, 255-257. His wives, 256, 
300, 448, 451. His fourth voyage to 
England, 262. His conduct as to the 
Friendship, 268, 275, 281-290, 299, 402. 
Winslow sent to England on account of 
his conduct, 268. His conduct as to the 
White Angel, 269-272, 274, 276, 280, 283, 
284, 285, 287-289, 292, 300, 305, 308, 331, 
402. Return of, 271. Goes to England 
again, 275. Comes back, 276. Dis- 
charged, 276, 279, 299. Remarks on the 
commission to, 280-282, 286. His father, 
289. Disciplined by the church, 292. 
Disregards his bonds, 298, 301. Further 
notices of, 299, 308. His troubles, 302, 
308, 327. Efforts to recover from, on 
account of the White Angel, 331. A ves- 
sel of, wrecked, 337. His cattle sold, 365, 
379. His family, 448, 451, 454. Bond 
from Jonathan Brewster to, vii. 70. 

Allerton, Isaac, Jr., iii. 300m. 

Allerton, Mrs. Joanna, iii. 256m. 

Allerton, Mrs. Mary, iii. 256, 448, 451, 455. 

Allerton, Remember, iii. 448, 451. 

Alles, Eleazer, iii. 243. 

Allestry, Paul, vii. 535. 

Allibone, S. Austin, LL.D., Cor. Memb. M. 
H. S., v. p. xii. ; vi. p. xii. ; vii. p. xii. ; 
viii. p. xiii. ; ix. p. xvii. 

Allie, Mr., 1664, vii. 309. 

Allin, Mr., 1657, vii. 87; another, 1685, 
viii. 61; another, 379. 

Allin, 3frs., of Casco, vii. 361. 

Allin, Bozoone, viii. 704. 

Allin, C, iv. 306. 

Allin, Rev. John, of Dedham, i. 21; viii. 

Allin, John, son of the preceding, viii. 602. 

Allin, John, of Scituate, v. 40, 224, 225. 

Allin. See also Allen and Allyn. 

Allis, Richard, i. 94, 95. 

Allis, William, viii. 79. 

Allison, Hector, ix. 270. 

Allison, John, ix. 270. 

Alltham, Emanuel, iii. 213m. 

Allyn, Mr., 1689, v. 213. 

Allyn, Lieut., 1759, v. 502. 

Allyn (Allin), John, vii. 82, 483m, 528, 530. 

Notice of, viii. 87m, 93. Postscript by, 

to a letter of John Whiting, 464. 
Allyn, John, D.D., Member M. H. S., i. p. 

Almack, Richard, F. S. A., Cor. Memb. M. 

H. S., i. p. xviii. ; iii. p. vi. ; iv. p. xxii.; 

v. p. x.; vi. p. x.; vii. p. x. ; viii. p. xii.; 

ix. p. xvi. 
Almanac, 1683, viii. 296; 1684, 522. By 

Cotton Mather, 251, 253, 479. By Na- 
thaniel Mather, Jr., 1686, 672m. With 

notes by Joshua Moodey, 282. Not to be 

printed without license from Randolph, 

Almie, Christopher, v. 88. 
Alphabet for writing in cipher, vi. 481. 
Alsop, Mr., 1687, viii. 670. 
Alsop, Benjamin, viii. 224m. 
Alsop, Joseph, vii. 494, 501. 
Alsop, Capt. (Joseph?), viii. 301, 307, 309, 

621, 625. 
Alsop, Richard, iv. 115. 
Alsop, Rev. Vincent, v. 152. 
Alsted, Johann Heinrich, viii. 77. 
Altars in churches, vi. 404-407. 
Alxarson, Anne, servant, i. 96. 
Alxarson, Man r , servant, i. 96. 
Amanscoggin River, v. 346. 
Amassaconty, v. 317, 335. 
Amboy, ix. 403; x. 517. 
Ambrose, vessel, vi. 470. 
Ambrose, Robert, iv. 29. 
Amee, Mrs., 1638, vii. 199. 
Amelia and Dinwiddie, letter to the Dona- 
tion Committee of Boston, iv. 173. Replv, 

Amenquin, a Sagamo, i. 245. 
America, sloop, iv. 38, 40, 150, 156. 
American Antiquarian Society, reason of its 

foundation, ii. 213. 
Americans all bad, x. 823. 
Ameruscogen Fort, v. 222. 
Ameruscogen River, v. 221. 
Ames, Mr., 1654, vi. 289. 
Ames, Mr., son of Rev. William, 1684, viii. 

Ames, Ellis, A.M., Member M. H. S., ii. p. 

xvii.; iii. p. v.; iv. p. xxi.; v. p. viii. ; 

vi. p. viii. ; vii. p. viii. ; viii. p. x. ; ix. p. 

xiv.; on the Committee of Publication, 

iii. p. iv. 
Ames, Mrs. Joane, i. 100. 
Ames, John, i. 100. 
Ames, Ruth, i. 100. 
Ames, Samuel, iv. 129. 
Ames, Hon. Seth, Member M. H. S., vii. p. 

ix. ; viii. p. xi. ; ix. p. xv. 
Ames, William, i. 100. 
Ames, Rev. William, D.D., i. 110; viii. 45 f 

77, 513. His "Cases of Conscience," vi. 

4, 6. Letter to John Winthrop, 576. 

Fac-simile of his signature, vi. plate 7. 

Notice of, 576m. 



Amesburv, v. 317, (Amsbury) 334. 

Amherst," Gen. Sir Jeffry, v. 462, 471, 473, 
498, 500, 511, 516, 523, 531, 533, 541, 542, 
545, 550, 560, 563, 567, 568, 569, 570, 
571, 572, 573, 574, 577, 585, 588; ix. 333, 
334, 337, 340. 341, 359, 368, 370, 371, 377, 
387, 399-402, 414, 415, 426, 436, 441, 449; 
x. 499-505. In the war with the French, 
1760, ix. 238, 240, 257, 258, 265, 270, 275, 
277-281, 289-293, 300, 303, 307, 314, 315, 
319, 322, 324, 326, 330. Talk to the In- 
dians, 240-242. Circular to the American 
governors, 316. Letters from, to Gov. 
Monckton, 290, 307, 309, 346; to Gov. 
Dobbs, 350; to Lieut.-Gov. Colden, 452, 
454. Abstract of a letter to Peters, 330. 
Letters to, from A. Dobbs, 289 ; from C 
Colden, 454; from Capt. Winepress, 457. 

Amherst, Col W iliiam, v. 569 ; ix. 486 ; x. 502, 
523, 530, 539, 544, 580, 582, 586, 588, 619. 

Amhorn, Gen., 1760, ix. 273. 

Ammascoggen, v. 271, 273, 276. 

Ammunition and arms, Indians supplied 
with, iii. 235, 238, 275, 337. 

Amorascoggin Indians, v. 336. 

Amory, -Jonathan, i. 273. 

Amory, Thomas, i. 273. 

Amory, Thomas C, Jr., Member M. H. S., 
v. p. ix. ; vi. p. ix.; vii. p. ix. ; viii. p. 
xi. ; ix. p. xiv. ; on the Standing Com., 
vi. p. vii. 

Amory,William, Member M. H. S-, ix. p. xv. 

Amos, Capt., 1689, v. 215. 

Amsden, Oliver, v. 372. 

Amsden, Simeon, v. 372. 

Amsterdam, The Separatists at, i. 122 foil. 
English church at, iii. 9, 16, 38. Con- 
tention of the churches there, 16, 38. 

Amy, Mr., of Portsmouth, 1650, vi. 280. 

Anabaptists, ii. 66; iii. 387; vii. 210, 589; 
viii. 44, 477, 509, 540. In Swansea, v. 
136. In South Carolina, 305. E. Free- 
man not chosen Assistant on account 
of his Anabaptistry, vi. 178. To be ban- 
ished, 78. In Rhode Island, viii. 252. 
In Boston, 291, 579, 586. John Russell's 
narrative, answered by Samuel Willard, 
291w. See also Baptists. 

Anchor, servant, vi. 141. 

Ancrum, John, iv. 24. 

Anderson, ,1646, v. 371. 

Anderson, Capt., 1677, viii. 575. 

Anderson, Kobert, M.D., Cor. Memb. M. H. 
S., i. p. xiii. 

Andover, Mass. (Quichihacke), i. 201, 212; 
vii. 27. 

Andre, Maj. John, x. 812. 

Andreas, v. 377. 

Andreson, Capt. Michael, viii. 534. 

Andrew, an Indian, slain, viii. 632. 

Andrew, John, iv. 198, 199, 204. 

Andrew, John A., LL.D., his death, viii. p. 

Andrew, Samuel, viii. 495. Notice of, 522n. 

Andrews, Capt., 1690, v. 275. 

Andrews, Henry, v. 8; vi. 161, 166, 176. 

Andrews, Lancelot, lip., vi. 403. 

Andrews, Richard, adventurer, iii. 213. Un- 
dertaker, 227, 229, 232, 246, 258, 280, 287, 
331. Beaver sent to, 361, 362, 365. De- 
clines giving aid, 345. Complaints by, 
346, 361, 365. Takes land at Scituate, 
368. Settlement with, 379, 400-407. 

Andrews, Kobert? vii. 10. 

Andrews, Thomas, adventurer, iii. 213. 

Andrews, Thomas, of Ipswich, i. 8, 9. 

Andrews, William, the father, master of the 
John and Dorothy, i. 96. 

Andrews, William, the son, master of the 
Hose, i. 96. 

Andrews, William, of New Haven, vii. 498. 

Andros, Sir Edmund, iii. p. ix.; v. p. xiv., 
72, 147, 172, 277, 283; viii. 118, 255rc, 
265n, 365, 366, 367, 370??., 372??, 389n, 
482??, 483«, 485, 502, 503, 524, 531??, 571n, 
651??, 669??, 671. List of his council, ii. 
206n. Connecticut not included in his 
actual government, 207n. Petition of, 
287; petition dismissed, 300. Orders in 
council relating to, 296-301. To regulate 
the value of foreign coins in New Eng- 
land, 296. To take the government of 
New England, 297, 298. His accounts to 
be transferred to the government of Mas- 
sachusetts, 303. Petition of T. Hinckley, 
for New Plymouth to, v. 149. His com- 
mission to T. Hinckley, 150; to T. Hinck- 
lev and others, 151. Plea in opposition to a 
law of, 162-166. Seizure of, 190-192, 198. 
Attempted invasion of Connecticut by, 
1675, vii. 137. I. Mather's Memorial "of 
grievances, viii. 114, 115. Usurpation 
of, 370, 517, 519, 700. His commission 
read, 518. His journey to New York, 519. 
Summons to, 537. Petition for the removal 
of, 705. Matters of complaint against, 
707. Order of K. William III. in relation 
to, 710. Order for sending him to Eng- 
land, 711. 

Andross, John, viii. 86, 87. 

Angel Gabriel, The, ship, iv. 291. 

"Angel, The, of Bethseda," by Cotton Ma- 
ther, viii. 445, 446, 44S, 450, 452. 

Angelis, Don Pedro de, Cor. Memb. M. H. 
S., i. p. xviii. ; iii. p. vi. ; iv. p. xxii. 

Angell, James, iv. 154, 155, 175, 176, 213. 

Angell, Nathan, iv. 213. 

Anghiera, Pietro Martire d', iii. 136. 

Angier, Mrs. Ruth. See Cheevers, Mrs. 

Angier, Sir Francis, Death of, vi. 40 c . 

Angier, Rev. Samuel, letter to Thomas 
Hincklev, v. 11. 

Anglesey, Earl of, ii. 280, 281. 

Ann, ship, iv. 492; v. 196n; vii. 398ra. 

Anna, ship, x. 788, 789. 

Annable, John, viii. 5. 

Annapolis, Md., x. 617, 619, 621, 623. 

Annapolis (Port Roval), Nova Scotia, ii. 
233; iii. 78??; iv. 299, 463, 464, 467; v. 
230, 324, 328, 341, 342, 344, 375, 396, 397, 
407, 570; vi. 518; ix. 45, 46,214, 215, 217. 
Expedition to, 1707, v. 313. Expedition 
to, 1710, 319. Capitulation of, 322. Hos- 
tilities by French and Indians at, 331, 352. 
Capture of, by Major Sedgwick, 1654, 
vi. 83. 

Annapolis resolves, x. 719. 

Anne, Queen, viii. 409, 411, 416. 

Anne, vessel, iii. 142, 147, 157, 179, 461 ; vii. 

Annesley, Samuel, D.D., v. 103; viii. 584. 

Annumpequun, vii. 423. 

Anonymous letter to Judge Sewall, ii. 122- 
129; to John Winthrop, vi. 442; to John 
Bailev, viii. 666; to Increase Mather, 668, 
669, 702 ; to Col. R. H. Lee, x. 739, 745 ; 
to R. C Nicholas, 747. 

Anthony, Joseph, iv. 158. 



Antigua, iv. 450; v. 492; vi. 537, 538; vii. 

288, 291, 568. 
Antimonial cup, vi. 125. 
Antinomian controversy, iii. 387. 
Anti-Pedobaptism, Law in Massachusetts 

against, vi. 466. 
Antis, Jacobus, v. 508. 
" Antisozzo, sive Sherlocismus enervatus," 

viii. 223. 
Antrobus, Deputy William, ii. 281. 
Apaffi, Michael, Prince of Transylvania, 

viii. 43. 
Apollo, ship, sunk by the French, v. 472. 
Apparel, Extravagance of, in New England, 

vi. 450. 
Apparition of Mrs. Susanna Crawford, viii. 

421-424. Of Mrs. Veal (by Defoe), 422n. 
Apparitions reported in Montgomeryshire, 

viii. 183, 184, 196. 
Appeals from American courts to the Privv 

Council, x. 537, 539, 555 foil, 596, 647, 

Appleton, Lieut.- Col, 1707, v. 313. 
Appleton, Sir Henry, Bart., acquittance to 

John Winthrop, vi. 574. Fac-simile of 

his signature and seal, vi. plate 7. Notice 

of, 574w. 
Appleton, Isaac, b. 1731, iii. p. x., xi. 
Appleton, Lady Joan Sheldon, vi. 574. 
Appleton, John, d. 1412, iii. p. viii.; (Ap- 

pulton) vi. 574rc. 
Appleton, John, d. 1699, vii. 386w. 
Appleton, Hon. John, v. 337. 
Appleton, Dr. John, v. p. xvii. ; vi. p. xiv. ; 

viii. 18w. 
Appleton, Joss, viii. 369. 
Appleton, Mar} r . See Ryece, Mrs. 
Appleton, Nathan, of Salem, 1775, iv. 272. 
Appleton, Nathan, iii. pp. xiii.. xiv. 
Appleton, Nathan, Member M. H. S., i. 

p. ix. ; ii. p. xvii. ; iii. p. v. ; iv. p. xxi. ; 

on the Standing Com., i. p. xx. Memoir 

of Abbott Lawrence by, iv. 495-507. His 

death, v. p. ix. 
Appleton, Nathaniel, ii. 228; iv. 2, 21,28, 

50, 53, 89, 105, 108, 135, 136, 225, 226, 275. 
Appleton, Mrs. Mary (Adams), iii. p. x. 
Appleton, Mrs. Mary (Gove), iii. p. xiv., 

Appleton, Robert, vi. 391w. 
Appleton, Sir Roger, vi. 574rc. 
Appleton, Samuel, b. 1586, iii. p. viii. 
Appleton, Major Samuel, b. 1624; v. 337; 

vi. 394. Notice of, iii. p. ix. 
Appleton, Capt. Samuel, of Portland, iii. p. 

Appleton, Samuel, b. 1766, vi. 391w, 574rc. 

Memoir of, by S. K. Lothrop, iii. pp. vii.- 

Appleton, William, d. 1326, iii. p. viii. 
Appleton, Hon. William, Member M. H. S., 

v. p. ix. His death, vi. p. ix. 
Appleton, William S., A.M., Member M. H. 

S., ix. p. xv. 
Appleton family of Norman origin, iii. p. ix. 
Appleton, Me. {formerly Hope), ii. 229; iii. 

p. xiii. 
Apsley, Sir Allen, i. 220. 
Apthorp, Mr., 1755, ix. 221, 484; x. 505, 

523, 524, 536. 
Aquedneck, Aquethnick, or Aquidneck. See 

Rhode Island. 
Arbella, ship, iv. 294; vi. 9,296rc; viii. 270ra. 

Departure from Southampton, vi. 470. 

Arbuthnot, Col, expedition from Crown 

Point, v. 538, 541, 542. 
Archbold, Mr., 1760, ix. 256. 
Archdale, J., vii. 424. 
Archer, Rev. Mr., silenced, vi. 16. 
Archer, Edward, iv. 161. 
Archer, Gabriel, ix. 39. 
Archer, John, iv. 204. 
Archibald, Capt, killed, 1760, v. 559. 
Archisden, Rev. Thomas, vi. 489. His 

alphabet for writing in cipher, 481. 
Arenson, Capt., Jurian, ii. 286. 
Arexis, an Indian, v. 364. 
Argall, Sir Samuel, iii. 37, 38; iv. 464; ix. 

1, 2, 4-6, 13, 14, 17-23, 26, 28, 29, 36-38, 

41, 47, 48, 54, 57, 69. Vindication of his 

capture of the French at Mount Desert, ix. 

42-46, and note after p. 488. 
Argyle, Archibald Campbell, Marquis of 

beheaded, y. 139, 182; viii. 166, 174. 
Argilla, Ipswich, vii. 118, 121. 
Arien, Mr., 1660, vii. 246. 
Arlington, Henry Bennet, Earl of, vii. 315 ; 

viii. 145. 
Arlington, Mass. (Menotomy), ii. 198. 
Arminian controversy in the Low Countries, 

iii. 20. 
Armistice between the English and French, 

1748, v. 386. 
Armstrong, Col, expedition against Kit- 
tanning, 1756, v. 425, 426, 428, 429, 430, 

Armstrong, Lieut., v. 421. Killed, 1759, 522. 
Armstrong, Gov. Lawrence, v. 364. 
Arnheim, Johann Georg von, Reported 

death of, vii. 14. 
Arnold, Capt., 1691, v. 300. 
Arnold, Mr., 1665, vii. 192, 193. 
Arnold, Benedict, b. 1615, ii. 207«; iii. 432; 

vi. 267, 273. His wife, 280, 281, 284, 285. 

To act as interpreter, iii. 441; vi. 335, 

Arnold, Gen. Benedict, x. 811. Attacks 

Quebec, 1776, 772, 773, 774, 776. 
Arnold, John, of Milford, iv. 266. 
Arnold, Samuel, v. 9, 280. (With Ephraim 

Morton), Report, 85. 
Arnold, Rev. Samuel, viii. 236. His opinion 

as to the disposal of Philip's son, 689. 
Arnold, Hon. Samuel G., Cor. Memb. M. H. 

S., iii. p. vi. ; iv. p. xxiii. ; v. p. xi. ; vi. 

p. xi.; vii. p. xi.; viii. p. xii.; ix. p. xvi. 
Arran, Earl of, Lord-Deputy for Ireland, 

viii. 57. His claim under the patent of 

the Duke of Hamilton to lands in Con- 
necticut, 603. 
Arreruguntenock Indians, v. 365. 
Arres, Samuel, i. 96, 101. 
Arrows, iii. 86, 235. Sent as a challenge, 

Arrowsick, v. 338, 433. Conference at, 

339. Attack upon, Sept. 1722, 345. 
Arrowsmith, Mr., of London, 1682, viii. 499. 
Arrubawikwabemt, Chief Sachem of Nor- 

ridgwalk, slain, v. 326. 
Artel, M., v. 318; ix. 391. 
Artephius, vii. 72, 74, 75. 
Artiss, Capt. of ship Windsor, 1711, v. 329. 
Arthur, Mr., 1662, viii. 194. 
Arthur Kull, or Achter Kol, N. J., vii. 570. 
Arundel, Thomas Howard, Earl of, i. 228, 

230; iii. 456, 459; ix. 47, 98, 99. Returns 

from his embassy to Germany, 1636; vi. 




Ash, Mr., prosecuted for distributing 

Prynne's Y\ orks, vi. 447. 
Ashburton, Lord, 1842, iv. 499, 500. 
Aslibv's Fort, Pattison, attacked by Indians, 

v. 413. 
Ashford, L. L, vii. 596n. 
Ashlmr.-t, Henry, father of Sir Henry, ii. 

281; viii. 5. 
Afihhurst, Sir Henry, Bart, ii. 300; v. 209, 

211, 255, 257, 277, 280, 287, 288, 289, 290, 

291, 292, 293, 297; viii. 539. Letter to 

Thos. Hinckley from, v. 206. Letters 

from Thos. Hinckley to, 201, 225; from 

Increase Mather to, viii. 117. Created a 

baronet, 712. 
Ashhurst, Sir William, viii. 117, 425«. 
Ashley, Lord, 1667, viii. 215. 
Ashlev, Maj., killed, 1755, v. 392. 
Ashley, Edward, iii. 251n, 255, 257, 283. 

His patent and business, 257-262, 267. 

His character, 259. At Penobscot, 259, 

267, 274, 275. Aided at Plymouth, 260, 

267. His conduct, 261, 267,275. Supplies 

to, from England, 267. His death, 275. 
Ashley, Sir Isaac, vi. 455. 
Ashley, Noah, v. 354. 
Ashley, Robert, vi. 497n. 
Ashton, Copt., Gov. of Antigua, 1645, vi. 537. 
Ashton, Rev. Robert, i. 110. Memoir of Rev. 

John Robinson, 111-164. 
Ashuelot, Lower. See Swansey. 
Ashuelot, Upper. See Keene. 
Asia, ship, x. 776. 
Aspinwall, Col. Thomas, iv.' 367. Member 

M. H. S., iii. p. v. ; iv. p. xxi. ; v. p. viii. ; 

vi. p. viii.; vii. p. viii.; viii. p. x. ; ix. 

p. xiv. ; Cor. Memb., i. p. xvi. ; on the 

Standing Com., iv. p. xx. ; v. p. vii.; 

Vice-Pres., vi. p. vii.; on the Committee 

of Publication, iv. p. iv. ; and editor of 

vols. 9 and 10, ix. pp. ii., v. 
Aspinwall, William, vi. 89, 226. 
Assacambuit, Introduction of, to the King 

of France, v. 311. 
Assawamset, v. 9. 
Assembly of elders at Boston, 1657, vii. 

83«., 85. 
Assistants at Plymouth, iii. 101, 156, 306, 

315, 327, 343, 351, 362,367, 377, 384, 408, 

425, 431. 
Association of churches, viii. 321. 
Assotemuit, vi. 198, 199. 
Astagenash, v. 344. 
Asten, John, vii. 92«. 
Asty, Mr., viii. 350. 
Athanasian Creed to be used instead of the 

Apostles' Creed, vi. 436. 
Athem, James, iv. 251. 
Atliemonosseck, vii. 556. 
Athenian Mercury, cited, iv. 309. 
Atherton, lion. Charles Humphrey, Cor. 

Memb. M. EL S., i. p. xiv. 
Atherton, Humphry, vi. 299. 
Athol, Mass. (l'equaiog), Indian murder at, 

v. 369. 
Atkins, Mr., II. M. agent among the Indians, 

1759, v. 538. 
Atkinson, Capt., viii. 214. 
Atkinson, Mr., 1671, i. 14. From Nero 

Hampshire, commission of, to Montreal, 

1725, v. 355. Of Maryland, 1776, x. 790. 
Atkvn, Robert, ii. 225. Letter of, 224. 
Atlee, Copt., 1760, ix. 283, 294, 380, 3S9, 

(Atley) 274. 

Atta-Kulla-Kulla, or the Little Carpenter, 
Chief of the Cherokees, v. 547, 575, 576, 
581, 582, 583, 584. 

Atwater, Ann. See Dummer, Mrs. 

Atwater, Joshua, viii. 175, 227, 301, 585. 

Atwater, Mrs. Mary (Blackman). See Hig- 
ginson, Mrs. 

Atwood, Mr., a leather-seller, 1635, vi. 42. 

Atwood, Mrs. Ann, vi. 161. 

Atwood, John, vi. 166. Assistant, iii. 362. 
Agent for Sherlev, 377-382. Sherlev's 
letter to, 400, 40i. His death, 425; vi. 

Auber de Subercasse, Gov. Daniel, v. 313, 
322, 323. 

Aubrev, M. d\ captured at Niagara, v. 504, 

Aubrev, Mrs. Rachel (Rawson), viii. 9, 15, 
16, 21, 23, 29, 40, 41, 44, 47, 58, 60. 

Aubrey, William, viii. 40, 47. 

Auehinclosh, Mr., 1775, i. 266. 

Auchmuty, Judge Robert, ix. 205. 

Audibert, , "killed, 1758, v. 454. 

Audsah, vi. 191, 208, 214, 216. 

Auger, Mr., 1662, viii. 189. 

Augusta, Ga., v. 549, 560, 576, 577. See 
also Fort Augusta. 

Augusta, Me. (Cushenoc w Koussinoc). v. 
337, 338. Trading-house at, iii. 233. 

Augusta County, Va., v. 420. Indian hos- 
tilities in, 432, 535, 539. 

Augustine, ship, ii. 230. 

Aulnay, Charles de Menou, sieur d', iv. 468- 
470;*' vi. 1506, iso, 518, 519; vii. 297n; 
(Aubrav)x. 832,841, 845. Captures Pen- 
obscot, iii. 332. Death of, 431». Notice 
of, iv. 462-470. 

Aulnay, Jeanne Motin, wife of Charles de 
Menou, sieur d', iv. 462. 

Aumseqnen, or Awasequen, Niantick dep- 
uty, iii. 436, 440. 

Austerfield, Eng., i. 54,76,77, 78, 80; iii. 
Preface, pp. xvi., xvii., 411. 

Austin, Capt., 1707, v. 316. 

Austin, Aaron, iv. 105, 106. 

Austin, Benjamin, iv. 2, 97, 104, 109, 112, 
136, 138, 147, 155, 195, 208, 275. 

Austin, James Trecothick, LL.D., Member 
M. H. S., i. p. ix. ; ii. p. xvii.; on the 
Standing Com., i. p. xx. 

Austin, Jona. AVilliams, iv. 93, 94. 

Austin, Samuel, i. 273. 

Avaux, Count d', viii. 712. 

Avery, Sergeant, i. 16, 18. 

Avery, John, iv. 3, 170, 184, 208, 210, 219, 
221, 253, 255, 258, 264. 

Avery, John, Jr., iv. 173, 237, 246, 247, 

Averv, Mrs. Mehitable (Hinckley Warden), 
v. 284h. 

Avery, Oliver, v. 377. 

Avery, S., i. 12. 

Avery, Capt. Thomas, i. 35. 

Avery, William, v. 284n. 

Awaskawe, an Indian, iii. 439. 

Awequas, Deed of, vii. 247. 

Axson, Mr., v. 548. 

Avers, Capt., 1774, iv. 68. 

Avers, Corporal, 1711, v. 327. 

Avers, Moses, iv. 230, 256. 

Ayleworth, Dr., 1632, vi. 474. 

Ayres, Capt, 1773, x. 700. 

Avres, Mr. (Aires), 1631, vii. 93n; an- 
other ?, 1645, 387. 




B., G., Letters of, to Benj. Franklin, x. 756, 

B— t, x. 539. 

Babbe, Mr., 1634, vi. 131, 333; vii. 16, 21, 
224, 307. 

Babbitt (Babbet), Mr., his ship, 1636, vi. 

Babcock, Col, 1758, v. 464. 

Babergh Hundred, Suffolk, Eng., vi. 567. 

Babington, Gervase, Bp., viii. 76. 

Babson, Hon. John J., cited, iii. 247. Mem- 
ber M. H. S., v. p. ix. ; vi. p. ix. ; vii. p. 
ix. ; viii. p. xi. ; ix. p. xiv. 

Baby (Babby), A te > ix. 392, 393, 405, 437. 
Letter of, 438. 

Bache, Samuel, viii. 203, 609. Extract from 
a letter of, to John Davenport, 609. Ex- 
tract from a letter to, 211. 

Bachelder, Josiah, iv. 77. 

Bacheller, Nathaniel, iv. 77. 

Bacheller, Thomas, iv. 77. 

Bachelor, bark, the " North-Sea Boat," vi. 
326,329; vii. b2n, 54. Arrival of the, from 
London, 1635, vi. 325-328, 371rc. 

Bachiler, Rev. Stephen, i. 92, 93; vii. 93w, 
95ra, 364n. Letters to John Winthrop, 
88, 105, 108; to John Winthrop, Jr., 
98; to Margaret Winthrop, 99; to the 
church in Boston, 100. Fac-similes of his 
signature and seal, vii. plate 2. Notice 
of; 88n. His wives, 109n. His ( ? ) death, 
viii. 583, 584. 

Backhouse, Elizabeth, power of attorney to 
Thomas Hinckley, v. 302. 

Bacon, Mrs., of Shrublin, d. 1647, vi. 67. 

Bacon, Andrew, viii. 79. 

Bacon, Francis, vi. 67. 

Bacon, Sir Francis, i. 220; ii. 204; ix. 84, 

Bacon, Leonard. D.D., vii. 474?z; viii. 165rc. 
Cor. Memb. M. H. S., i. p. xvii. ; iii. p. vi. ; 
iv. p. xxii.; v. p. x. ; vi. p. x. ; vii. p. x. ; 
viii. p. xii.; ix. p. xvi. 

Bacon, Nathaniel, vi. 67. 

Bacon, Nathaniel, Jr., Virginia's deploured 
condition under, ix., 162-176. Opinion 
of the Council of Virginia concerning his 
proceedings, 177-179. Gloucester County's 
petition concerning, 181-183. The 
Governor's answer, 183. Bacon's declara- 
tion in the name of the people, 184-187. 

Badcock, , 1748, v. 378. 

Bagley, , 1758, v. 464. 

Bahamas, Starvation in the, iii. 450. 

Bailey, Rev. John, viii. 64, 372?z, 667w. Emi- 
grates to New England, 37, 56. Notice of, 
486w. Letters to Increase Mather, 486, 
491. Anonymous letter to, 666. Mem- 
oranda by, 666n. 

Bailey, Rev. Thomas, viii. 62, 372, 488, 668ra. 
Notices of, 372n, 486rc. Letter to Cotton 
Mather, 488. 

Bailleur, , ix. 44. 

Bailv, Bailie, or Baillie, Lieut., ix. 295, 379, 
403, 413. 

Bak, John, vii. 536. 

Baker, a contractor, ix. 221. 

Baker, Lieut., 1758, v. 48L 

Baker, master of the Charity, iii. 157, 169. 

Baker, Mr., v. 434. Killed, 1757, 436. 

Baker, Mrs. ?, 1625 ?, vii. 632. 

Baker, Mrs. Elizabeth, i. 96. 

Baker, Elizabeth, daughter of the preceding, 
i. 96. 

Baker, Isaac, v. 422. 

Baker, John, of Dover, 1639, vii. 178; of 
Pascattaqua, 1643, 365. 

Baker, John, of Ipswich, i. 96, 101; vi. 105. 

Baker, John, son of the preceding, i. 96. 

Baker, Richard, vi. 328. 

Baker, Rev. Nicholas, Death of, viii. 246. 

Baker, Samuel, Notice of, viii. 509. Letters 
to Increase Mather, 509, 512, 513. 

Baker, Judge Samuel, of Berlin, 1781, iv. 
336, 337. 

Baker, Thomas, i. 96. 

Baker, Walter, vi. 99. 

Baker, William, vi. 215, 222, 223, 245, 247. 

Balcarras, Lord, x. 829, 830. 

Baldwin, a Jesuit, ix. 86, 87. 

Baldwin, Sergeant, 1658, vii. 494. 

Baldwin, Jeduthan, iv. 230, 256. 

Baldwin, Noah, iv. 266. 

Baldwin, Thomas, D.D., ii. 150. 

Bale, Mr., 1663, viii. 213. 

Balfour, Copt., 1758, v. 473. 

Ballantine, Lieut.-Col, v. 321. 

Ballard, Mr., 1638, vi. 572. 

Ballard, Gervish, viii. 704. 

Ballard, Thomas, ix. 174, 178, 186. 

Ballard, William, the elder, vi. 50. 

Balletre, M. See Belletre. 

Balstone, Mr., 1648, vi. 320, 321. 

Baltimore, Lady, ix. 95-97. 

Baltimore, Cecil Calvert, 2d Lord, ix. 82, 
83, 100, 101, 140, 141, 146. A Catholic, 
83. His ingratitude to Sir John Harvey, 

Baltimore, George Calvert, 1st Lord, ix. 
140, 141; x. 817, 818. Becomes a Catholic, 
ix. 83. Goes to Newfoundland, 95, 96. 
His victory over de la Rade, 96. His 
difficulties in catholicizing Ferryland, 96. 
Goes to Virginia, and obtains a grant of 
Maryland, 97. His death, 97. 

Baltimore, Md., letters to the Committee 
of Correspondence and Donation Commit- 
tee of Boston, iv. 38, 143. 

Bampfield, Sir Thomas, Speaker of the House, 
of Commons, vii. 593. 

Bancroft, Rev. Aaron, D.D., i. 93rc. 

Bancroft, Geo., ii. 305; iv. 464, 502,503 
ix. 14. Member M. H. S., i. p. ix. Cor, 
Memb., i. p. xix. ; iii. p. vi. ; iv. p. xxiii 
v. p. x. ; vi. p. x. ; vii. p. x. ; viii. p. xii 
ix. p. xvi. 

Bancroft, Mrs. Jane, i. 93?z. 

Bancroft, John, of Lynn, i. 93ft. 

Bancroft, John, son ojrJohn of Lynn, i. 93w. 

Bancroft, Ttiomas, i 93rc. 

Banester, John, vii. 94«. 

Bangs, Edward, settler at Nauset, iii. 426. 

Banks, , viii. 476. 

Banister, Goody, viii. 190. 

Bannister, John, iv. 173, 174. 

Bantam, Insurrection in, viii. 42. 

Banyar, W., x. 568, 581. 

Baptism, ii. 25, 31, 32, 36, 82 foil.; vi. 148; 
viii. 7, 8, 31, 35, 69, 193, 324, 375, 397- 
400, 580. Differences respecting, iii. 382, 
384, 387. Order for the baptism of chil- 
dren, vi. 438, 439. Law in Massachusetts 
against Anti-Pedobaptism, 466. 

Baptists, v. 30. Complain of persecution in 
Massachusetts, iv. 455, 456. At Seekonk, 



vi. 274, 277. Baptist congregations in 

England, viii. 578, 579, 650. 
Baran, Copt. Richard, v. 505. 
Barbadoes, ii. 180; v. 66, 230, 262; vi. 537; 

vii. 183, 288, 289, 291, 293, 319, 510; viii. 

170, 577. Expedition to, 1651, vi. 154. 
Barbe de Marbois, Frangois, LL.D., Cor. 

Memb. M. H. S., i. p. xv. 
Barber, Lieut., 1761, v. 578. 
Barbican, The, Me., v. 451. 
Barclav, Col Thomas, x. 830, 831, 835, 836, 

838, "842, 845, 849, 850. Letter of, to Win. 

Hamilton, 840. 
Barcrofte (Bancroft V),. Jane, i. 93. 
Barcrofte (Bancroft?), John, i. 93. 
Bard, Dr., 1764, x. 522 ; Mr., an officer, 1765, 

x. 585, 5S7. 
Barefoot, Capt. C, v. 118, 121. 
Barefoot, Walter, v. 116. 
Bargrave, Capt. John, ix. 37, 138. 
Barker, Mr., letter to Mrs. Jones, viii. 185. 
Barker, Rev. Matthew, viii. 584. 
Barker , Peleg, iv. 158. 
Barkley, Alderman, 1645, vii. 386. 
Barkstead, Col, apprehended, 1662, viii. 188, 

190, 193, 197. 
Barlett, Robert, i. 94, 95. 
Barlow, Samuel L. M., ix. p. v. 
Barnard, CapL, iv. 162, 164. 
Barnard, Benjamin, Wife of, v. 272. 
Barnard, Hon. Daniel D., Cor. Memb. M. 

H. S., i. p. xvii. ; iii. p. vi. ; iv. p. xxii. 

His death, v. p. xi. 
Barnard. Rev. John, i. 33; v'. 313rc. 
Barnardiston, Sergeant, d. 1752, vi. 545n. 
Barnardiston, Mrs. Mary (Downing), vi. 

Barnardiston, Sir Nathaniel, vi. 551, 552, 

565; (Bramstone) vii. 226. Elected to 

Parliament, 1639, vi. 548. Letters to John 

Winthrop, 546, 547, 549. Letter to John 

Winthrop, Jr., 545. Fac-similes of his 

signature and seal, vi. plate 6. Notice 

of, 545?*. 
Barnardiston, Sir Samuel, vi. 545rc. 
Barnardiston, Thomas, vi. 545n. 
Barnes, Rev. Albert, i. 285. 
Barnet, Joseph, v. 446. 
Barnet, William, v. 446. 
Barnett, Rev. Thomas, v. 130, 136. 
Barneveldt, Johan van Olden-, i. 130. 
Barnfield, Peter, vi. 357. 
Barnsley, Capt., 1760, ix. 352, 420; x. 548. 
Barnstable, iii. 372; v. 10, 11, 28, 29, 57, 59, 

111, 120, 132, 141, 196, 268, 302, 308. Reply 

to Boston, iv. 214. Church at, v. 13, 16, 

26, 41, 43; viii. 242,244, 380. 
Barnstable County, v. 150, 152, 159, 302. 

Proposal from the grand jnry of, for an 

address to the kins;, 167. 
Barnwell, Col, v. 333. 

Barr—, , 1764, x. 539, 548. 

Barre, Col, x. 523, 545, 548, 579, 5S6, 591, 

593, 601, 619. 
Barrett, Hon. C, iii. p. xiii. 
Barrett. .John, iv. 14, 15, 18, 60, 61. 

Ban-hold, , 1756, v. 421. 

Barrington, Maj.-Gen., v. 492, 493. 
Barrington, Sir Francis, vii. 205«. 
Barrington, R. I., iii. 94«. 

Barry, . ix. 330. 

Barry, Copt.?, 1776, ix. 783. 
Barry, Maj., 1759, v. 530. 
Barry, David, v. 518. 

Barry, Rev. John S., Member M. H. S., iii. 

p. v. ; iv. p. xxi.; v. p. viii.; vi. p. viii.; 

vii. p. viii.; viii. p. x. ; ix. p. xiv. Hints 

from, respecting Bradford's History, iii. 

Preface, p. v. Referred to, 21. 
Barry, William, A.M., Member M. H. S., 

i. p. xi. 
Barstow (Barestoe), John, v. 9, 40. 
Barstow (Barestoe), William, v. 9. 
Bartholomew, Mr., vii. 125. 

Bartlet, , 1639, vii. 208. 

Bartlet, Rev. Robert, viii. 331. 

Bartlet, Capt. William, iv. 199. 

Bartlet, Lord William, viii. 170. 

Bartlet, Rev. William, Notice of, viii. 194ra. 

Bartlett, Capt., 1710, v. 322. 

Bartlett, Hon. John R., Cor. Memb. M. H. 

S., iv. p. xxiii.; v. p. xi.; vi. p. xi.; vii. 

p. xi.; viii. p. xii.; ix. p. xvi. 
Bartlett, Josiah, of Kingston, iv. 77. 
Bartlett, Hon. Josiah, M.D., of Charlestown, 

Member M. H. S-, i. p. vi. 
Bartlett, Josiah, M.D., of Cvncord, Member 

M. H. S., i. p. x. ; ii. p. xvii. ; iii. p. v. 
Bartlett, Capt. Nicholas, iv. 143. 
Bartlett, Robert, i. 94, 95. 
Bartlett, William, vii. 69. 
Bartlett, Rev. William S., i. 219. Member 

M. H. S., v. p. ix. ; vi. p. viii. ; vii. p. viii. ; 

viii. p. x. ; ix. p. xiv. ; on the Committee 

of Publication, ix. p. ii. 
Bartletts, The, vi. 357. 
Barton, Capt, 1764, x. 530. 
Barton, Benjamin Smith, M.D., Cor. Memb. 

M. H. S., i. p. xii. 
Barton, William, A.M., Cor. Memb. M. H. 

S., i. p. xiii. 
Bass, Edward, iii. 213. 
Bass, Gillam, iv. 246. 
Bass, Fishing for, iii. 267-271, 273, 280, 282, 

286. See also Fishing. 
Basseterre (Back Star), Earthquake at, v. 

262, 491. 
Bassetlaw, Eng., i. 54. 
Bassett, Lieut, afterwards Capt., ix. 268, 

273, 275, 283, 302, 323, 332, 333, 344, 381, 

398, 420, 439; x. 490. 
Bassett, Rev. John, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 

i. p. xiv. 
Bassitt, Col William, v. 220, 222, 223. 

Letter to Thomas Hinckley, 214. 
Bastingius, or Bastijnck, Jeremias, viii. 

Bastwick, John, D.D., imprisoned, vi. 460, 

461. Pilloried, 462, 463. Called to Par- 
liament, vii. 334. 
Bateman, Anthony, ii. 281. 
Bateman, William, ii. 281. 
Bates, Joshua, D.D., i. 51. 
Bates, Mrs. Maria S. (Latimer), i. 51. 
Bates, Rev. William, D.D., viii. 208. 
Bath, Eng., Plague in, 1636, vi. 429. 
Bathurst, Earl, Letters of Geo. Chalmers to, 

x. S42, 843. 
Bathurst, John, ii. 281. 
Batolie, Rev. St., i. 212. 
Batter, Edmund, vi. 56, 57, 143, 213. 
Baulston (Boston, Balstoue), William, vii. 

110, 111, 279. 
Bawtry, Eng., i. 78. 
Bawtrv Hospital, i. 67-70. 

Baxter (Backster), , 1643, vii. 412. 

Baxter, Richard, viii. 103, 177, 193, 195, 

223, 477, 513. Arrest of, 498. 



Bav of Fundy, ii. 178; v. 490; x. 834, 836, 
838, 843, 844, 848, 850. 

Bay of Mercy, vi. 512. 

Bay Verte, v. 396. 

Bayard, Copt, ix. 256, 349; x. 526. 

Bayard, Billy, x. 599. 

Bayard, Col. Nicholas, i. 106. 

Bayard, Hon. Samuel, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
i. p. xiv. 

Bayley, John, and others, of Scituate, Pe- 
tition of, v. 38. 

Baylie, R., i. 160. 

Baylies, Francis, Member M. H. S., i. p. x. 
His "History of New Plymouth" cited, 
ii. 157; viii. 373w, 654rc. 

Baylies, William, M.D., Member M. H. S., 
i. p. v.; ii. p. v.; iv. p. vii. 

Bayly, Mr., viii. 670. 

Bayly, Thomas, vii. 233, 234, 421. 

Bayne, Rev. Paul, viii. 77. 

Baynes, Paul, i. 190. 

Beacon Hill, v. 194. 

Beads for trade with the Indians, iii. 127. 

Beale, Capt. Josiah, v. 490. 

Beaman, Miss Deborah, b. 1752, i. 50. 

Beaman, Elizabeth, b. 1649, i. 50. 

Beaman, Capt. Ezra, iv. 245. 

Beaman, Lydia. See Pygan, Mrs. 

Beaman, Mrs. Lydia Danforth, i. 50. 

Beaman, Mary, b. 1647, i. 50. 

Beaman, Rebecca, b. 1759, i. 50. 

Beaman, William, i. 50. 

Beamont, Mrs.?, of New Haven, 1659,vii. 503. 

Bean, Capt, 1724, v. 351, 352, 362. 

Bear, vessel, ix. 59. 

Beard, Thomas, D.D., viii. 77. 

Beardsej', Ebenezer, iv. 103, 104. 

Beast, Ellis, i. 241. 

Beatty, , killed, 1757, v. 446. 

Beaubiere, , 1758, v. 455. 

Beauchamp, John, iii. 115, 117, 213, 227, 
229-232, 246, 280, 287, 309, 331, 348; vi. 
167. Patent in his name, ii. 226; iii. 258. 
Declines giving aid, 345. Complaints by, 
349, 361, 365. Beaver sent to, 361, 362, 
365. Takes land at Scituate, 368. Free- 
man's brother-in-law, 378. Settlement 
with, 400-407. 

Beaumont, Lydia. See Beaman. 

Beauport, Attack on, July 31, 1759, v. 521. 

Beaver, John, vi. 25. 

Beaver, obtained at Massachusetts, iii. 105, 
108, 127; at Plymouth, by Weston, 133, 
134. Sent home, 147, 304, 315. Taken 
by the Turks, 203. Bought at Kennebec, 
204. Payments with, 221, 261. Agree- 
ment concerning the trade, 226. Sent 
home by Ashley, 267; by Winslow and 
others, 289, 323, 331, 344-347. Bought 
by Allerton, 237. Lost, 306. Disinclina- 
tion to send, 344, 346. Prices of, 346. 
Sent to Andrews and Beauchamp, 361, 
362, 365. Hints and laws as to the trade 
in, 144, 387. Beaver trade, vii. 13«; ix. 
167, 184. 

Beaver Creek, ix. 264, 266, 284, 343, 379. 

Beaver Dams, v. 428. 

Beck, Marts Halen, Letter from, ix. 452. 

Beck, Theodoric Romeyne, M.B., Cor. 
Memb. M. H. S., i. p. xix. 

Beckwith, Gov., 1799, x. 829. 

Beckwith, Matthew, vii. 419. 

Bedford, ix. 243, 244, 253, 254, 352, 386, 389, 
390, 393, 394, 408, 409, 431, 432, 437. 

Bedford Stoney Creek, ix. 379. 

Bedlow, William, viii. 17, 346. 

Beecher, Rev. L}'man, i. 285. 

Beekman, Gerard William, iv. 164. 

Beef, or Beeve River, ix. 237, 396. 

Beeks, , killed, v. 517. 

Beers, Capt. Richard, slain near Hadley, 
vii. 43. 

Beex and Company, vii. 337n. 

Beggerly, or Baggerly, Mrs., vii. 156, 157, 

Belcher, Andrew, Sen., i. 14. 

Belcher, Andrew, Jr., i. 30; v. 217, 337; 
viii. 502, 519. 

Belcher, Gov. Jonathan, i. 30 ; ii. 227. 

Belcher, Capt. William, iv. 54. 

Belden, Aaron, v. 380. 

Belknap, Jeremy, D.D., i. 90, 239, 272, 276; 
ii. 136,240; iv. 334, 335; viii. 456. Mem- 
ber M. H. S., i. p. v. ; iv. p. vii. ; Cor. Sec, 
p. xx. ; on the Committee of Publication 
of 1st Series, vol. 1, 3. 4, p. xxi. Letter 
to, ii. 240. Note by, viii. 682rc. Error in 
his life of Lord Delaware, ix. 51. 

Belknap, John, i- 251. 

Belknap Papers, viii. 456, 681n. 

Bell, , 1640, vii. 308. 

Bell, Capt., 1788, x. 822. 

Bell, Ensign, 1760, v. 551. 

Bell, Lieut- Gov., 1760, v. 563. 

Bell, Abraham, viii. 51. 

Bell, James, v. 8. 

Bell, Luther V, M.I)., Member M. H. S., 
v. p. ix. His death, vi. p. ix. 

Bell, Col. Philip, Gov. of Barbadoes, vii. 510. 

Bell, Thomas, one of the Corporation of New 
England, ii. 281. 

Bell, Thomas, of Hanover Township ?, v. 448. 

Bell, Walter, and son, killed, v. 482. 

Bellamont, Earl of, v. 336 ; viii. 483w. 

Belleisle, Straits of, v. 524. 

Belletre, Belestre, Beletre, Balletre, or Beli- 
tre, ix. 282, 295, 314, 358, 359, 365, 369, 
383, 384, 390. 

Bellew, Capt. Henry, x. 779, 782, 786. 
Letter of, to Lord Dunmore, 790. 

Bellingham, Richard, Gov. of Massachusetts, 
i. 13, 16, 18; ii. 60, 250-252, 266; iii. 278, 
335; vi. 26, 27, 28, 97, 195, 198, 217, 223, 
345, 368, 584; vii. 160/j, 375; viii. 33w, 
76, 587m. Sends a letter and questions to 
Gov. Bradford, iii. 386. Letters to John 
Winthrop, Jr., vii. 596, 597, 598, 599. 
To the selectmen of Boston, 600. Fac- 
similes of his signature and seal, vii. 
plate 11. Notice of, 596w. Agent to Eng- 
land, viii. 217. 

Bellingham, Samuel, viii. 33, 76. 

Bellingham, William, vii. 208. 

Bellows worked by a dog, vi. 494. 

Bemis, George, A.M., Member M. H. S., 
viii. p. xi. ; ix. p. xv. 

Benbow, John, ii. 281. 

Bendall, Edward, ii. 57, 62; (Berdall) vi. 

Bendall, Hopefor, viii. 216. 

Benedict, Zadock, iv. 17. 

Benefield, Sebastian, B.I)., viii. 77. 

Benham, , vii. 517. 

Benjamin, Jo., i. 94, 95. 

Benjamin, Richard, i. 94, 95. 

Benn, William, B.B., viii. 31, 583, 648rc, 677. 
Notice of, Sin. 

Bennett, Mrs. Elizabeth, vi. 141. 




Indian in- 

vi. 95; vii. 
"8. Church 
To be 

Benning, Henry, viii. 372. 

Bentinck, , ix. 381, 403, 408, 409, 422. 

Bentley, William, D.D., Member M. H. S. 

i. p. vi. 
Benton, Eben, v. 208. 
Benvowski, Count, ii. 210. 
Berdall. See Bendall. 
Berkeley, John, Lord of Stratton. Notice 

of, vii. 315n. 
Berkeley, Sir William, Gov. of Virginia, 

vii. 434n ; ix. 78, 80, 149, 165. Declara- 
tion concerning Bacon's Rebellion, 178 foil. 

Answer to the petition of Gloucester Co., 

Berks County, Pa., v. 412, 416. 

cursions upon, 447, 459. 
Berkshire, Mass., x. 715. 
Bermuda Co., ix. 18, 66, 67. 
Bermuda Hundred, ix. 56. 
Bermudas, The, iii. 78n, 360; 

319; ix. 77, 80, 155; x. 777, 778. 

at, iv. 308. Charter of, viii. 499. 

surrendered to the Spanish, ix. 6. 
Bernard, Gov. Francis, iv. 356, 407, 425, 

433, 442, 447; ix. 278; x. 578, 592, 745. 
Bernard, Rev. Richard, i. 60, 62, 63, 83, 126; 

vi. 446. 
Bernardston (Fall Town), Attack upon, v. 

368. Indian murder at, 375. 
Bern's Banks, i. 201. 
Berrien, John McPherson, LL. D., Cor. 

Memb. M. H. S., i. p. xviii. 
Berry, James, ix. 31. 
Berwick, Letter to the Overseers of the Poor 

of Boston, iv. 95. Reply of the Donation 

Committee, 96. Letter to the Committee, 

217. Reply, 218. 
Bethel, Pa., Indian hostilities at, v. 417. 
Bethel Township, Indian outrages in, v. 

Bethlehem, x. 503. 
Bets, Goody, viii. 545. 
Betsev, schooner, iv. 210. 

Betts,' , 1636, vi. 556, 557. 

Beveridge, John, v. 414. 
Beverley, Maj. Robert, d. 1716. 

his "History of Virginia," ix. 


Beverly, Robert, 1774, iv. 83. 
Beverly, Mass., letter to the Boston Com- 
mittee of Correspondence, iv. 41. 
Biard, Paul, ix. 42, 43, 44, 45. 
" Biblia Americana." See Mather, Cotton. 
Bichi, Sieur, viii. 215. 
Bickers, Capt., killed, 1756, v. 417. 
Bickford, William, v. 379. 
Biddeford, Me., granted to Oldham and 

Vines, iii. 191n. Settlement of, vii. 337n, 

Biddeford patent, vii. 337«. 
Biddle, Hon. Richard, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 

i. p. xvi. 

Biencourt, , ix. 45, 46. 

Bificld, Rev. Nicholas, viii. 77. 

Bigelow, Maj., 1776, x. 772. 

Bigelow, Erastus B., A.M., Member M. II. 

S., vii. p. ix. ; viii. p. xi. ; ix. p. xv. 
Bigelow, George Tyler, LL.D., Member 

M. II. S., v. p. ix. ; vi. p. ix. ; vii. p. ix. ; 

viii. p. x. ; ix. p. xiv. 
Bigelow, Jacob, LL.D., Member M. H. S., 

iv. p. xxi.; v. p. viii.; vi. p. viii.; vii. p. 

viii.; viii. p. x.; ix. p. xiv. 
Bigelow, Katherine. See Lawrence, Mrs. 

Error in 
141, 174, 

Bigelow, Hon. Timothy, iv. 506. 

Bigsby, Robert, LL.D., Cor. Memb. M. H. 

S., i. p. xix. ; iii. p. vi. ; iv. p. xxiii; v. p. 

x. ; vi. p. x. ; vii. p. x. ; viii. p. xii. ; ix. p. 

Bilboa, v. 231. 
Bill, Mary, vii. 580. 
Bill, Thomas, of Boston, vii. 580. 
Billerica, L'ng., Pilgrims from, iii. 56. 
Billerica, Mass. (Shawsheen), vi. 121,128; 

vii. 325, 446. 
Billeting Bill, x. 572, 573. 

Billings, , killed, 1748, v. 380. 

Billings, Lieut., 1758, v. 480. 

Billingsgate, v. 132, 133. 

Billington, Mr., of Middleborough, 1774, 

iv. 121. 
Billington, Mrs. Elen, iii. 449. 
Billington, Francis, iii. 102n, 449, 453. 
Billington, John, iii. 102n, 181, 449. Tried 

and executed for murder, 276, 365, 453. 
Billington, John, Jr., iii. 449, 453. Lost in 

the woods, 102. 
Billington Sea, iii. 102. 
Bills of credit, x. 641. 
Bilson, Thomas, Bp., viii. 77. 
Bincks (Brinks), Bryan, vii. 91n, (Binkes) 

94n, 95ra. 
Binkes, Daniel, vii. 96n. 
Kinkes, Roger, vii. 96ra. 
Binney, Horace, Hon. Memb. M. H. S., v. 

p. xii; vi. p. xii; vii. p. xii; viii. p. xiii; 

ix. p. xvii. 
Birch, Mr., 1768, iv. 432, 452. 
Birch, Lieut.- Col. Samuel, i. 263, 268, 269. 
Birchover Lane, iii. 106. 
Bird, or Byrd, Col., 1765, x. 548, 549. 
Bird, Mr.", a physician, 1640, vii. 384. 
Birkenhead, Sir John, viii. 217. 
Birt, Goodman George or Hugh, vi. 71. 
Biscay rugs, iii. 210. 
Biscowen, Edward, ii. 281. 
Bishop, Capt., x. 787. 
Bishop, Mr., viii. 175, 625. 
Bishop, Mrs., cured by J. Winthrop, Jr., 

1754, vii. 5, 469. 
Bishop, George, vi. 135. 
Bishop, Mrs. Joanna (Willet Prudden), viii. 

308, 612. 
Bishop, John, vii. 559, 560. 
Bishop, Rev. John, viii. 585, 586, 623, 626, 

661. Notice of, 298n. Death of his wife, 

307. His second wife, 308. Letters to 

Increase Mather, 298-316. 
Bishop, Mrs. Rebecca, Death of, viii. 307. 
Bishop, Call, Leftingwell and Bishop, iv. 45. 
Bishop of London, his suspension revoked, 

viii. 713. 
Bishops, Downfall of, iii. 6. 
Bishops, Imprisonment of the seven, 1688, 

viii. 712. 
Bishops in Scotland, viii. 172, 184. 
Bishops in the American Colonies, iv. 410, 

411, 421, 422, 425, 431, 449, 450, 452, 455. 
Bissell, Hezekiah, iv. 7. 
Black, Mr., 1775, i. 266. 
Black, Henry, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., i. 

p. xviii. ; iii. p. vi. ; iv. p. xxii. ; v. p. x ; 

vi. p. x. ; vii. p. x. ; viii. p. xii. ; ix. p. xvi. 
Black, William, iv. 187. 
Blackbourne, or Blackburn, Mr., x. 6C3. 
Blackburn, Archdeacon Francis, (B — n or 

A. D. B.), iv. 399, 404-406, 408, 411, 413, 

414 429 435 449 455. 



Black Hall, in Lyme, vii. 584«. 
Black George, vessel, ix. 137w. 
Black-lead, Discovery of, in New England, 

vi. 60. Near Quassink, 377, 378. Mine 

of, vii. 405, 407, 408, 409. 
Blackleach, John, vii. 497, 498; viii. 246. 

Notice of, vii. 146n. Letter to John Win- 

(throp, 146; to John Winthrop, Jr., 149, 
150, 151. Fac-similes of his signature 
and seal, vii. plate 3. Labors among the 
Indians, 150. Voyage to Jamaica, 151. 
Blackleach Solomon, viii. 246. 

Blackleech, Mr., his house burned, 1652, vi. 

Blackman, , killed, 1690, v. 381. 

Blackman, Mr. 1679, viii. 95. 

Blackman, Benjamin, vii. 571. 

Blackman, Mary. See Higginson, Mrs. 

Blackmore, Sir Richard, viii. 433, 435. His 
"Essavs," 437. 

Black Point, Indians killed at, v. 312. 

Black Raven, ship, ii. 230. 

Blackston, William, iii. 240. 

Blackstone, William, vi. 218; vii. 195. 
Death of, vi. 299. 

Blackwell, Mrs., viii. 674. 

Blackwell, Sir Francis, Voyage of, to Vir- 
ginia, iii. 37. Conduct of, 37-40, 42. 

Blackwell, Capt. John, viii. 60, 62, 64, 365, 
668. Notice of, 60rc. 

Blagden, George Washington, D.D., Memb. 
M. H. S., i. p. x. ; ii. p. xvii. ; iii. p. v. ; 
iv. p. xxi. ; v. p. viii. ; vi. p. viii. ; vii. p. 
viii. ; viii. p. x. ; ix. p. xiv. ; on the 
Standing Com., ii. p. xvi.; viii. p. ix. 

Blair, Lieut, 1756, v. 415. 

Blaithwaite, Mr. and Mrs., viii. 699. 

Blake, Rev. Mr., viii. 150, 503, 584. 

Blake, John, v. 189. 

Blake, Nathan, v. 367. 

Blake, Admiral Robert, vi. 293,294; vii. 476ra. 

Blake Downe, Somersetshire, Strange ap- 
pearance at, viii. 211. 

Blanchard, Col, 1755, v. 392. 

Blanchard, Edward, iv. 202. 

Bland, Eon. Theodoric, Cor. Memb. M. H. 
S., i. p. xv. 

Bland, Mr., ix. 174. 

Bland, Richard, x. 707. 

Blasphemy, ii. 66. 

Blathwait, Hon. William, v. 52, 73, 74w, 93, 
100, 122, 168n, 173w, 181, 184. Letter 
from, to Gov. Josiah Winslow, 33; to 
Thos. Hinckley, 91. Letters to, from 
Thos. Hinckley, 65, 94. Enemy of N. 
England, 211. Extract from a letter of 
Edward Randolph to, viii. 531. 

Blauvelt, Capt., vi. 272, 273ra, 274, 280. 

Blecker, Mr., 1762, ix. 450. 

Blessing, bark, iii. 312?i; vii. 31; viii. 575. 

Blessing of the Bay, bark, vi. 369, 371. 

Blin, Capt., 1722, v. 341, 344. 

Blinman, Mrs., 1651, vi. 363. 

Blinman, Jeremiah, Extract from a letter of, 
to John Davenport, viii. 210. 

Blinman, Rev. Richard, i. 212 ; vi. 77, 
78, 80, 81, 84, 170, 171; vii. p. xiv., 
5, 46, 82; viii. 301, 307. His dispute 
with the church at Pequot, vii. 84-87, 204, 
241, 284, 453, 455, 461, 490. Notice of, 
83n. Extract from a letter of, to Jeremiah 
Blinman, viii. 210. Letters to Increase 
Mather, 328, 329, 330, 333, 334. Notice 
of, 328re. 

Bliss, Constant, v. 372. 

Bliss, Leonard, Jr., his "History of Re- 
hoboth " cited, viii. 233n. 

Bliss, Philip, LL D., Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
i. p. xviii; iii. p. vi. 

Blith, Mr., viii. 196. 

Block, , iii. 311n; vii. 44n. 

Block Island, iii. 353; v. 267; vi. 216, 217, 
218, 222, 257, 268; vii. 64n, 278. Its dis- 
covery, iii. 350n. Indians, vi. 214, 272. 
Prisoners taken at, 197. 

Blonde, ship, x. 793, 813. 

Blood, Francis, iv. 200, 202. 

"Bloody Tenent of Persecution," by Wil- 
liams, vi. 282. 

Blossom, Thomas, Letter of, i. 157, 158; iii. 

Blount, Hon. William, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
i. p. xii. 

Bluefield, Capt. See Blauvelt. 

Blue Hills, viii. 9. 

Blue Mountains, Pa., Indian murders near 
the, v. 461. Captives taken at the, 518. 

Blundel, Christopher, x. 498, 544. 

Blynman. See Blinman. 

Boade, Henry, vii. 353. 

Boadley, Mr., ix. 335. 

Boardman, William, iv. 3. 

Boat-making, iii. 159, 160, 170, 204, 211, 258. 

Bobit, Edward, v. 8. 

Boden, Ambrose, vii. 376. 

Bodilo, Mr., 1646, vii. 430. 

" Body of Liberties," vii. 27. 

Boger, JJ/r., 1776, x. 781, 782. 

Bohemia, Death of the Queen of, viii. 197. 

Bois, Mr., 1640, vi. 105. 

Boise, James, iv. 258. 

Bollan, William, iv. 451. His dismissal as 
Massachusetts agent impolitic, 430. 

Boiling, Robert, iv. 173, 174. 

Bolt, Mr., viii. 650. 

Bolton, Dr., viii. 195. 

Bomazeen, Chief of the Kennebec Jndians,. 
v. 336, 352. 

Bompart, Admiral, v. 500. 

Bompart, M., Commander of Ticonderoga,. 
v. 500. 

Bonaventure, M., 1710, v. 322. 

Bond, Dr., ix. 360. 

Bond, Goodman, 1651, vii. 61. 

Bond, Henry, M.D., Cor. Memb. M. H. S. ? . 
iii. p. vi. ; iv. p. xxiii. His " Genealogies 
of Watertown" cited, viii. 666?z. 

Bond, Nicholas, vi. 60. Agreement of John 
Winthrop, Jr., with, 516. 

Bond, Robert, vii. 485. 

Bond, Rev. Sampson, vii. 319. Letter from: 
Samuel Maverick to, 316 ; from Increase 
Mather to, viii. 96. Notices of, vii. 316w; 
viii. 96ft. In Boston, 388. 

" Bonifacius," by Cotton Mather, viii. 441. 

Bonython, Capt. John, vii. 342, 356, 357,. 
358, 365, 377w. 

Book of Common Prayer, viii. 188, 205. 
Statute for using the, revived, 166. 

"Book of Sports," K. James I.'s, required: 
to be observed, 1636, vi. 411. 

Books sent to John Winthrop, Jr., vi. 497. 
Belonging to L. Gardner, vii. 59. Bor- 
rowed by Richard Mather, viii. 76. Sent 
by Richard Chiswell to Increase Mather, 

Boone, Gov., 1760, ix. 331. 

Boone, or Boon, Mr., 1764, x. 533, 571, 601.. 



Booth, Sere/., ix. 23. 

Booth, Sir George, viii. 206. Insurrection 
of, 1659, vii. 508. Notice of, 508n. 

Booth, John, v. 40. 

Boove, Peter, captured, v. 376. 

Borden, John, v. 127. 

Boreman, Mr., 1637, vii. 120, 121. 

Borland, Francis, ii. 209. 

Borland, Jane. See Winthrop, Mrs. 

Borne, Mr., 1676, v. 9. 

Borowe, John, i. 100. 

Boscawen, Admiral Edward, v. 461, 462, 
471, 473, 474, 545. 

Boston, Eng., i. 121. Puritans arrested at, 
when attempting to sail for Holland, iii. 

Boston, i. 10, 12, 201, 212; ii. 301; iv. 16n; 
v. 52h, 59, 65, 68, 69, 204, 205, 262, 263, 
264, 265, 284, 328, 329, 338, 347, 585; 
vi. 217, 218, 256, 268», 273, 274, 275n, 
286, 300, 302, 303, 304, 305, 313n, 337, 
343, 344n, 347, 353, 387n, 390, 503, 522, 
537, 573, 583h; vii. 487n, 488, 489, 497, 
498, 521, 536, 548, 554, 566n, 569, 577, 
578, 579, 580n, 582, 586, 587, 588, 596«, 
599, 601; ix. 449; x. 573, 579, 592, 700, 
713, 720, 777. Castle in the harbor, ii. 
176; burnt, March 21, 1673, i. 19. Phy- 
sicians in, ii. 164. Meteorology and nat- 
ural history of, 165, 177. Small-pox in, 
1721, 166yb//. Divisions in King's Chapel, 
179, 182, 183. Longitude and latitude of, 
determined by Mr. Robie, 186, 187. Med- 
ical Society's Memoirs, 188. Ordered to 
send to England an answer to the com- 
plaints of Mason and Gorges, 285. Pilgrims 
visit the harbor of, iii. 104, 209. Meeting 

, appointed at, respecting the Hocking af- 
fair, 322. Meeting of commissioners at, in 
1645, 431. Correspondence in 1774, 75; 
between a committee of the town and con- 
tributors for the relief of sufferers bv the 
Port Bill, iv. 1-274. Statement of the 
committee, 275-278. Port Bill, 371, 
390 foil. ; x. 701, 702, 704, 717, 718, 759, 
769. Rigorous execution of the Port Bill, 
iv. 30n, 112m. Emplovments devised for 
the sufferers by the Port Bill, 68n, 78. 
Disposition of the British troops and forti- 
fications in, 86, 87, 113. Boston mas- 
sacre, 370, 451, 452. Destruction of the 
tea in Boston harbor, 1773, 373-389. Men- 
tion of the first church in, bv Scottow, 
298, 301, 307. Seizure of Andros, v. 
190; viii. 537. Commissioners of, v. 247. 
Soldiers furnished for the French war, 252. 
Small-pox in, 1690, 266. Indian captives 
at, 344. Troops, 475. Fire in, March 14, 
1652-3, vi. 155; Nov. 27, 1676, viii. 298, 
578; 1677,341; 1679,22; March 20, 1760, 
v. 552, 553. Fort in the harbor, 190, 
192, 193; its capture, in 1689, 194, 195. 
Court at, vi. 253, 290. Church in, 312- 
315; vii. 3. Controversy of the church 
with .members at Aquethniek, vi. 312-315. 
Proposal by Edward Howes to establish 
a mathematical school in, 512. Bristol 
ship taken in harbor of, 537. Letter to 
the church in, from Stephen Bachiler, vii. 
100. Synod at, 1657, 83n, 85, 186 ( ? ). 
Execution of Quakers at, 1659, 507. Let- 
ter to the selectmen of, from Richard 
Bellingham, 600. Estates in, viii. 250. 
Sickness in, 1688, 372. Small-pox in, 

1678, 383. Mill Creek, 401n. Sickness 
in, 1693, 401, 402. Act regulating the 
erection of wooden buildings in, 402. 
New North Church, 434. Disturbances 
in, 438. Storm in, Feb. 24, 1723-4, 456. 
Mathematical instruments purchased for, 
500. Building of an Episcopal church, 
518. Arrival of a French privateer at, 534. 
Rising in, against Andros, 537. Public 
library in, 1676, 576. Condition of, in 
1677, 578. Commissioners at Philadel- 
phia, 1774, x. 706. 

Boston Common, British regiments en- 
camped on, iv. 81, 87, 113n. 

Boston Fphemeris, 1683, viii. 296. 

Boston Ministers, Answer of, to George 
Keith, viii. 672, 673. 

Boston Neck, v. 190. Fortified, iv. 67, 77, 
81, 87. Brick-yard established upon, 68?i. 

Boston News-Letter, viii. 406, 420. 

Boston, South, ii. 137. 

Bosworth, Nathaniel, viii. 655, 696. 

Botetourt, Lord, d. 1770, x. 620, 728. 

Botta, Carlo, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., i. p. xv. 

Bouchette, Joseph, x. 841, 850. 

Boudinot, Elias, LL.D., Cor. Memb. M. H. 
S., i. p. xiv. 

Bougainville, Louis Antoine, Comte de, v. 
570, 571; ix. 317. Retreat of, v. 528. 

Boulle, Bridget, i. 96. 

Boun, Catherine. See Moi'ton, Mrs. 

Boun, Gilbert, i. 82. 

Boundaries. See Connecticut, Massachu- 
setts, New York, Plymouth. 

Bound Brook, iii. 370. 

Bouquet, Col. Henry, ix. 253, 283, 285, 290, 
291, 296, 341, 346, 415,425, 461, 487 ; x. 489, 
526, 527, 532. Certificate signed by, 574. 
Letters from, to Gen. Stanwix, ix. 243; 
to Gen. Monckton, 253, 254, 255, 259,262, 
264, 267, 269, 271, 275, 282, 294, 296, 302, 
312, 321, 331-334, 342, 351-357, 359, 361, 
379, 384-399, 401-403, 409, 411, 413, 417, 
418, 430-440; to Major Gates, 310, 327. 
Letters to, from A. Hoops, 263 ; from Capt. 
Campbell, 357, 399, 423, 425. His paper 
on roads to Pittsburg, 243. 

Bourn, Mr., v. 133. 

Bourne, Major Nehemiah, vi. 63; viii. 189, 

Bourne, Nehemiah, vii. 431. Letters to 
John Winthrop, 297, 300, 302; to John 
"Winthrop, Jr., 304, 305. Fac-similes of 
his signature and seal, vii. plate 6. Notice 
of, 297/*. Voyage to England,1639,297, 300. 

Boush, John, iv. 161. 

Bowdish, Goodwife, ii. 55. 

Bowditch, Hon. Nathaniel, ii. 245. 

Bowditch, Nathaniel Ingersoll, vi. llln, 
570?*. Member M. H. S., iv. p. xxi. His 
death, v. p. ix. 

Bowditch, tin. Sarah, vi. 113. 

Bowdoin, James, ii. 154, 211, 228; iv. 86, 
438. Member M. II. S., i.p. viii.; Libra- 
rian, p. xx. ; on the Standing Com., p. 
xx. ; on the Committee of Publication of 
vols. 1, 3, 4, 3d Series, p. xxi. 

Bowen, Capt., 1759, v. 539. 

Bowen, Major, Execution of, in Ireland, 
1663, viii. 210. 

Bowen, Prof. Francis, Member M. II. S., 
i. p. x.; ii. p. xvii.; iii. p. v.; iv. p. xxi.; 
v. p. viii.; vi. p. viii.; vii. p. viii.; viii. p. 
x. ; ix. p. xiv. 



Bowles, Gen., 1799, x. 829. 

Bowles, John, ruling elder at Roxbury, i. 12 ; 

v. 22, 29; viii. 247. 
Bowyer, Mr., iv. 410. 
Box, Edward, v. 576. 
Boxford, Eng., controversy with Groton, 

vi. 567. Plague in, 1637, 564. 
Boxford, Mass., vii. 28n. 
Boyce, Mrs., of Virginia, 1619, ix. 26, 27. 
Boyd, James, v. 33, 34. 
Boyd, Capt. Peter, iv. 8S. 
Boydell, Mr., 1720, ii. 122, 123, 125, 127. 
Boyer, Peter, iv. 3, 202, 273, 274. 
Boyes, Miss Dorothy, i. 31. 
Boyes, Mrs. Lydia. See Pygan, Mrs. 
Boyes, Mr. Samuel, the father, i. 29, 31, 

32, 50. 
Boyes, Samuel, the son, i. 31, 32. 
Boykim, Jarvis, vii. 493. 
Boyl, Philip, x. 606. 
Boyle, Ch., ix. 392, 404. 
Boyle, Hon. Robert, ii. 281 ; viii. 256, 524. 

Appointed Governor of the Corporation 

for Propagating the Gospel in New Eng- 
land, ii. 282. 
Boylston, Thomas, iv. 2, 275. 
Boynton, John, x. 606. 
Boynton, Sir Matthew, vi. 45, 452n, 459. 

Letters to John Winthrop, vii. 167, 168; 

to John Winthrop, Jr., 162, 164, 166, 168. 

Fac-similes of his signature and seal, vii. 

plate 4. Notice of, 162n. His wives, 162w. 
Braam, Mr., 1760, ix. 365, 366. 
Brabe, Count, viii. 179, 180. 
Brachygraphy, viii. 10, 12. 
Bracket, Dea., Burial of, viii. 518. 
Brackett, Capt, 1689, v. 215. 
Brackett, Anthony, v. 273. 
Brackett, James, iv. 94, 95. 
Bradbury (Bradberry), Capt, 1747, v. 387. 
Bradbury, Thomas, letter to John Winthrop 

(with William Hooke), vii. 195. Notice 

of, 195n. 
Bradde, Mrs., viii. 546. 
Braddock, Mr., 1775, iv. 222. 
Braddock, Gen. Edward, v. 391, 424, 467, 

482, 543, 556; ix. 215, 216, 221, 405. The 

cause of his disaster, iv. 367, 368, 369. 

Expedition under, 1755, v. 388, 389. Killed, 

Braddock's Road, ix. 244, 245. 
Bradford, Alden, iv. 398. Member M. H. 

S., i. p. vi. ; ii. p. v. ; iv. p. vii. ; on the 

Committee of Publication of vols. 1, 3, 8, 

2d Series, p. xxi. 
Bradford, Alice, sister of Gov. Bradford, i. 

77, 81. 
Bradford, Alice, daughter of Major William. 

See Fitch, Mrs. 
Bradford, Mrs. Alice (Carpenter or Rey- 

ner? South worth), wife of Gov. Bradford, 

i. 80, 84, 85; iii. Pref. p. x., xix., 71, 142. 

Verses on, Pref. p. x., 460, 461. 
Bradford, Mrs. Alice (Hanson), mother of 

Gov. Bradford, i. 77; iii. Pref. p. xviii. 
Bradford, Mrs. Alice (Waingate), wife of 

Robert, i. 77. 
Bradford, Mrs. Dorothy (May), first wife of 

Gov. Bradford, i. 80; iii. Pref. p. xix., 

448, 451. Her death, 88n. 
Bradford, Elizabeth, d. of Robert, i. 77, 78, 

Bradford, Elizabeth, d. of William. See 

Hill, Mrs. 

Bradford, Gamaliel, Member M. H. S., i. 
p. vi. 

Bradford, Gamaliel, M.D., Member M. H. 
S., i. p. ix. ; Rec. Sec, p. xx. 

Bradford, Major John, iii. Pref. pp. viii., x., 

Bradford, Rev. John, Member M. H. S., 
i. p. vi. 

Bradford, Julian. See Morton, Mrs. 

Bradford, Margaret, b. 1578, i. 77, 78, 81. 

Bradford, Mary, i. 77, 81. 

Bradford, Mercy, daughter of Gov. Bradford, 
iii. Pref. p. x. 

Bradford, Richard, i. 79. 

Bradford (Bradfourth), Robert, uncle of Gov. 
Bradford, d. 1609, i. 77, 81; iii. Pref. p. 

Bradford, Robert, son of the preceding, b. 
about 1588, i. 77. 

Bradford, Samuel, iii. Pref. p. x. 

Bradford, Sarah or Julian. See Morton, 

Bradford (Bradfourth), Thomas, i. 77, 81; 
iii. Pref. p. xviii. 

Bradford, William, grandfather of Gov. 
Bradford, i. 76, 77, 81; iii. Pref. p. xviii. 

Bradford, William, father of Gov. Bradford, 
i. 77, 81; iii. Pref. p. xviii. 

Bradford, William, son of Robert, b. about 
1587, d. 1593, i. 77, 81. 

Bradford, Gov. William, b. 1589, i. 61, 79; 
iii. Pref. p. iii., 8, 51, 155, 174n, 191, 198w, 
227,448, 451; iv. 492, 493; vi. 170, 176, 
178, 180, 334; viii. 228n. Allusions to or 
citations from his History, i. 52, 59, 60, 64, 
65, 66, 72, 83, 119, 122, 123, 125, 128, 132, 
133, 139w, 146, 160; iii. 157; vi. 229,505n; 
vii. 159ra; viii. 229. Notices of, i. 75, 76; 
vi. 156w. His pedigree, i. 77, 81. Marries 
Mrs. Alice Southworth, 84; iii. 142, 448, 
461. At Amsterdam, i. 123. His " History 
of Plymouth Plantation," p. i. 462. Edi- 
torial Preface to the History, iii. p. iii. 
His Letter-book, p. iv. Morton's copy of 
a portion of his History, p. iv., 80. Re- 
discovery of the History, p. v. His knowl- 
edge of the Hebrew language, pp. x., xiv., 
xviii. Morton's use of the History, p. xiv. 
His birth and family, p. xviii., 448, 451, 
461. His death, p. xviii.,461. Fac-simileof 
his handwriting, p. xx. His list of passen- 
gers in the Mayflower, 74, 77, 447. His 
Pocket-book, 76, 91. His list of deaths, 
76, 91, 450. Probably author of part of 
Mourt's Relation, 76, 90. Accompanies 
an exploring party, 81, 83. His sickness, 
92, 101. Chosen Governor, 101, 156, 307, 
327, 351. His reply to Weston, 108; to 
the challenge of the Narragansets, 111. 
Conceals letters from Weston and Beau- 
champ, 117. Weston writes again to, 118. 
In expeditions to buy corn, 128, 129. 
Councillor to Gorges, 149. Intercedes for 
Weston, 150, 152. Intercepts letters by 
Lyford, 173. Trades for goods at Monhe- 
gan, 208. Agreement concerning the 
beaver trade, 226. Appoints agents, 230. 
Patent to, 250n. Disapproves fishing, 
262. Endicott's application to, for a phy- 
sician, 264. Ceases to be Governor, 306, 
307. Assistant, 306, 315, 343, 362, 425. 
Confers with Governor Winthrop on the 
Connecticut trade, 312n. Complains re- 
specting the settlements at Windsor, 341. 



Commissioner for settling the boundary 
with Massachusetts, 370. Replies to Bel- 
lingham's letter, 388. Settlement of part- 
ners with, 400, 402, 406. Letters of, to 
Governor Winthrop, ii. 119; vi. 156, 158, 
159, 160. Fac-similes of his signature 
and seal, vi. plate 2. Letters to, from 
R. White, 154; from the Leyden people, 
155; from Thomas Blossom, 157; from 
T. Dudley, 318. 

Bradford, Major William, son of Gov. Brad- 
ford, Deputy-Governor, i. 22; ii. 207?*; iii. 
Pref. pp. vi*ii., x., xi., 189 ; v. 9, 81, 86, 151, 
216, 286 ; viii. 229, 233, 236. Letter from 
W. Bradford and Nathaniel Thomas, to 
Thomas Hinckley, v. 190. Wounded, 
viii. 228. 

Bradford, Dr. William, of Bristol, R. L, 
1774, iv. 192, 193. 

Bradford family in England, Sketch of, i. 76 

Bradford, Mass., vii. 2Sn. Letter to the 
Boston Donation Committee, iv. 256. 

Bradick, James, iv. 62. 

Bradinge, John, letters to John Winthrop, 
vi. 577, 578. Fac-similes of his signature 
and seal, vi. plate 8. Notice of, 577n. 

Bradish, Luther, L.L.D., Hon. Memb. 
M. H. S., vii. p. xiii. His death, vii. 
p. xiii. 

Bradley, Mrs. Elizabeth (Brewster). See 
Christophers, Mrs. 

Bradley, Nathan, v. 387. 

Bradley, Judge Peter, vii. 233. Notice of, 

Bradlev, Richard, ix. 473, 480, 481. 

Bradshaw, Capt., 1759, v. 505. 

Bradshaw, Lord, 1655, vi. 292. 

Bradshaw, John, vi. 292; vii. 420, 463. Im- 
prisonment of, vi. 293, 294. 

Bradshaw, Richard, vii. 90ra. 

Bradshaw, Rev. William, i. 114n; viii. 77. 

Bradstreet, Mr., 1722, v. 343, 344. 

Bradstreet, Mrs. Ann (Dudley), viii. 533w. 

Bradstreet, Dudley, viii. 529. Notice of, 

Bradstreet, Ccl. John, afterward Maj. -Gen., 
v.418, 476, 478, 545; ix. 455, 457; x. 526, 
527, 532, 592. Attacked by French and 
Indians near Oswego, v. 417. Engage- 
ment near Ticonderoga, 468. Expedition 
against Frontenac, 475. Letter of, to the 
Mayor of Albany, ix. 455. Letters to, 
from Marts Halen Beck, 452; A. Quack- 
enboss, 453; the Mayor of Albany, 457. 

Bradstreet, Gov. Simon, iii. 335; v. 193, 194, 
286; vi. 16, 66, 106, 316; vii. 98», 99, 161n, 
215, 217, 255, 287, 380. Commissioner, 
iii. 430. Dedication of Scottow's Narra- 
tive to, iv. 281. Appointed agent of the 
colony, at London, vii. 135, 448. Letter 
to Sir Lionel Jenkins, ii. 306; to Thomas 
Hinckley, Governor, and the Council of 
New Plymouth, v. 203, 204, 217, 297; to 
Thomas Hincklej', 230, 265, 266, 267. 
Letters from Thomas Hinckley to, 88, 
244; from Stephen Mason, 256; from 
Peter Tilton, 268. 

Bradstreet, Rev. Simon, o/*iVe?« London, viii. 
119n. Notice of, 477n. Letters to In- 
crease Mather, 477, 479, 480. 

Bradstreet, Rev. Simon, of Charlestoxcn, sen 
of the above, viii. 119. Notice of, 119/1. 

Brainerd, Daniel, iv. 58, 59. 

Brainerd, Jeremiah Gates, i. 42. 

Brainerd, John J. C., i. 42. 

Brainerd, Mrs. Sarah (Gardiner), i. 42. 

Braintree, Mass., i. 201, 212; ii. 205; iv. 
486; v. 106, 107, 381, 535; vi. 312n. 
Remonstrance of inhabitants of, against 
the complaint of R. Thayer, v. 104. Suit 
against William Coddington, 317. Iron- 
works at, vii. 401n, 403. 

Branch, , vi. 40. Her death, 46. 

Brand, Benjamin, vi. 560. 

Brand, John, vi. 560. 

Brand, Joseph, vi. 560. 

Brandenburg, Duke of, viii. 334. 

Brandywine, x. 808, 809. 

Branfo'rd, Conn., vii. 477; viii. 99, 381, 626. 

Brattle, Mr., 1689, v. 225, 227. 

Brattle, Mrs.,d. 1682, viii. 387. 

Brattle, Catherine. See Winthrop, Mrs. 

Brattle, Thomas, d. 1713, viii. 405n. 

Brattle, Thomas, Member M. H. S., i. p. vi. 

Brattle, William, viii. Ill, 112, 114, 699. 

Bray, Capt., 1775, iv. 240. 

Bray, Mr., of Virginia, 1676, ix. 174. 

Braybrooke, Richard, Lord, Cor. Memb. 
M. H. S., i. p. xviii. ; iii. p. vi. ; iv. p. 

Brazil, vii. 182. 

Breck, Robert, vii. 536. 

Breda, Capture of, by the Dutch, vi. 48. 
Treaty of, x. 832, 834, 841, 844. 

Bredon, Mrs., 1678, viii. 15. 

Breeden, Capt. Thomas, Gov. of Nova Scotia, 
vii. 312; viii. 172, 179, 192. Notice of, 
179». Imprisoned for contempt, 205. 

Brent, , 1776, x. 785. 

Brenton, Mrs., 1649, vi. 275. 

Brenton, Sarah. See Eliot, Mrs. 

Brenton, Jahleel, ii. 226. 

Brenton, Miles, iv. 178. 

Brenton, William, Gov. of Rhode Island, vii. 
279; viii. 465ra. 

Brereton, William, iii. 148. 

Brevoort, J. Carson, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
v. p. xii. ; vii. p. xii. ; viii. p. xiii. ; ix. 
p. xvii. 

Brewer, Capt., 1760, v. 566; ix. 362, 365. 

Brewer, Ensign, 1757, v. 433, 435. 

Brewer, Mr.. 1775, i. 262. 

Brewer, Widoiv, 1651, vii. 385ra. 

Brewer, Chauncy, iv. 203, 204. 

Brewer (Bremer), Daniel, i. 94, 95. 

Brewer, Thomas, an adventurer, iii. 48, 49, 
213«, 413. 

Brewing, vi. 493. 

Brewse (Bruce?), Mr., ix. 215. 

Brewster, Capt., ix. 28, 36, 38. 

Brewster, Benjamin, vii. 423. 

Brewster, Elizabeth. See Christophers, Mrs. 

Brewster, Fear. See Allerton, Mrs. 

Brewster, James, i. 68, 69, 70, 71, 76. 

Brewster, Jonathan, vi. 162, 275, 585; vii. 
235, 541. Letter respecting settlers from 
Dorchester on the Connecticut, iii. 339. 
Letters to John Winthrop, Jr., vii. 66, 67, 
69,71, 72, 77, 81, 84; to ElizabethWinthrop, 
75. Fac-similes of his signature and seal, 
vii. plate 2. Acknowledgment to Wil- 
liam Alford, 70. Bond to Isaac Allerton, 
70. Notice of, 66m. 

Brewster, Love, iii. 397, 448, 451. 

Brewster, Mrs. Mary, i. 149, 155; iii. 447, 451. 

Brewster, Mrs, Patience. See Prence, Mrs. 

Brewster, Ruth. See Picket, Mrs. 



Brewster, William, of Virginia, killed, 1607, 
ix. 36. 

Brewster, Elder "William, i. 54, 56, 57, 58, 
60, 61, 63, 64, 66, 67, 68, 70, 71, 72, 75, 79, 
83, 119, 120, 123, 126, 131, 134, 136, 137, 
149, 150; iii. Pref. p. xvi., 10, 38, 174, 
198rc, 227, 231, 278, 319, 447, 451 ; vi. 162rc; 
vii. 66w. Letter of, to Sir Edwin Sandys, 
i. 134. Letter of the Leyden people to, 
155. Goes to Holland, iii. 16. An assist- 
ant to John Robinson, 17. Sent as agent 
to England, 30. Correspondence of John 
Robinson, and with Sir Edwin Sandys, 
30; with Sir John Wolstenholme, 33. 
Reasons for his going to America, 42, 59. 
His exertions during the sickness at Ply- 
mouth, 91. Letter to, from Mr. Robinson, 
165. Daughters of, 166. Not to administer 
the sacraments, 167. His religious labors, 
187, 413. His family, 256, 447, 451. Set- 
tlement of partners with, 400-402. His 
death; sketch of his life and character, 

Brewster, Wrestle, iii. 447, 451. 

Brewster family, of Suffolk, i. 67. 

Brewster, formerly Satuket and Harwich, 
iii. 97, 219. 

Brian, Alex. See Bryan. 

Briant, Simon, v. 381. 

Briant, William, v. 371. 

Bridge, Samuel, Notice of, viii. 370. 

Bridge, Rev. William, viii. 124, 150, 195, 
583, 584. 

Bridge at Providence, vi. 290. 

Bridger, Col. Joseph, ix. 174, 186. 

Bridges, Capt, 1648, vi. 151. 

Bridges (Briges), a curate, accused of mur- 
der, 1637, vi. 562. 

Bridges, Master of the Little James, iii. 142. 

Bridges, Mr., 1639'?, vii. 301. 

Bridges, Mrs., viii. 15, 29, 293. 

Bridges, Robert, i. 77; ii. 28, 29, 30, 31, 33. 

Bridgewater, Ifass., v. 9, 10, 11. Attack 
of Indians upon, 6, 7, 8. Reply of James 
Keith in behalf of inhabitants of, to 
Thomas Hinckley, 6. 

Bridgman, Jonathan, v. 370. 

Bridgman's Fort, Hostilities at, v. 376. 

"Brief Answer, A, to a late Treatise of the 
Sabbath Day," vi. 414. 

Briggs, John, ii. 126. 

Brigham, Timothy, iv. 247. 

Brigham, William, A.B., Member M. H. S., 
ii. p. xvii. ; iii. p. v.; iv. p. xxi.; v. p. 
viii.; vi. p. viii.; vii. p. viii.; viii. p. x.; 
on the Standing Com., iii. p. iv. ; iv. p. xx. 

Bright, Henry, vii. 385m, 386rc, 388, 389. 

Brikin, John, carpenter, vi. 328. 

Brindley, Thomas, ii. 304. 

Brinks. See Binks. 

Brinsley, Lawrence, ii. 281. 

Brintnal, Capt, 1755, v. 396. 

Briscoe, Rev. Mr., viii. 43, 322. 

Bristol, Earl of, viii. 211. 

Bristol, Eng., Surrender of, to Prince Ru- 
pert, vi. 356re. Quakers at, viii. 212. Per- 
secution of dissenters in, 618, 620. 

Bristol, Maine (Pemaquid), iv. 291. 

Bristol, R. I., iii. 94w; v. 127, 200, 243, 245; 
vi. 572. Letter to the selectmen of Bos- 
ton, iv. 192. Harbor of, v. 72. Church in, 
viii. 651-655, 695. 

Bristol, ship, taken in Boston harbor, vi. 
280, 537. 

Bristol County, v. 291, 295, 302. 

Bristol Plantation, vi. 485. 

Bristow, Eng., vi. 93. 

Bristow, Mass., v. 230. 

Britteridge, Richard, iii. 449, 454. 

Britton, Capt., viii. 41. 

Broad Bay, Hostilities at, v. 389. 

Broad River, Indian murders on, v. 517, 523. 

Brocardus, or Burchardus, viii. 459. 

Brocas, William, ix. 134». 

Brock, James, vii. 194. 

Brock, Rev. John, viii. 292. Notice of, 292ra. 

571w. Death of, 571. 
Brockholt, Anthony, viii. 531. 
Brodhead, J. Romeyn, iii. 43, 99, 233. Cor. 

Memb. M. H. S., i. p. xviii. ; iii. p. vi. ; iv. 

p. xxiii. ; v. p. x. ; vi. p. x. ; vii. p. x. ; 

viii. p. xii.; ix. p. xvi. 
Brome, Capt, ix. 215. 
Bromfleld, Lawrence, ii. 281. 
Bromhead, Rev. Hugh, i. 63. 
Bronson, Ezra, iv. 104. 
Bronson, Isaac, Jr., iv. 103, 104. 
Brook, Capt., master of the Gift, iii. 253w. 
Brook, Chidley, i. 106. 
Brooke, Robert Greville, Lord, iii. 352 ; vi. 

49, 514ra, 566, 579; vii. 44ra. 
Brookes, Jf?\, viii. 186. Extract from a let- 
ter of, to John Davenport, 185. 
Brookfield, v. 317. Letter to the Donation 

Committee of Boston, iv. 230. Indian 

hostilities at, v. 318. 
Brookhaven, L. I. (Setauket), vii. 65, 184- 

186, 190. 
Brooking, Samuel, v. 345. 
Brookline, Mass., Fiftieth anniversary of Dr. 

Pierce's settlement at, i. 289. 
Brooklyn in Pomfret, letter to the Boston 

Committee of Correspondence, iv. 50. 
Brooks, Capt, 1689, v. 208, 241, 416. 
Brooks, Rev. Charles, Member M. H. S., v. 

p. ix. ; vi. p. ix. ; vii. p. viii. ; viii. p. x. ; 

ix. p. xiv. 
Brooks, Samuel, iv. 231, 232. 
Brooks, William G., viii. 226rc, 351w. Mem- 
ber M. H. S., v. p. ix. ; vi. p. ix. ; vii. 

p. ix. ; viii. p. xi. ; ix. p. xv. ; on the 

Standing Com., vi. p. vii.; vii. p. vii.; 

viii. p. ix. 
Brook's Fort, Indian outrages near, v. 576. 
Broughton, Maj., his wife, v. 305. 
Broughton, Thomas, viii. 360. 
Brown, Capt, 1720, viii. 445. 
Brown, Capt, 1724, v. 352. 
Brown, Capt, 1774, iv. 110. 
Brown, Lieut, of the bbth, 1763, x. 489. 
Brown, Maj., 1710, v. 321. 
Brown, Mr., 1640, vi. 169. 
Brown, Mr., 1675, vi. 304. 
Brown, Andrew, D.D., Cor. Memb. M. H. 

S., i. p. xii. 
Brown, Briant, iv. 56. 
Brown, Hon. E., iv. 213. 
Brown, James, v. 81, 127. 
Brown, John, Assistant, iii. 343, 362, 367, 

377, 384, 408. Commissioner, 430; vi. 

178. Signs a treaty, iii. 440. 
Brown, Capt John, of Swanzey, 1689, v. 

208, 209. 
Brown, John, wounded at Number Four, 

1747, v. 373. 
Brown, John, on the Boston Donation Com- 
mittee, 1774, 1775, iv. 2, 90, 181, 202, 217, 

225, 249, 271, 275. 



Brown, John Carter, i. 196, 219. Cor. Memb. 

M. H. S., iii. p. vi. ; iv. p. xxiii.; v. p. xi.; 

vi. p.xi.; vii. p. x. ; viii. p. xii. ; ix. p. 

xvi. Clark's " 111 Newes from N. E.," lent 

by him for reprinting, ii. 2. 
Brown, Copt. Nathaniel, iv. 64, 66. 
Brown, Pelig, ix. 207. 
Brown, Thomas, v. 555, 556. 
Brown, Den. Timothy, v. 367. 
Brown, William, Jr., ii. 298. 
Brown University, iv. 431. 

Browne, , of Salem, 1646, vi. 67. 

Browne, Lord Mayor of London, 1662, viii. 

Browne, Mr., 1649, vi. 277. 
Browne, Mr., 1651, vii. 285. 
Browne, Mr., 1679, v. 68. 
Browne, Mr., of Seacunck, 1659, vii. 36. 
Browne, Rev. Edmund, i. 212. 
Browne, Henry, ix. 134. 
Browne, Rev. James, viii. 647, 648. Notice 

of, 647n. 
Browne, John, 1629, ii. 250, 251, 252, 266, 

267, 268, 269. 
Browne, John, of Watertown, 1632, i. 94, 95. 
Browne, John, of Hartford, 1665, vii. 194. 
Browne, Lawrence (Robert Ryece to John 

Winthrop), vi. 398. 
Browne, Mary. See Winthrop, Mrs. 
Browne, Peter, iii. 449. 
Browne, Robert, i. 163. 
Browne, Samuel, ii. 250-252, 256, 267, 268. 
Browne, Sir Thomas, viii. 445n. 
Browne, Hon. William, of 'Salem, ii. 206; 

viii. 538. 
Brownists, iii. 197, 199. 
Browning, Henry, iii. 213n. 
Brown's Island, iii. 155. 
Bruce, Capt., 1773, iv. 379, 402, 426, 427. 
Bruce, James, iv. 249, 250. 
Bruce, John, F.S.A., Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 

viii. p. xiii. 
Bruce. See also Brewse. 
Bruen, Obadiah, vii. 556. 
Brunswick, Me. (Pejipscot), v. 337, 352; vii. 

338n. Pejepscot Fort, v. 271. Pechepscutt 

Plain, 273. Pejipscot patent, vii. 91», 

Brunswick, x. 807. 
Brush, Creen, i. 274. 
Bryan, Alexander, of Milford, the elder, vii. 

184, 185, 190, 193, 510. 
Bryant, Mr., writer of " The Centinel," iv. 

Bryant, William C, LL.D., Hon. Memb. M. 

H. S., v. p. xii.; vi. p. xii.; vii. p. xii.; 

viii. p. xiii.; ix. p. xvii. 
Bucan, Guillaume, viii. 77. 
Buchan, Earl of, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., i. 

p. xiii. 
Buchanan, John, x. 621, 624. 
Buchanan, William, x. 604, 607. Letter of, 

to Gen. Monckton, 608. 
Bucher, Richard, vi. 25. 
Buck, John, Sen. of Scituate, 1680, v. 40. 
Buck, or Burke, John, 1746, v. 368. 
Buck, Robert, v. 455. 
Buekhurst, Lord, viii. 196. 
Buckingham, George Villiers, 1st Duke of 

ix. 71, 75, 76. Expedition to the] Isle of 

Rho, vi. 467n; vii. In. 
Buckingham, George Villiers, 2d Duke of 

viii. 145, 180, 186. 
Buckingham, Rev. Thomas, i. 109. 

Buckley. See Bulkley. 

Buckminster, Rev. Joseph Stevens, Member 

M. H. S., i. p. vii. 
Buckner, Cant, ix. 356. 
Buckner, Rev. Thomas, vi. 415. 
Bucks County, Penn., x. 511. Assistance to 

Boston, in 1774, iv. 149ra. 
Budd, Capt., 1774, iv. 23. 
Budd, Lieut. John, vii. 311. 
Budington, William Ives, D.D., Member 

M. H. S., i. p. xi. ; Cor. Memb., ix. p. xvii. 
Buell, Capt. Elias, iv. 100, 101. 
Building, Manner of, in Ireland, vi. 474, 

Bulfinch, Charles, Member M. H. S., i. p. 

Bulklev, Mr., 1643, vi. 173. 
Bulkley, or Bulkeley, Mr., ix. 225, 230-232. 
Bulkley, Mrs. Anna, i. 43. 
Bulklev, Major Charles, i. 43. 
Bulklev, Rev. Edward viii. 560. 
Bulkley, Eliphalet, b. 1746, i. 42, 43. 
Bulkley, Rev. Gershom, i. 42. 
Bulkley, Mrs. Grace (Chitwode), Notice of, 

viii. 13. 
Bulkley, Rev. John, i. 33, 42; ii. 194; vi. 

Bulkley, Col. John, son of Rev. John, i. 42, 

Bulkley, Lucy, b. 1749. See Lamb, Mrs. 
Bulkley, Lvdia, 6. 1739. See Latimer, Mrs. 
Bulkley, Mary, b. 1741. See Hurlbut, Mrs. 
Bulkley, Mrs. Mary (Adams Gardiner), i. 

32, 33, 38, 41-43. Her death, 38. 
Bulkley, Rev. Peter, i. 212; ii. 117, 194, 

206n, 289; vi. 206, 536n; vii. 419; viii. 13. 

Bull, , 1654, vii. 419. 

Bull, Capt, 1689, v. 218. 

Bull, Lieut., killed, 1756, v. 414. 

Bull, Caleb, iv. 89, 92. 

Bull; Dixy, vii. 18. 

Bull, Henry, d, before 1637, vii. 18. 

Bull, Hemy, Gov. of R. I.,d. 1693, v. 233. 

Bull, Jeremiah, vii. 289. 

Bull, Jireh, vi. 303. 

Bull, Capt. Jonathan, v. 230. Letter from 

Samuel Nowell to, viii. 572. 
Bull, Joseph, married, i. 12. 
Bull, Robert, vii. 280. 
Bull, Mrs. Sarah ( Manning), i. 12. 
Bull, Thomas, viii. 572??. 
Bull, Gov. William, v. 583. 
Bullard, Hon. Henry Adams, Cor. Memb. 

M. H. S., i. p. xvi. 
Bullard, John, killed, 1746, v. 367. 
Bullet, Capt., 1758, v. 480. 
Bullivant, Benjamin, v. 190, 193, 196; viii. 

370, 483. Letter to Samuel Green, 663. 

Notices of, 370?*, 483n. 
Bull's Fort destroyed by the Indians, v. 483. 
Bullock, Mr., viii". 196. 
Bulwer, Sir Henry Lytton, iv. 503. 
Bumford, Col. George, Cor. Memb. M. II. S., 

i. p. xvii. 
Bumstead, Mr., arrested and committed to 

the Tower, vi. 411, 412. 
Bunduck, Elizabeth, vi. 88. 
Bunduck, William, vi. 470. Bill of ex- 
change, bv Isaac Johnson, in favor of, 88. 
Bunker's Hill, i. 263; x. 806. The battle, 

ii. 131. 
Bunting, Heinrich, viii. 77. 
Bunting, Thomas, iv. 475. 
Bunyan, , 1764, x. 517. 



Cor. Memb. M. 
vi. ; iv. p. xxii; 

Burd, Col. SeeByrd. 

Burd, Fort. See Fort Burd. 

Burden, John, v. 72. 

Burdett, Rev. George, vii. 10, 335, 355n. 

Burent, Adjutant, 1761, ix. 403, 431. 

Burges, , comes to New England in 

1637, i. 101. 
Burgess, Col., resigns his commission as 

Governor of Massachusetts, ii. 164: viii. 

Burgess, Ann. See White, Mrs. 
Burgess, Rev. Cornelius, ii. 217. 
Burgess, George, Bp., Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 

vi. p. xii. ; vii. p. xii. ; his death, viii. p. 

Burgess, John, ii. 217. 
Burgoyne, Gen. John, x. 799, 805. 
Burial in Leyden, i. 153. 
Burke, Edmund, ii. 148; x. 770. 
Burnet, Gilbert, Bp. of Sarum, his " Travels 

through Switzerland," viii. 514. 
Burnet, Gov. William, ii. 164, 166, 175, 178, 

179, 182, 188. 
Burning Town, v. 580. 
Burns' Tavern, x. 560. 
Burnum, Elizabeth, v. 350. 
Burnyeat, John, vii. 291. 
Burrell, Abraham, vi. 32°rc. 
Burrell, Margaret, vi. S2 a n. 
Burroughs, Charles, D.D., 

H. S., i. p. xviii. ; iii. p. 

v. p. x. ; vi. p. x. ; vii. p. x. ; his" death, 

viii. p. xiv. 
Burroughs (Burrough), Rev. George ( ?), i. 20. 
Burrowes, Samuel, Proceedings against, vi. 

Burslem, John, iii. 240re. 

Burt, , 1640, vi. 312. 

Burt, Lieut., 1755, v. 392. 

Burt, Asahel, v. 373. 

Burt, John, v. 318. 

Burton, Brig.-Gen., 1759, v. 528, 530. 

Burton, Col., 1761, v. 578; ix. 256, 257,312. 

Burton, Gen., x. 601, 603. 

Burton, Gov., ix. 341. 

Burton, Mr., 1690, v. 263. 

Burton, Rev. Henry, imprisoned, vi. 460; 

vii. 16. Pilloried, vi. 462. Called before 

Parliament, vii. 334. 
Burton, John, D.D., iv. 449, 450. 
Burton, William, viii. 215. 
Burwell, Robert, x. 630. 
Busbie, Abraham, i. 96. 
Busbie, Mrs. Bridget, i. 96. 
Busbie, John, i. 96. 
Busbie, Nicholas, the father, i. 96. 
Busbie, Nicholas, the son, i. 96. 
Busbie, Sarath, i. 96. 
Bushell, Mr., 1654, vi. 115. 
Bushell, Edward, vi. 330. 
Bu|>h River, v. 576. 
Bushrod, Mr., 1664, vii. 310. 
Butler, Lieut., 1760, 1761, ix. 377, 391. 
Butler, James. See Ormond, Luke of. 
Butler, John, vi. 25. 

Butler, Capt. Nathaniel, ix. 60, 62, 63, 69. 
Butler, Peter, v. 141. 
Butler, Samuel, allusion to Hudibras, iii. 

Butten, William, iii. 76, 77, 448, 450, 451. 
Butter worth, John, letter to Increase Mather, 

viii. 647. 
Buttolph, Thomas, ii. 57, 58. 
Button, Mr., 1683, viii. 46. 

Button, Capt. William, ix. 141, 142. 

Buzzard's Bay, iii. 233. 

Bydolph, Theophilus, ii. 281. 

Byles, Rev. Mather, i. 51. 

Byles, Rev. Mather, Jr., i. 45. 

Byfield, Nathaniel, v. 127; viii. 372, 652, 

654, 655, 696. Notices of, 372n, 652«. 
Byrd, or Bird (?), or Burd, Col., 1761, v. 

577; ix. 253, 256, 259, 301, 320, 341, 347, 

432, 434. His camp, v. 576. 
Byrd, Wm., x. 630. 
Byrnes, Robert Hacford, iv. 223. 
Byron, Capt., 1636, vi. 419. 
Bythner, Victorinus, viii. 77. 


C, C, Letter of, to Increase Mather, viii. 699. 

Ca f. . .], Mrs. Alles, i. 100. 

Ca [. . .], Augsten, i. 100. 

Cabarus (Cabbarook) Bay, v. 398, 400, 401, 

Cabot (Cobbet), Sebastian, takes possession 
of Nova Scotia, v. 319. Takes possession 
of the St. Lawrence, 332. 

Caesar, Sir Charles, vii. 159n, 160re. 

Caesar, Old, an Indian, v. 581. 

Caine, Christopher (?), vii. 325. 

Cairns, , 1762, ix. 449. 

Calamy, Rev. Edmund, i. 67; viii. 177, 195, 
197, 208, 341rc, SUn, 351ra, 509w, 583, 585, 

Caldwell, Capt, 1769, x. 611. 

Caldwell, John, iv. 250. 

Caldwell, John, N. Jenison vs., iv. 336, 341. 

Caldwell, Sir John, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
i. p. xvi. 

Caldwell, Seth, N. Jenison vs., iv. 336. 

Calef, Capt., 1767, iv. 421. 

Calef, John, iv. 77. 

Calkard, Mr., 1639, vii. 179. 

Call, Mr., 1774, iv. 45. 

Callant, Capt., 1659, vii. 116. 

Callendar, Capt.. 1761, ix. 403. 

Callender, Robert, x. 606. 

Callicate, Sergante, 1645, iii. 441. 

Calvert, Collector of Annapolis, x. 622. 

Calvert, Sir George, his conversion to 
Catholicism, ix. 98. 

Calvert, Leonard, Gov. of Md., ix. 102, 103, 

Calvin, John, iii. 4; viii. 409. 

Cambel, Mr., 1694, i. 104, 107. 

Cambridge, Eng., Plague in, 1636, vi. 429. 

Cambridge, Mass., i. 201, 212; (New- 
towne) iii. 319, 335; v. 19ln; vi. 81, 
376«; x. 777. Straitened by her neighbor 
towns, vi. 51. Printing in, 1638, 99. In- 
habitants of, request permission to build a 
house for a resident in Connecticut, 354. 
Petition of, ix. 191, 192. 

Camden, Lord, 1768, iv. 350. 

Camden, Me., ii. 228. 

Campbell, Col, 1780, x. 810. 

Campbell, Ensign, 1761, v. 578. 

Campbell, Lieut., 1759, v. 505. 

Campbell, Lieut., of the New York Reg., 
1757; v. 440. 

Campbell, Lieut., of the Virginians, 1758, 
v. 481. 

Campbell, Lieut. Colin, of the Royal Ameri- 
cans, 1758, v. 481; ix. 231. 




Campbell, Maj., 1764, x. 527. 

Campbell, Maj. } of the Highlander*, 1759, 

v. 524. 

Campbell, Capt. Donald, ix. 342, 345, 348, 
360, 362, 366, 369, 371, 373, 378, 393, 402, 
403, 406, 419, 433, 436. Letters of, to Col. 
Bouquet, 357, 399, 423; to some person 
unknown, 382; to Gen. Monckton, 414, 
416; to Capt. Cochrane, 424. His death, 

Campbell, Duncan, viii. 704. 

Campbell, James, viii. 430. 

Campbell, John, v. 447. 

Campbell, John Wilson, ix. 79. 

Campbell, Capt. West, Letter of, x. 814. 

Campbell, Lord William, x. 838, 844. 

Campion, Clement, vii. 334. 

Camp Pleasant, ix. 265. 

Camseaux. See Canso. 

Canada, iv. 400; v. 249, 252, 313, 319, 323, 
324, 325, 328, 330, 331, 332, 340, 360, 365, 
366, 367, 371, 373, 376, 380, 387, 401, 424, 
439, 464, 467, 478, 482, 485, 489, 511, 534, 
540, 541, 542, 550, 556, 557, 572, 573, 574, 
586, 588, 589; ix. 290, 316, 337, 443, 455; 
x. 592, 704, 777. Expedition to, 1690, 
v. 259. 263, 265, 267. Commissioners to, 
355. Projected expedition against, 1745, 
372. Expedition against, 1758,461. Ex- 
pedition against, 1759, 497. Subjection 
of, to the English crown, 584; ix. 330, 
332, 334. Governor of, 1689, v. 212. 
Jesuits in, vi. 481. Notice of a map of, 
513. Successes of Sir David Kirk in, 
572. Possible offer of, to France, ix. 337, 
438. Terms of the capitulation, 340. An- 
nouncement of the reduction of, to the 
Indians, 368, 370, 373. Character of the 
Canadians, x. 772. 

Canada Indians, v. 345. 

Canady, Mr., 1723, v. 348. 

Candaragui (Cataragui). See Fort Fronte- 

Cander, Richard, vii. 110. 

Candia, N. II., Reply to, from the Boston 
Donation Committee, iv. 131. 

Cane. See Keayne. 

Canonchet. See Nananawtunu. 

Canonicus, " Tbe Great Sachem," d. 1647, vi. 
191, 193, 198, 199, 200, 208, 209, 210, 216, 
223, 224, 231, 241, 242, 243, 246, 250, 259, 
261, 262, 263, 264, 297», 515. 

Canonicut Island, vii. 280», 294. 

Canounicus, brother of Miantonomo. See 

Canso (Camseaux), iv. 464n; v. 343, 344, 
346, 399, 431. Attacked by Indians, 357, 
371. Boats attacked at, 431. 

Canso, Gut of, v. 431. 

Cant, William, v. 131. 

Canterbury, Conn., i. 23. Letter to the 
Donation Committee of Boston, iv. 150. 

Canterbury, Archbishop of. See Laud. 

Cantrill, William, ix. 23. 

Canuga, v. 580. 

Capawack. See Martha's Vineyard. 

Cape Ann, iv. 479; vii. 13, 611. Patent for, 
iii. 160, 168. Settlers at, 169, 195. Trouble 
there, 196. 

Cape Breton, v. 313, 404, 407, 409, 411, 445, 
471, 681, 546, 585. Expedition against, 
1745, 398. Restoration of, to the French, 
in 1748, 408. Capture of, 1745 and 1758, 
475, 497. 

Cape Capon, v. 414. 

Cape Cod, i. 225; iii. 109, 217; iv. 477; v. 
133; vi. 504; vii. 511; viii. 457. Fallen 
in with by the Pilgrims, iii. 76. Pilgrims 
put into the harbor of, 77, 80. The name, 
77. French ship wrecked at, 98. See 
also Provincetown. 

Cape Cod Bay, vi. 177. 

Cape Cod Harbor, v. 149. 

Cape Elizabeth, i. 241n; vii. 90n, 363n. Let- 
ter to the Committee of Correspondence of 
Boston, iv. 207. Reply, 208. 

Cape Fear, N. C iv. 27n; x. 786. Letter to 
the Donation Committee of Boston, iv. 22 
Reply, 25. 

Cape Forchu, or Forceu, ix. 229-232, 235. 

Cape Francois, ix. 307. 

Cape Gaspey, v. 330. 

Cape Malabar, iii. 77. 

Cape May, x. 782. 

Cape Neddick, v. 275, 333. 

Cape Newagen Island, v. 461. 

Cape Porpoise, v. 337, 357 ; vii. 89n, 90n, 
91ra, 346, 360, S77n. 

Cape Sable, iv. 464«, 465n; v. 273, 334; vi. 
518, 519; x. 838. 

Cape-Sable Indians, v. 345, 351, 364. 

Cape Selaware ( ? ), v. 508. 

Cape St. Marv's, x. 834. 

Cape Small Point, Me., i. 234». 

Cape Verd, v. 490. 

Capel, Arthur, 1st Baron, vii. 432. 

Capel, Arthur, 2d Baron. See Essex, Earl 

Capellus, L., viii. 459. 
Capen, Rev. Lemuel, ii. 154. 
Capers, i.e., privateers, vii. 598. 
Capps, William, his agency in Virginia, ix. 

142, 143. 
Captain, ship, v. 445. 
Captain Durell's Island, v. 357. 
Captives, Roger Williams on the treatment 

of, vi. 214. 
Carew, Lord George, ix. 12. 
Carey, Archibald, iv. 182. 
Carej', John, iv. 21. 
Caribbean Sea, iv. 502. 
Caribbee Islands, vii. 313; viii. 410; ix. 139. 
Carleton, Sir Dudley, ix. 12, 13, 20, 49, 57, 

60, 61. Cited as to Brewster, iii. 412. 

Letter of John Porv to, ix. 4-30. 
Carlisle, ix. 354, 387, 411. Persons killed 

near, v. 423, 446. 
Carll, Nathaniel, iv. 261, 262. 
Carlton, Col, 1759, v. 530. 
Carlton, Lieut.-Gov., Extract of a letter from, 

to Gen. Gage, x. 594. 
Carlton, Gen., x. 774, 775. 
Carlton, Mr., 1775, iv. 230, 231. 
Carlton, Phineas, iv. 257. 
Carlvle, Thomas, D. C L., Hon. Memb. 

M. H. S., ix. p. xvii. Quoted in regard to 

the Mayflower, i. 146, 147. 
Carlysle,\Tohn, ix. 405. 
Carmichell, Ber. Mr., viii. 583, 584. 

Carner, , 1676, ix. 174. 

Carob-bean, viii. 459. 

Carolina, v. 332, 479, 577, 582; ix. 303, 315, 

319, 334, 337, 340, 349, 350; x. 588, 803. 

Harassed by the Cherokees, v. 559. 
Caroline County, Va., v. 414. 
Caron, Sir Noe'l, ix. 47, 51. 
Carpenter, Mr., 1775, i. 264. 
Carpenter, Alice. See Bradford, Mrs. 



Carpenter, Mary, iii. 460w. 

Carpenter, William, killed, 1707, v. 315. 

Carpenter, William, b. about 1798, his plagi- 
arism, ii. 143. 

Carpenter's Geography, vi. 277. 

Carr, Caleb, vi. 304. 

Carr, George, Notice of, vii. 255re. 

Carr (Kar), Patrick, killed, v. 447. 

Carr, Sir Robert, vi. 529, 532 ; vii. 40w, 307«, 
309,311,312; viii. 198. Fac-simile of his 
signature, vi. plate 5. 

Carrington, Thomas, i. 94, 95. 

Carr's Creek, Indian hostilities at, v. 535, 

Carter, Mr., 1775, x. 738. 

Carter, Rev. Mr., Sen., viii. 584, 585. 

Carter, Rev. Mr., viii. 150, 583, 584. 

Carter, Joseph, vii. 20. 

Carter, Robert, passenger in the Mayflower, 
iii. 448, 452. 

Carter, Robert, of the Virginia Council, 1771, 
x. 630. 

Carter, Lieut. Thomas, v. 414. 

Carter, Rev. Thomas, i. 212. 

Carteret, Sir George, ii. 281 ; vii. 315, 319. 
Notice of, 315ra. 

Carteret, Philip, Gov. of New Jersey, vii. 

Carters in Boston, viii. 370. 

Cartwright, Col. George, vii. 40w, 307w, 309, 

Cartwright, Sir George, vi. 529. Fac- 
simile of his signature, vi. plate 5. 

Cartwright, Thomas, his " Commentary on 
the Proverbs of Solomon," printed by 
Brewster, iii. 412. 

Carvear, Elizabeth, i. 98. 

Carvear, Mrs. Grace, i. 98. 

Carvear, Richard, i. 98. 

Carvear, Susanna, i. 98. 

Carver, Capt., 1712, v. 335. 

Carver, Gov. John, goes to England as agent 
of the church at Amsterdam, i. 133, 134, 
137. Letters to, from John Robinson, i. 
144; iii. 47, 63; from Sabine Staresmore, 
39; from others, 49; from Cushman, 56. 
Chosen Governor of Plymouth Colony, 
i. 146; iii. 90, 99. Twice an agent to 
England, 30-32, 43. Deacon, 32. His 
agreement with Weston, 43. His com- 
plaints against Cushman, 56. At South- 
ampton, 59, 60. Robinson's letter to, 63. 
Confidence in, 64. In the exploring party 
in Cape Cod Bay, 83. Chosen Governor, 
90,99. Detains the Mayflower, 100. His 
death, 100, 101, 109, 450, 455. His family, 
100, 447, 450, 455. Weston's letters of 
complaint to him, 107, 114, 117. Extract 
from a letter of Weston to, ii. 156. 

Carver, Mrs. Kathrine, wife of John, iii. 64, 
447, 450. Her death, 101. 

Cary, , 1653, vii. 71. 

Cary, Col, 1775, iv. 229. 

Cary, John, Notice of, viii. 655. 

Cary, Richard, iv. 351, 356, 357. 

Cary, Robert, LL.D. t his "Palseologia 
Chronica," viii. 576. 

Carvl, Rev. Joseph, viii. 101, 105, 150, 195, 
202, 208, 583, 584. 

Casco. See Portland. 

Casco Bay, i. 241»; v. 220, 363, 389,453, 
507. Islands in, 270. 

Case, Thomas, v. 58. 

Cashictan, ix. 300. 

Cass, Lewis, LL.D., Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
i. p. xvi; iii. p. vi; iv. p. xxii; v. p. x; 
vi. p. x; vii. p. x. His death, viii. p. xiv. 

Cassarres, Martin de Res, Marquis de, vii. 

Cassasenaman (Robin), vii. 415, 416. 

Cassilis, Earl of viii. 333. 

Castine (Casteen), v. 121, 340. 

Castlehaven, Earl of, vi. 32*. 

Castle Hill, Ipswich, vi. 103, 104; vii. 123. 
Granted to John Winthrop, Jr., vi. 103. 
Intended sale of, to W. Hubbard and 
others, 104. 

Castle William, iv. 66, 67, 370. 

Catabaws, v. 582. Forces of the, 549. 

Catechism, Order for the, vi. 440. 

Catechisms by New England divines, viii. 55. 

Caterpillars destructive to the grain in New 
England, 1646, vi. 150*, 378. 

Catherwood, Dr., 1763, ix. 487. 

Cattle, Arrival of, iii. 157, 158, 200, 201, 
268, 272. Division of, 215, 373. Increased 
value of, 302, 366. Sale of Allerton's, 365, 
379. Prices of, in 1638, 366. Sudden de- 
preciation of, 376, 379. Price of, in 1640, 
vi. 166. Loss of, in Dorchester Plantation, 

Catlin, George, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., i. p. 
xvii; iii. p. vi. ; iv. p. xxii.; v. p. x. ; vi. 
p. x. ; vii. p. x. ; viii. p. xii. ; ix. p. xvi. 

Caucaumsquissic, Trading-house at, vi. 285w. 

Caukin, Hugh, vi. 285. 

Caulkins, Miss F. M., ii. 204; v. 130«. Cor. 
Memb. M. H. S., i. p. xix.; iii. p. vi. ; 
iv. p. xxiii. ; v. p. x. ; vi. p. x. ; vii. p. x. ; 
viii. p. xii. Memoir of Rev. Wm. Adams 
and of Rev. Eliphalet Adams, i. 5-51. 
Her '' History of New London," cited, ii. 

Caunounicus. See Pessacus. 

Causa Senamut (Robin), vi. 232, 268, 276, 
278, 520. 

Cavaliers, vii. 588, 592, 593. 

Cave, William, D.D., viii. 576. 

Cavendish, Lord, ix. 17, 67. 

Cawdry, D., iv. 325. 

Cawsumsett Neck, iii. 373. 

Cawton, Rev. Mr., viii. 583, 584. 

Cayogau, ix. 343. 

Cayougs, i. 106. 

Cayuga Indians, ix. 187. 

Cayuga River, ix. 258, 280. 

Cazneau, Capt, 1768, iv. 425. 

Cecil Countv, letter to the Donation Com- 
mittee of Boston, iv. 227. Reply, 227. 

Cenastoga Indians, ix. 511. 

" Centinel, The," written by Mr. Briant, iv. 

Central America, iv. 502. 

" Century, First, of Malignant Priests," by 
John White, ii. 219. 

Centurion, ship, v. 445 ; x. 778. 

Ceremonies. See Church of England. 

Cermen, John. See Kirman. 

" Certain Queries propounded to the Bowers^ 
to the Names of Jesus," &c, by Prynne,. 
vi. 413. 

"Certain Questions propounded to Arch- 
bishops, Bishops, Archdeacons," &c, by 
Prynne, vi. 413. 

Ceylon, Conversion of the natives in, viii. 

Chaderton, Mrs. Cicely, Letter of, to Isaac 
Johnson, vi. 28. Fac-similes of her sig- 



nature and seal, vi. plate 1. Notice of, 

Chadderton, Rev. Lawrence, D.D., i. 189; 
vi. 24, 28n. 

Chaderton, Elizabeth. See Johnson, Mrs. 

Chaffin, Cap*., 16G1, viii. 180. 

Cliaille, Peter, iv. 79, 82. 

Chalmers, George, ix. p. v. 14; x. 840, 841. 
Cor. Memb. M. H. S., i. p. xiv. Queries, 
with answers of Gen. Gage, relating to 
Braddock's expedition, &c, iv. 367-372. 
Some errors of, ix. 15, 56, 57. Minutes of, 
concerning American history, x. 700-705. 
Notes relating to Virginia, 717-723. Let- 
ter of, to C. Monroe. 824; to Wm. Hamil- 
ton, 830; to Earl Bathurst, 842, 843. Let- 
ters to, from Gov. Dowdeswell, 828; from 
Henry Goulburn, 842. 

Chalmers, John or James, Letter of, x. 794- 

Chamberlain, , 1613, ix. 12, 16, 60, 61. 

Chamberlain, Capt., 1658, vii. 587. 

Chamberlain, Capt. John, 1774, iv. 137. 

Chamberlain, Richard, viii. 527. Notice of, 

Chamberlaine, John, a Friend, ix. 161. 

Chamberlayne, John, F.R. S., viii. 455. Ex- 
tract from a letter of, 444. 

Chambers, , 1758, v. 457. 

Chambers, Mr., of N. Y., d. 1764, ix. 448; 
x. 514, 518, 523. 

Chamilly, Marquis de, viii. 148. 

Champernoon, Francis, vii. 330. 

Champion, Major Henry, iv. 187. 

Champion, Israel, iv. 57. 

Champlain, Lake, v. 356, 392, 434, 533, 540, 
556, 570, 586; ix. 300. Boats attacked on, 
v. 417. Flotilla built upon, 523. Naval 
engagement on, 524. 

Champlin, Major, iv. 184. 

Champlin, Mrs. Anne (Adams), i. 47, 48. 

Champlin, John, Jr., i. 48. 

Champlin, William A., i. 48. 

Chanco, an Indian, ix. 27. 

Chandler, , killed, 1748, v. 380. 

Chandler, Chas. Church, iv. 73. 

Chandler, Peleg W., iv. p. vi. Member M. 
H. S., i. p. x.; ii. p. xvii. ; iii. p. v.; iv. 
p. xxi. ; v. p. viii. ; vi. p. viii. ; vii. p. viii. ; 
viii. p. x. ; ix. p. xiv. ; Treasurer, i. p. xx. ; 
Asst. Treas., i. p. xx. 

Chandler, Thomas Bradburv, D.D., iv. 425, 
430, 433, 436, 442, 443, 448, 450, 460. 

Channing, Rev. Henry, Cor. Memb. M. H. 
S., i. p. xvi. 

Channing, William E., D.D., i. 281. 

Chapels, , 1758, v. 461. 

Chapin, Sergi. Elisha, v. 378. Capt. Elisha, 
killed, 417. 

Chaplains forbidden to be employed, vi. 

Chapman, Robert, letter to the Governor 
and Assistants of Connecticut, vii. 556. 

Chapman, William, vii. 233. 

Chappell, Goodman, vii. 233. 

Chardon, Mr., 1776, i. 272. 

Charenton, Synod at, iv. 322. 

Charity, ship, arrives at Plj'mouth, iii. 118, 
122, 157, 158, 236; iv. 474, 478«, 484n. 
Its return, iii. 128, 138, 173. 

Charlemont, letter to the selectmen of Bos- 
ton, iv. 12. 

Charles I., King of Great Britain, vi. 282, 292, 
301, 421, 518n, 527, 641, 542, 665,566; vii. 

22, 390, 436; viii. 122n, 123n, 195, 687; ix. 
83 ; x. 834. Commission by, for regulat- 
ing plantations, iii. 320, 456* Address to, 
in Prynne's " News from Ipswich," vi. 
430, 432. Imprisoned in Carisbrooke Cas- 
tle, 465. Progress of, into Shropshire, 
1636, 410. Takes precautions to prevent 
the spread of the plague in London, 1636, 
408. Attempted escape from Carisbrooke 
Castle, vii. 3U3, 432. 

Charles II., King, v. 75, 80, 81, 82; vi. 536n; 
vii. 315, 316, 503, 511, 518, 543, 556; viii. 
122n, 166, 181, 182, 184, 186, 188, 193, 195, 
198, 199, 200, 201, 207, 208, 209, 210, 212, 
213, 215, 216, 217, 222, 223, 224, 331, 333, 
343, 378w, 494, 497, 502n, 524n, 525, 526, 
528, 529, 532, 533, 534, 536, 590, 591, 688. 
Letter to Governor Josiah Winslow and the 
General Court of New Plymouth, v. 31. 
Letter to the Governor and Council of 
Plymouth Colony, 71. Letter from Josiah 
Winslow to, 40. Petition of Plymouth 
Colony to, 48. Invasion of England by, 
1651, vi. 77. His letter to Massachusetts 
concerning Quakers, viii. 204, 280; ix. 
159. Troops offered to, viii. 211. Issues 
a proclamation to call Parliament, 216. 
Death of, v. 131, 135. 

Charles, Indian teacher, v. 133. 

Charles, John, vii. 55. 

Charles Lodowick, Count Palatine, Protest 
of, vi. 421. 

Charles, ship, i. 94; iii. 301n. 

Charles County, Md., iv. 40w. 

Charles River, "Mass., iii. 368 ; vi. 515 ; x. 816 ; 
named, iii. 369. 

Charles River Eerry, v. 190. 

Charles River, a name given by Capt. Young 
to the Delaware, ix. 115. 

Charleston (Charlestown), S. C, ii. 146; v. 
304, 307, 576, 582; x. 785, 788. Public 
meetings in consequence of the Boston 
Port Act, and aid sent to Boston, iv. 178. 
Sickness at, in 1699, viii. 403. Troops to 
be sent to, 1775, x. 748. 

Charlestown, Mass., i. 96, 201, 212; ii. 131, 
132; (Charlton) iii. 96; iv. 1, 154, 155, 475; 
v. 194 ; vi. 226, 345, 512, 578 ; vii. 493n ; viii. 
93. In 1775-76, i. 263, 265, 269, 270, 271. 
Petition from, ii. 301. Sickness at, iii. 
277. Shares the donations sent to Boston 
in 1774, 1775, iv. 69n. Comparative suf- 
ferings of Boston and Charlestown in 
1774, 89, 90. Letter from the Donation 
Committee to the Committee of Boston, 
150. Church at, v. 13, 28. Proposed 
emigration from, 1637, vi. 219. Result of 
a council at, 1678, viii. 91. Letter from 
Increase and Cotton Mather to the church 
in, 119. 

Charlestown (Number Four), N. II., v. 516, 
533, 537, 541. Indian hostilities at, 366, 
367. Attack on, 369. Besieged by French 
and Indians, 373. Hostilities "at, 377. 
Engagement near, 379. 

Charlevoix, P. F. X. de, quoted, iv. 464rc- 
466rc. His trustworthiness, 464;i. 

Charters of the American colonies, x. 817 
foil. See also Connecticut, Massachusetts, 

Charters, city, in England, Proceedings 
against, viii. 45, 46, 199, 206, 610. 

Charter's Creek, ix. 413. 

Chatham, Lord, 1775, x. 770. 



Chatham, Conn., Reply to, by the Boston 
Donation Committee, iv. 183. 

Chatham, Mass. (Manamoiak), iii. 97, 128, 
217; v. 306n. 

Chatham, ship, x. 778. 

Chauncey, Mr., 1669, vii. 566. 

Chauncey, Rev. Israel, letter to Increase 
Mather, viii. 627. Notice of, 627rc. 

Chauncey, Charles, Pres. of Harv. College, 
vi. 169; viii. 190, 205, 627w. Invited to 
Plymouth, iii. 382. Differs with Reyner, 
382. Notice of, 384. Answers questions, 
392. Elected President of Harvard Col- 
lege, vi. 291. 

Chauncv, Mr., 1684, viii. 312, 463. 

Chauncy, Charles, D.D., iv. 417, 418, 421, 
422, 433, 442, 448. Letter to T. Prince, ii. 
238. Letters from T. Prince, 238, 239. 
Attacks upon his character, iv. 436. His 
" Complete View of Episcopacy," 459, 

Chauncy, Elnathan, viii. 330. 

Chauncy, Ichabod, Notice of, viii. 617ft. 
Letters to Increase Mather, 617, 619. 

Chauncy, Isaac, viii. 619. 

Chauncy, Rev. Nathaniel, Ordination of, viii. 

Chawonack Indians, ix. 15. 

Cheat River, ix. 395. 

Chebeag (Capeage), v. 270. 

Checkley, Anthony, viii. 46, 529. 

Checkley, John, ii. 182, 183. 

Checkley, Samuel, viii. 633. 

Cheeseman, Capt., 1776, x. 772, 773. 

Cheever, Mr., Commissioner for Pennsyl- 
vania, 1760, ix. 335. 

Cheevers, Mr., 1681, viii. 615. 

Cheevers, Mrs. Ruth (Angier), i. 13. 

Cheevers, Samuel, married, i. 13. 

Chelmsford, v. 326 ; vi. 397ft. Letter to the 
Committee of Correspondence of Boston, 
iv. 92. Reply, 93. 

Chelsea (Winisemet), i. 262; iii. 241; vi. 
218. Sickness at, iii. 325. 

Chemnitz, Martin, viii. 76. 

Chemosies, x. 522, 523. 

Chenunda, ix. 378. 

Cherokee Indians, v. 432 ; ix. 246-248, 372, 
390, 397, 416 ; x. 725. Hostile attacks by 
the, v. 509, 538, 548, 549, 550, 554, 555,559, 
574, 576, 578, 579, 580, 581, 583. Treaty 
with the, 547. Forces of the, 549. At- 
tack on the fort at Ninety-six by the, 554. 
Expedition against the, 1760, 560; 1761, 
577. Treaty of peace with the, 582. 

Cherokee River, x. 605, 725. 

Chesapeake Bay, i. 229, 231 ; x. 733. 

Chesapeake River, ix. 14, 15; x. 801, 807. 

Cheseboro, William, Proceedings against, 
vi. 181. 

Chesholme, Beacon Thomas, 1670, i. 11, 13. 

Chesley, George, v. 350. 

Chesly, Capt. Samuel, killed, v. 315. 

Chessewanucke (Hog Island), v. 72, 127. 

Chester, Me., Captives taken by Indians at, 
v. 350. 

Chester, N. H., Letter of the Boston Dona- 
tion Committee to, iv. 131. 

Chester, schooner, iv. 178. 

Chester Co., x. 511. 

Chester, ship, v. 330. 

Chesterfield County, Va., letter to the 
Donation Committee of Boston, iv. 181. 
Reply, 182. 

Chester Town, Md., letters to the Donation 
Committee of Boston, iv. 61, 222. Reply, 

Chetewood, Mr., 1678, viii. 16. 

Chew, Benjamin, ix. 300; x. 711. 

Chew, Ensign Cole bey, v. 455, 481. 

Chewte, James, vii. 128. 

Chibois Indians, ix. 295. 

Chickahominies, ix. 5, 26, 32, 46, 51. 

Chickasaws or Chickshaws, v. 333, 576, 582. 
Forces of the, 549. 

Chickatabot, Sagamore of Neponsett, iii. 

Chicklev, Mr., viii. 535. See Checkley. 

Chickley Sir Henry, ix. 169, 174, 175, 178, 

Chidester, Sergeant, his son killed, v. 417. 

Chignecto (Sa'chenecto), v. 314, 441. Hos- 
tilities near, 415. Engagement near, 1758, 
454. Indian murders at, 494. 

Chignecto Fort, ix. 218. 

Child, Elisha, iv. 73. 

Child, Ephraim, vi. 457. 

Child, Goodman, and wife, vi. 539. 

Child, John, iii. 443. 

Child, Nathaniel, iv. 73, 74. 

Child, Richard, Receipt of, vi. 87. 

Child, Dr. Robert, vi. 60, 108; vii. 282, 337ft. 
Complaints by, against Massachusetts 
Colony, iii. 443. 

Child, Stephen, of Roxbury, v. 472. 

Chilhowee, v. 535. 

Chillingworth, Mrs. Jane. See Doggett, 

Chilton, John, and family, iii. 449, 453. 

Chilton, Mary, iii. 449, 454. 

Chingas, an Indian, ix. 321. 

Chinnough, an Indian, iii. 431. 

Chinundeda, ix. 261. 

Chipman, Mr., x. 836, 840, 849, 850. 

Chipman, Elder John, v. 12, 28, 29, 47. 

Chippeway Indians, ix. 250, 251, 287, 321, 

Chiskiack, ix. 65, 72. 

Chiswell, Richard, viii. 7. Letter to In- 
crease Mather, 575. Notice of, 575ft. 

Chittenden, Henry, v. 40. 

Chitwood, or Chetwode, Grace. See Bulk- 
ley, Mrs. 

Chitwood, or Chetwode, Sir Richard, viii. 
13ft. See also Chetewood. 

Chixaxia, ix. 428. 

Choate, Rufus, LL.D., Member M. H. S., 
i. p. x. ; ii. p. xvii. ; iii. p. v. ; iv. p. xxi. 

Chockset (Sterling), ii. 131, 132. 

Choctaws, Forces of the, v. 549. 

Chote\v. 550. 

Chowan River, ix. 14, 15. 

Choyse, Dr., 1654, vii. 488. 

Christian, Capt, 1759, v. 539. 

Christian Indians, v. 131, 132. 

" Christian Philosopher, The," by Cotton 
Mather, viii. 445, 447, 448, 450. 

" Christianissimus Christianandus," viii. 343. 

Christie, Ensign, 1760, ix. 360, 395,403,406. 

Christmas, viii. 296, 297, 468. At Plymouth, 
1621, iii. 112. Observance of, under An- 
dros, viii. 371. 

Christner, Dr., viii. 644. 

Christopher Islands, vii. 89ft. 

Christophers, Mrs. Elizabeth (Brewster 
Bradley), vii. 81ra. 

Chronological memoranda, by Rev. Thomas 
Prince, viii. 712-714. 



Church, Col. Benjnmin, v. 10, 68, 89, 204, 

205, 213, 214, 215, 216, 218, 223, 281; viii. 

231, 232, 664k. Letter to Thomas Hinck- 
ley and John Walley, commissioners, v. 

219, 220. To Thos. Hinckley, 270. 
Church, Dr. Benjamin, iv. 3. 
Church, John, killed by Indians, v. 327. 
Church, Joseph, v. 296. 
Church, C'fipt. Lemuel, iv. 150, 156, 157. 
Church, ship, ii. 230. 
Church of England, Contention about the 

ceremonies and sen-ice-book of the, iii. 3, 

5, 7, 8. Overthrown, 6, 7. Conformity 

to the, required, 8; act for, viii. 188, 192, 

205, 207, 210. 
Church covenant, viii. 549. Entered into, 

1630, iii. 278. 
Church discipline, iii. 197, 198. 
Church, Established, in Virginia, x. 658, 659. 
Church politv, iii- 34, 35. Church polity in 

N. E., J. ScottOW on, iv. 320-329. 
Church relation of children, viii. 36, 323, 

324, 589. See also Baptism. 
Church visible, viii. 8, 31, 35, 55. 
Churchill, Mr., 1625, vi. 30. 
Churchill, Aunsham, viii. 65. 
Churchill, John. See Marlborough, Duke of. 
Churchill, Rev. Joshua, letter to Increase 

Mather, viii. 639. Notice of, 639k. 
Churching of women, Order of service for 

the, vi. 437. 
Churchman, John, i. 94, 95. 
Chute, Chaloner, Speaker of the House of 

Commons, vii. 593. 
Cipher, Archisden's alphabet for writing in, 

vi. 481. Method used by Richard Howes, 

Circourt, Count Adolphe de, Hon. Memb. 

M. H. S., v. p. xii. ; vi. p. xii. ; vii. p. xii. ; 

viii. p. xiii. ; ix. p. xvii. 
"Circumference of the Earth, Of the," by 

Edward Howes, vi. 480. 
Claiburne, Wm., Jr., ix. 186. 
Clap, Elisha, A.M., Member M. H. S., i. p. 

viii. ; Librarian, p. xx. ; on the Committee 

of Publication of vol. 8, 9, 2d Series, p. 

Clap, Mary. See Wooster, Mrs. 
Clap, Mrs. Marv (Whiting), i. 26. 
Clap, Capt. Roger, v. 107, 280; viii. 495k. 
Clap, Temperance. See Pitkin, Mrs. 
Clap, Rev. Thomas, married, i. 26. 
Clapham, Capt., 1760, ix. 313, 385, 388, 432. 
Clapham, Rev. Mr., i. 84. 
Clapham, "Young," 1761, ix. 380, 386, 389, 

Clapham, George, vi. 28. 
Clapham, John, vi. 28. 
Clarendon, Edward Hyde, Earl of, viii. 211. 
Clark, Capt., 1659, vii. 232. 
Clark, Dr., 1736, ii. 188. 
Clark, Mr., his abuse of Rev. Richard Ma- 
ther, 168-, viii. 50. 
Clark, Mr., 1763, x. 505, 600. 
Clark, Mr., 1682, viii. 340, 388. 
Clark, Mrs., of Cambridge, d. 1673, i. 19. 
Clark, Francis, iv. 115. 
Clark, James, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., i. xii. 

Rescues Bradford's Letter-book, iii. Pref. 

p. iv. 
Clark, Dr. John, of Newbury and Boston, 

d. 1665, vi. 275. 
Clark, Dr. John, of Boston, his death, 1768, 

iv. 426. 

Clark, Dr. John, of Rhode Island. See 

Clark, Rev. John, viii. 252. 

Clark, Matthew, his wife and daughter, v. 

Clark, Nathaniel, v. 151, 229k. Of Andros's 
Council, ii. 207k. Abstract of his letter to 
Bullifant, v. 196. Declaration of inhabit- 
ants of Plymouth against, 197. Obtains 
a grant of Clark's Island, viii. 255k; ix. 

Clark, Nicholas, i. 94, 95. 

Clark, Noah, scalped, 1747, v. 376. 

Clark, Thomas, 1623, iv. 493; v. 196n. 

Clark, Timothv, iv. 103, 104. 

Clarke, Mr., 1630, vi. 470. 

Clarke, Mr., 1762, ix. 449, 4S6. 

Clarke, Rev. Mr., 1637, vi. 546. 

Clarke, pilot of the Mayflower, iii. 55, 83. 
Clarke's Island named from, 87. 

Clarke, Daniel, vii. 554. 

Clarke, George, ii. 281. 

Clarke, Jeremiah, vi. 318. 

Clarke, John, D.D., Member M. H. S., i. p. 

Clarke, Dr. John, of Rhode Island, iv. 471; 
vi. 274. His " 111 Newes from New Eng- 
land," ii. 1-113. 

Clarke, Capt. John, vi. 267, 280; vii. 520, 
521; viii. 179, 596. 

Clarke, Jonathan, iv. 380, 381, 382, 383. 

Clarke, Joseph, iv. 158, 159. 

Clarke, Richard, in the Mayflower, iii. 449, 

Clarke, Richard, 1773, iv. 374, 378. 

Clarke, Major Thomas, vii. 160k. 

Clarke, Thomas, vii. 283, 404, 407, 498, 500, 
520, 521. Letter to John Winthrop, Jr., 

Clarke, William, viii. 230, 239. 

Clark's Island, Controversy respecting, viii. 
255k; ix. 191. 

Clarkson, Levinus, iv. 178. 

Clay, Henry, iv. 500. Cor. Memb. M. H. 
S., i. p. xvii. 

Clay, Thomas?, 1640, vii. 227. 

Clayborne, Capt., William, ix. 81, 131, 132, 
140, 143, 146, 168, 174. His difficulties 
with Lord Baltimore, 82, 101 foil. 

Claydon, John, i. 168. 

Clavpole, Mrs., Death of, vii. 590. 

Clayton, Capt., 1759, v. 495, 506. 

Clayton, Col., 1711, v. 328. 

Clayton, Lieut., 1760, v. 548. 

Clayton, Francis, iv. 24. 

Clayton, John Middleton, iv. 502. 

Claudia, Block Island, iii. 350, 353. 

Claverack (Clauvrick), N. Y., i. 107. 

Cleaveland, Aaron, iv. 151. 

Cleeve (Cleaves, Cleives), George, vii. 
89-96K, 104k, 329, 330, 342, 343, 346, 347, 
348, 349, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 357, 358, 
359, 360, 361, 362, 369, 373; (Cleve) vi. 
126, (Cleves) 175. Letters to John Win- 
throp, vii. 363, 365. To the Governor, &c, 
of Massachusetts, 366, 371. Fac-similes of 
his signature and seal, vii. plate 7. Depo- 
sitions taken before, 367. Notice of, 363k. 
Deposition relating to Robert Nash, 370. 

Clegg, Capt., killed, 1760, v. 574. 

Clemmons, Mr., 1775, iv. 229. 

Cleobury and Co., ix. 82, 83, (Clobery and 
Co.) 147. 

Cleobury (Clobery), William, ix. 83, 147. 



Clerke, Jo n Cluflfe, ix. 186. 

Clerke, Jo* Pap:e, ix. 186. 

Clerke, Capt. Thomas, vi. 529. 

Cleypoll, Lady, vii. 590. 

Clifford, John H., L.L.D., Member M. H. 
S., ii. p. xvii.; iii. p. v.; iv. p. xxi. ; v. 
p. viii.; vi. p. viii. ; vii. p. viii.; viii. p. 
x.,; ix. p. xiv. 

Clifford, Sir Thomas, viii. 215. 

Clifton, Richard, i. 83. 

Clifton, Rev. Richard, i. 59, 61, 62; iii.Pref. 
p. xvii., 10, 411. 

Clinton, De Witt, LL.D., Cor.Memb. M.H. 
S., i. p. xiv. 

Clinton, Gov. George, the elder, ix. 473; x. 

Clinton, Sir Henry ( ? Sir Harry), x. 491, 
501, 523, 573, 776, 785 786, 806, 811, 812. 

Clinton, Lady Susan. See Humfrey, Lady. 

Clock, a Dutchman, 1763, ix. 484. 

Clopton, Thomas, vi. 575. 

Clopton, Walter, letter to John Winthrop, 
vi. 575. Fac-simile of his signature, vi. 
plate 7. Notice of, 575rc. 

Clopton, Sir William, vi. 575. 

Clopton, William, vii. 588n. 

Clopton family, i. 247. 

Clossy, Dr., 1766, x. 591. 

Cloth imported into Connecticut, 1636, vi. 
370, 371. 

Clough, Mr., d. 1688, viii. 372. 

Cluffe, Mr., 1676, ix. 174. 

Clyfton, Rev. Mr., of Scrooby, i. 118, 119. 

Clymer, George, iv. 148m, 149, 156. 

" Coal, A, from the Altar," by Heylin, vi. 

Cobb, Elder, 1678, v. 23. 

Cobb, Rev. Mr., of London, viii. 583, 585. 

Cobb, Elisha, iv. 190. 

Cobb, Samuel, iv. 261, 262. 

Cobbet, John, viii. 294, 295. 

Cobbett, Rev. Thomas, i. 16, 17, (Cobbitt) 
212; (Cobet) ii. 117; viii. 32, 621n, 567. 
Notice of, 288w. Letters to Increase Ma- 
ther, 288, 289, 291, 293, 296. Accident to, 

Cobbett, Thomas, Jr., viii. 290, 294, 295. 
His captivity among the Indians, 290w. 

Cobiseconte, Me., iii. 316. 

Cochecho, v. 272, 275. Indian hostilities at, 
327, 346, 362. 

"Cochin China, Rarities of," by Barri, vi. 

Cochran, Hon. A. W., Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
i. p. xvii. 

Cochrane, Capt., 1760, ix. 358,413, 420,425. 
Letter from Capt. Campbell to, 424. 

Cochrane, Sergeant, v. 402, 403. 

Cockburn, Capt. of ship Sapphire, v. 329. 

Cockram, , 1725, his capture and escape, 

v. 357. 

Cockram, Mrs. Christen, i. 101. 

Cockram, William, i. 101. 

Coddington, William, Gov. of Rhode Island, 
iii. 335; iv. 471, 472; vi. 16, 157. 263, 302, 
303; vii. 26, 110, 573. Notice of, iii. 278n. 
Action against William Dyre, vi. 321. 
Letters to John Winthrop, 312, 316, 318; 
vii. 278; to John Winthrop, Jr., vi. 319, 
320; vii. 279, 280, 284, 286, 287, 291, 292, 
293. Notice of, vi. 312rc. His removal 
from Boston, 314. Suit of the town of 
Braintree against, 317. His " Demonstra- 
tion of Love unto you, the Rulers of the 

Colony of Massachusetts," 312?i. Fac- 
similes of his signature and seals, vi. plate 
3 ; vii. plate 5. Voyage to England, 280. 

Codman, , 1659, vii. 231. 

Codman, John, D.D., Member M. H. S., i. 
p. ix. 

Codman, Robert, vii. 36. 

Codrington, Christopher, Gov. of Barbadoes, 
vii. 293. 

Coecoe-on-Sogelande, viii. 436w. 

Coffin, Capt., 1773, iv. 379. 

Coffin, Adm. Sir Isaac, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
i. p. xv. 

Coffin, Joshua, A. B., Member M. H. S., i. 
p. ix. 

Coffin, Nathaniel, iv. 223, 249. 

Coffin, Hon. Peleg, Member M. H. S., i. p. 
vi. ; ii. p. v. ; iv. p. vii. 

Coffin, Hon. Peter, v. 116, 118, 337. 

Cogan, Mr., of Boston, Eng., 1630, vi. 87. 

Coggeshall, Mr., 1634, vi. 496. 

Coggeshall? (Cogshel), Mr., surprised by 
Indians, 1722, v. 348. 

Coggeshall, John, vi. 313; vii. 110, 111, 279. 
Comes to New England, i. 94, 95. Ap- 
pointed councillor under Andros, ii. 207w. 
See also Coxall, Mr. 

Coggeshall, Joshua, vii. 291. 

Coggeswell, Nathaniel, iv. 158. 

Coggins, Mr., 1658, vii. 587. 

Cognawago Indians, ix. 270. 

Cogswell, William, D.D., Member M. H. S., 
i. p. x. 

Cohasset (Conahassett), iii. 370, 371; vi. 

"Coheleth," by Cotton Mather, viii. 439, 
442, 443. 

Cohnewago, v. 487. 

Coit, Benjamin, iv. 252. 

Coit, Oliver, iv. 251, 252. 

Coke, Sir John, Secretary of State, vi. 46, 

Cokin, Rev. Mr., 1663, viii. 210. 

Colbert, M., viii. 414. 

Colby family, i. 88. 

Colcard, Peter, v. 349, 350. 

Colchester, letter to the Committee of Cor- 
respondence of Boston, iv. 137. Replies 
of the Donation Committee, 137, 138. 

Colcord, Edward, killed by Indians, viii. 

Cold, Extreme, in 1683-84, viii. 349, 634, 
635. In 1719-20, 437. 

Cold Country Indians, v. 437. 

Colden, Cadwallader, Lieut.-Gov. of New 
York, ii. 179, 180, 183, 189; ("The Old 
Man," in Watts's letters) ix. 472; x. 618, 
passim. Letters of, to Amherst, ix. 454 ; to 
Monckton, 467, 468; x. 498, 512. Letters 
to, from Dr. W. Douglass, ii. 164-189. 
Privy Council Report on his conduct, ix. 
441. Letter to the Lords of Trade and 
Plantations, x. 492-497. His removal of 
Livingston, 524. Hung in effigy, 561. 
His declaration about the stamp papers, 
581. His pamphlet, 601, 603. 

Cold Spring, vii. 518. 

Cole, , 1646, vi. 180. 

Cole, , roasted alive by Indians, 1756, 

v. 437. 

Cole, , curate, vi. 563. 

Cole, Mr., 1651, ii. 57, 61. 

Cole, Sergt., 1707, v. 316. 

Cole, Anne, Case of, viii. 466-469. 



Cole, Isaac, v. 335. 

Cole, Lieut. James, v. 208, 241. 

Cole, John, executed at Tyburn, 1666, viii. 

Cole, John, of Hartford, 1662, viii. 466. 

Cole, Nicholas, v. 456. 

Cole, Thomas, of Haverhill, 1628, vii. 6. 

Cole, Thomas, of Southampton, Eng., 1667, 
viii. 215. 

Cole, William, iv. 135. 

Cole, Col. William, ix. 174, 178, 186. 

Colebrooke, Sir James, x. 501. 

Coleman, , tried, viii. 224. 

Coleman, Mr., i. 44. 

Coleman, Jabez, and Son, of Kingston, v. 354. 

Colerain, v. 372, 377. Indian hostilities at, 
368, 369. 

Coles, Lieut., 1757, v. 440. 

Coles, Mr., 1637, vi. 218. 

Coles, Hon. Edward, Hon. Memb. M. H. S., 
v. p. xii; vi. p. xii; vii. p. xii. His 
death, viii. p. xiv. 

Coles, Elisha, i. 43. 

Cole's Fort, Indian murders near, v. 475. 

Collicut, Richard, vi. 210, 228. Letter from 
Roger Williams to, 211. Fails to recover 
Williams's debt, 212. 

Collier, Mary. See Prence, Mrs. 

Collier, William, iii. 201, 213, 285, S08, 362; 
vi. 41, 173; vii. 14. Assistant, iii. 308, 315, 
327, 343, 351, 367, 377, 384, 408, 477. Sher- 
ley's agent, 377-382. Confirms the confed- 
eration, 423. 

Colliford, Copt., of ship Humber, v. 330. 

Collimoore, Peter, v. 40. 

Collingvood, Edward, fac-simile of his sig- 
nature, ii. 163. 

Collins, Lieut., R. N., 1775, x. 751, 755. 

Collins, Mr., of London f, 1645, vii. 387. 

Collins, Mr., of London, 1682, viii. 494, 496. 

Collins, Mrs. Alice (Adams), i. 22, 26. 

Collins, Edward, viii. 122, 261rc, 264, 546. 
Letters to Goffe and Whalley, 134. Letter 
to, from William Goffe, 135. Notice of, 

Collins, Giles, v. 552. 

Collins, Rev. John, viii. 589. Notice of, 67». 

Collins, Rev. Nathaniel, of Enfield, i. 26. 

Collins, Rev. Nathaniel, of Middleborough, 
i. 49; viii. 363. 

Collins, Win., son-in-law of Mrs. Hutchin- 
son, iii. 387. 

Colman, , executed, viii. 345. 

Colman, Joseph, v. 20. 

Colman, William, vi. 441. 

Colonel Hinsdel's Fort, v. 379. 

Colton, , deserter, 1761, ix. 436. 

Columbia College (King's College), N. Y., 
x. 500. 

Columbus, Christopher, i. 197. 

Columbus, ship, x. 776. 

Colville, Adm. Lord, 1760, ix. 257; x. 512. 

Comberach, Thomas, servant, i. 96. 

Combes, Mr., vi. 350-352. 

Combes, Mrs. Elizabeth (Stollyon), vi. 350, 

Combes, Note on R. Cushman's expression, 
" Come again to my combes," iii. 65/i. 

Comer, Rev. Mr., of'Dedham, En//., vii. 8. 

Comet of'1067 68,Thomas Shepards account 
of the, viii. 603; of 1677, 341; of 1680, 82, 
296, 477; of 1682, 85, 296, 495, 511. 

Comets, viii. 49, 101, 214, 480, 496. 

Commacongden, v. 216. 

Commerce of the American colonies, Regu- 
lations for the, x. 667 foil. 

Commissioners for Lygonia, 1647, vii. 375. 

Commissioners for New England, 1664-65, v. 
180; vii. 40, 556, 568, 573; viii. 142, 211. 
Settlement of the boundary between Ply- 
mouth Colony and Rhode Island by, v. 
11 foil. 

Commissioners for the Plantations, iii. 320, 
456. Winslow's petition to the, 327. 
Letter from the Commissioners for Trade 
and Plantations to Pitt, 1760, ix. 239. See 
also Committee for Trade. 

Commissioners from Massachusetts to the 
Nahigonsick and Cowwesit Indians, vi. 
300; to New Netherland, 1664, 529. From 
Scotland to Charles L, 1639, vii. 221, 390. 

Commissioners of the United Colonies under 
the Confederation of 1643, iii. 418; v. 68; 
vi. 150 4 , 268n, 283, 338, 341, 342, 343, 384; 
vii. 289, 417, 468, 484, 571, 574, 582, 583, 599. 
Authorize the execution of Miantonimo, 
iii. 424. Meet at Boston in 1645, 431; 
in 1647, vi. 335. Decision of, respecting the 
Narragansetts, iii. 433. Powers of, doubt- 
ed, 435. Orders respecting the Pequots, 
vi. 337. Agree upon Articles of Con- 
federation, 390n. 

Commissioners of the United Colonies in 
1690, v. 68, 218. Meeting of, at Boston, 
266; at New York, 233, 242-244, 247. 

Commissioners to Canada, 1724, v. 355; to 
St. George's, f 1725, 360, 361. 

Committee for Trade and Foreign Planta- 
tions, Petition of I. Mather to, 1688, viii. 
116. Report of the Committee of Council 
for Plantation Affairs, 1732, ix. 195-203. 

Common house at Plymouth, Building of 
the, iii. 88, 90. Burnt, 100. 

Commons, the House of, Adjournment of, 
1628, vi. 34. 

Communion, Order for the administration 
of the, in England, vi. 435, 438, 439. The 
communion-table ordered to be placed 
at the east end of the church, 404-407, 

Communion of churches, viii. 325, 326. 

Community of property, iii. 135, 157, 214. 

Compact of the Pilgrims, iii. 89, 251?t. Sign- 
ers of the, 90. 

Company of Husbandmen, vii. 88-98, 101, 

Company for the Propagation of the Gospel 
among the Indians in N. E., v. 132. 

Compass, Polarity of the, affected bv a storm 
at sea, &c, viii. 524, 528, 638. 

Comperts, Court of, vi. 412. 

Compton, Sir Charles, viii. 180. 

Compton, John, vii. 3. 

Compton, Sir William, ii. 284. 

Comstock, Andrew, iv. 17. 

Conanicut (Qunnunagut), vi. 255. 

Conant, Rev. Dr., a Nonconformist, viii. 

Conant, Roger, iii. 169n, 196k. Notice of, 

Conasadauga, v. 487. 

Concord, Mass., i. 201, 212; v. 253, 326. 
Fight at, 1775, i. 261. Proposed emigra- 
tion to Delaware, vii. 419. 

Concord, N. II., letter to H. Hill con- 
cerning pease sent to Boston in 1774, iv. 
129. Reply, 129. 

Concord, shij), i. 223, 224. 



Cond£, Prince of, vi. 362. Anecdote of, 
viii. 145. 

Condy, Rev. Mr., iv. 431. 

Coney, Mrs. Elizabeth (Hawkridge), wife 
of John, viii. 351ra. 

Coney, Mrs. Mary (Hawkridge), wife of 
Thomas, viii. 351w. 

Coney, John, viii. 351w, 518. 

Coney, Thomas, viii. 351%. 

Confederacy of the New England colonies 
in 1643, hi. 416; vi. 173, 390. 

Confederate army, v. 69. 

Confectionery, vii. 509, 510, 511. 

Confession, On exacting, iii. 390, 396. 

Confession of faith, Public, viii. 236. 

Conforming ministers, Remorse of some, 
1662, viii. 188. 

Conformity to the Church of England, iii. 
8, 192, 205, 207, 210. 

Congarees, ix. 349. 

Congregationalism, iv. 297; viii. 31, 32, 35. 

Conklin, John, vi. 75. 

Connastago Indians, x. 508. 

Connecticut (Qunnihticut), ii. 23, 230; iv. 
308; v. 51, 67, 75, 99, 205, 218. 234, 252, 
258, 262, 263, 266, 267, 284, 320, 364, 370, 
392, 394, 398, 428, 442, 495, 518; vi. 176, 
192, 195, 196, 201, 204, 215, 221, 222, 223, 
224, 225, 231, 238, 239, 247, 248, 249, 250, 
251, 252, 260, 261, 263, 265, 266, 278, 279, 
296, 298, 304, S07n, 528, 583n; vii. 152, 
165, 166, 289, 538n, 547, 556re, 575; x. 579. 
Paper money, ii. 182. Boundary, ii. 186; 
vii. 572, 573; x. 494, 514. Not included 
in the government of Andros, ii. 207«. 
Wreck of vessels bound to, iii. 348. Per- 
mission from Pequot Indians to settle at, 
349. Indian attack at, 351. Enters into 
the Confederation of 1643, 416. Supports 
Uncas, 433. Action of the legislature on 
the Boston Port Bill, iv. 16re. Claimed 
by the Dutch, 299. Commissioners, 
v. 204, 212; vi. 390n. Council of, v. 258. 
War with the Narragansetts, vi. 160. 
Dangers from the Indians, 163-, 239. 
Plantation of, 1636, 44, 162, 364, 369, 371, 
387, 503, 517, 518, 579, 580, 582. Patent, 
364?i. Attempted invasion of, by An- 
dros, 1675, vii. 137. Settlement of, 165, 166. 
Does not persecute the Quakers, 186. 
Dispute with the Duke of York, 311. 
Letter to the Governor, &c, of, from John 
Mason, 423. Visit of Gov. John Win- 
throp, Jr., and Assistants to Long Island, 
1664, 483. Charter of the united colonies 
of New Haven and. 520«, 522, 523, 550, 
552, 554, 573; ix. 189; x. 818-820. Let- 
ter of William Leete and Robert Chapman 
to the Governor and Assistants of, viii. 
556. Dispute with Rhode Island about 
boundaries, 572, 573. Losses in the Swamp 
Fight, 583w. Petition of, 1683, viii. hbn. 
Answer to prayer in, 374. Offences of Con- 
necticotians against J. Winthrop, 1718, 
430. Charter of, 187, 190, 602. Duke of 
Hamilton's claim to lands in, 603. Claim 
to Western lands, ix. 300, 440. Troops 
from, in 1762, 449; in 1764, x. 521, 526; 
in 1776, 774, 776, 777. Appeals in, 557. 
Disturbances in, 715. 

Connecticut Indians, viii. 85. 

Connecticut River, v. 350, 366 ; vi. 93, 196, 
231, 378, 503, 514, 581; viii. 88; x. 494 
foil, 514, 839. Difficulties with the 

Dutch as to trade on the, iii. 311-313. 

Norton and Stone's excursion to the, 324. 

Mortality there, 325. Settlements on the, 

340 ; vii. 66. 
Connolly, or Conollv, , 1774, x. 720, 723, 

Connyere, Capt., 1690, v. 275. 
Conococheague, v. 448. Indian murders at, 

413, 422. 
Conohasset, v. 8. 

Consociation of churches, viii. 189. 
Constantinople, Plague in, 1661, viii. 174. 
Continental Congress, x. 706 foil. 
Converse, Capt. James, v. 253. 
Converts to Popery, iv. 448. 
Convicts, Importation of, into Virginia, x. 

Conway, Capt., son of Sir Edward, ix. 54, 

Conway, Col., 1765, x. 550. 
Conway, Henry Seymour, Secretary, x. 550 

Cook, Capt. of ship Leopard, v. 330. 
Cook, Capt., arrested by Gorton, vi. 380. 
Cook, Mrs. Harriet B. (Latimer), i. 51. 
Cook, Josiah, settler at Nauset, iii. 426. 
Cook, Milo, i. 51. 
Cook, Walter, iv. 132. 
Cook Sackey, ix. 452. 
Cookaine, Mr., 1682, viii. 498. 
Cooke, Dr., of London, 1690, v. 277, 278, 

Cooke, Lieut., 1660, vii. 511. 
Cooke, Mr., 1690, v. 254. 
Cooke, Mr., 1719, ii. 226. 
Cooke, or Cook, Mr., 1638, vi. 50, 73. 
Cooke, Edward, letters to John Winthrop, 

vii. 381, 383, 384. Fac-similes of his sig- 
nature and seal, vii. plate 8. Notice of, 

Cooke, Dr. Elisha, ii. 300, 304; viii. 252, 

365, 656. Notice of, 365ra. 
Cooke, Elisha, H.C., 1697, ii. 176, 183, 184;. 

ix. 195. 
Cooke, Francis, iii. 20w, 449, 453, 455. 
Cooke, Col. George, vii. 385, 386, 387, 388, 
. 389. Slain, vi. 286; vii. 458. 
Cooke, Rev. John, of Plymouth, iii. 449, 453,, 

Cooke, Joseph, vii. 465. 
Cooke, Sir John, iii. 457. 
Cooke, Rev. John, Jr., iv. 475; viii. 251, 

252. Notice of, 251w. 
Cooke, Robert, vii. 381, 382, 383, 384. 
Cooley, Isaac, his wife, v. 475. 
Cooley, William, vi. 346. 
Coolidge, Joseph, Member M. H. S., i. p.. 

Cooly, William, vi. 523. 
Coope, Sergt., ix. 294. 
Cooper, — — , 1646, vi. 381. 

Cooper, , 1658, 1660, vii. 499, 518. 

Cooper, Capt., of ship Devonshire, v. 330. 

Cooper, Mr., 1675, viii. 228. 

Cooper, Benjamin, the father, i. 99; vi. 132.. 

Cooper, Benjamin, the son, i. 99. 

Cooper, Mrs. Elizabeth, i. 99. 

Cooper, Francis, i. 99. 

Cooper, Humility, iii. 449, 453. 

Cooper, John, viii. 694. 

Cooper, Lawrance, i. 99. 

Cooper, Mary, i. 99. 

Cooper, Moses, v. 377. 

Cooper, Myles, D.D., iv. 403. 




Cooper, Rebecca, i. 99; vi. 56, 107, 132,143, 

Cooper, Ruth, vii. 199. 
Cooper, Samuel, D.D., i. 266; iv. 371, 372, 

Letter of, 373. 
Cooper, Thomas, letter to Th. Hinckley, v. 2. 
Cooper, William, iv. 3, 14, 110, 121. Letter 

of, 68. Letter of Th. Gushing to, 365. 
Cooper, "William Durrant, F.S.A., Cor. 

Memo. M. H. S., iv. p. xxiii. ; v. p. xii. ; 

vi. p. xii.; vii. p. xii.; viii. p. xiii. ; ix. p. 

Cooxisset, v. 133. 
Cooxitt, v. 133, 134. 
Cope, Mr., 1662, viii. 197. 

Copeland, , Gov. of Bermuda, vii. 318. 

Copeland, Rev. Mr., 1619, ix. 59. 
Copeland, Rev. Patrick, Letter to, from Hugh 

Peter, vi. 98. 
Coppeler, Martin, v. 417. 
Coppin, Robert, pilot and master-gunner on 

the Mayflower, iii. 83. Deceived, 86. 
Coppinger, Henry, vi. 395, 396, 562. 
Coppinger, Mrs. Sarah, vi. 394, 395, 396. 
Corbet, John, viii. 2, 4, 5. 
Corbet, Sir John, vii. 632. 
Corbett, Rev. Dr., 1636, vi. 412. 
Corbett, Miles, vi. 566. Letter to John Win- 

throp, 576. Fac-simile of his signature, 

vi. plate 7. Notice of, 576m. Apprehended, 

viii. 188, 190, 193. 
Corbin, Gawin, x. 738. 
Corbin, Richard, x. 630. 
Corbitant, iii. 113. Hostile, 103. Takes 

Squan'-o, 103. Expedition against, 103. 

Makes peace, 104. 
Corlet, Ammi Ruhamah, i. 9. 
Corlet, Elijah, ii. 195. 
Corn. See Indian Corn. 
Cornel's Ferry, x. 806. 
Cornelius, John, ix. 4, 5, 55. 
Corner, Copt., 1766, x. 593. 
Cornwall, Capt, ii. 179, 183. 
Cornwallis, Capt., of Maryland, 1634, ix. 

Cornwallis, Gov. of Nova Scotia, 1749, x. 

Cornwallis, Lord, 1661, ii. 280, 281. 
Cornwallis, Lord, 1780, x. 808. 
Corwell, Ezekiel, iv. 126. 
Cor win, Hon. Jonathan, v. 337. 
Cory, John, and others, letter to James Al- 
len and others, viii. 695. 
Cosby (not Crosby), Sir William, Gov. of 

New York, x. 542. 

Cosman, , 1625?, vii. 632. 

Costa Rica, iv. 502. 

Costa de Macedo, Don Joaquim Jose" da, Cor. 

Memb. M. H. S., i. p. xvii.; iii. p. vi.; 

iv. p. xxii. ; v. p. x. ; vii. p. x. ; viii. p. 

xii. ; ix. p. xvi. 
Cottington, Gov. See Coddington. 
Cottington, Francis, Lord, iii. 456, 459. Em- 
braces, renounces, and re-embraces Cathol- 
icism, ix. 83, 114. 
Cotton, Mr., d. about 1677, viii. 588. 
Cotton, Mrs. Ann (Lake), viii. 314. 
Cotton, Elizabeth (?), viii. 253. 
Cotton, Mrs. Joanna (Rossiter), v. 190; viii. 

253. Letter from Cotton Mather to, 403. 

Notice of, 403». 
Cotton, Rev. John, of Boston, ii. 38, 56, 194, 

224; iii. 279, 822n; vi. 24, 28, 31, 80, 100, 

139, 155, 172, 227, 282, 291, 317, 357, 376, 

387m, 404w, 405, 445, 446, 465, 542, 569; 
vii. 1, 11, 100, 112, 182, 187, 448, 487m; 
viii. 11, 36, 45, 55, 110, 126m, 226«, 282, 
351m, 518m, 544m, 548, 549, 561, 641, 646m. 
His salary, i. 212. Mentioned in Seottow's 
Narrative, iv. 279, 283, 290, 295, 296, 307, 
325, 327. Norton's " Funeral Elegy " on, 
331, 332. His "Vindication of the Way 
of Congregational Churches," 297. His 
" Keyes of the Kingdom of Heaven," 325. 
His Abstract of Laws corrected bv Gov. 
Winthrop, 437, 444. Death of, vi. 155. 
Letter to Francis Hutchinson mentioned, 
313m. Cited, vii. 101. Letter to his wife, 
543. His paper on toleration asked for, 

Cotton, Rev. John, of Plymouth, son of John, 
of Boston, v. 12, 29, 61, 133, 240, 286, 305; 
viii. 18, 28, 114, 234, 263, 314, 351, 353, 
482, 495, 522m, 552, 581. Letters from, to 
Thomas Hinckley, v. 22, 55, 103, 189,278; 
to Mary Hinckley, 113 ; to his mother, viii. 
226 ; to Increase Mather, 228, 229, 230, 232, 
234, 236, 238, 239, 242, 244, 246, 248, 250, 
254, 255, 257; to Cotton Mather, 241, 243, 
247, 251, 252, 253. Letter from Cotton 
Mather to, 383; from John Davenport to, 
547; from Increase Mather, 689; from 
James Keith, 690. His opinion as to the 
disposal of Philip's son, 689. Death of, 
403. Notices of, 226m, 403». 

Cotton, John, of Yarmouth, son of John, of 
Plymouth, viii. 230, 232, 237, 240, 244, 246. 
Birth of his son, 258. 

Cotton, Rev. John, of Hampton, son of Sea- 
born, viii. 246, 359, 482, 522. Letter to In- 
crease Mather, 656. Notice of, 656m. 

Cotton, Margaret, viii. 543, 544. 

Cotton, Maria. See Mather, Mrs. 

Cotton, Marv, viii. 552. 

Cotton, Peter, iv. 284. 

Cotton, Rev. Roland, viii. 240, 244, 254, 682. 
Invited to Saco, 673. Notice of, 240m. 

Cotton, Mrs. Sarah. See Mather, Mrs. 

Cotton, Rev. Seaborn, i. 19; viii. 246m, 581, 
656m. Letter to Sarah Mather, 551; to 
Increase Mather, 552. Notice of, 551m. 

Cottrell, Stephen, x. 698. 

Couches Mill, x. 807. 

Council. See Connecticut, Massachusetts, 

Council, at Charlestown, 1678, viii. 91; at 
Plymouth, 1683-84, 252. 

Council for New England, iii. 225?*, 242, 

Couper, Cajrt., iv. 162h. 

Courts of Oyer and Terminer, x. 699. 

Covell, Sarah, v. 308. 

Covenant at Hartford, 1638, vi. 248. In 
Scotland, 48. Church covenant of Bos- 
ton, in relation to members dismissed, 
317. Church covenant, viii. 119. 

Covenant burnt in Scotland, viii. 174. 

Covenant, Renewal of, viii. 338, 353, 358, 

Covenanters, Persecution of, in Scotland, 
viii. 331, 332, 335. 

Covenant of redemption and reconciliation, 
viii. 97. 

Coventry, Henry, Secretary, v. 33. 

Coventrv, Sir John, Assaulton, viii. 217, 222. 

Coventrv, Thomas, iii. 213, 456, 459. Death 
of, vi."l67. 

Coventry, Sir William, viii. 215. 



Coventry, Conn., letter to the Donation 
Committee of Boston, iv. 100. Reply, 101. 

Cowbee, v. 580. 

Cowdall, John, vi. 323. 

Coweesett country, v. 80, 124. 

Cowitchee, v. 580. 

Cowls, Joseph, iv. 106, 107. 

Cows, Price of, in 1638, iii. 366; in 1639 40, 
376, 379. See also Cattle. 

Cowwesit Indians, vi. 242, 243, 252, 300, 309. 

Cox, , 1757, v. 448. 

Cox, , 1761, ix. 406. 

Cox, Copt, 1755, v. 414. 

Cox, Lieut, 1759, v. 556. 

Cox, James, killed, 1758, v. 456. 

Cox, Capt James, shipwrecked, v. 508. 

Cox, Dr. Thomas, vi. 281. 

Coxall, Mr. (John Coggeshall ?), vi. 226, 240. 

Coxe, George, viii. 176. 

Coxsall, Thomas. See Coggeshall. 

Coytmore, Lieut, slain by the Indians, v. 
550, 554. 

Crabe, Rev. Mr., iii. 58. 

Crackbone, Gilbert, his death, i. 15. 

Cradock, George, vi. 118re. 

Cradock, Matthew, Gov. of the Massachu- 
setts Company, ii. 250, 251, 252, 266, 267, 
268; vi. 13, 14, 216, 230; viii. 134re, 641w, 
642. Letters to John Winthrop, vi. 118, 
122, 125, 128. Fac-simile of his signature, 
vi. plate 2. Notice of, 118rc. Offer of 50Z. 
towards the establishment of Harvard 
College, 130. Order to John Jolliff, 124. 

Cradock, Rev. Samuel, Notice of, viii. 641w. 
Letters to Increase Mather, 641, 643. His 
" History of the New Testament Method- 
ized," 643. 

Cradock, Walter, viii. 641w. 

Crafton, Robert, Letters of, to Benj. Frank- 
lin, x. 764, 766; to J. Searle, 767. 

Crafts, Thomas, Jr., iv. 2, 37, 215, 256, 275. 

Cragin, John, iv. 200, 202. 

Crakston, John, iii. 448, 452. 

Crakston, John, Jr., iii. 448, 452. 

Cranch, Judge William, ii. 135. 

Crandall, John, vii. 586. His wife, 586. 
Prosecution of, in Boston, ii. 27, 30, 32, 
42, 43, 56, 70. 

Crane, Mistress, vi. 560. 

Crane, Jasper, vii. 403, 406, 499. 

Crane, John, vii. 540. 

Crane, Sir Robert, vi. 453, 567. 

Cranfield, Edward, Lieut-Gov. of New Hamp- 
shire, v. 71, 75, 82, 94, 116, 119; viii. 360, 
387, 525, 618. Letter to Thomas Hinck- 
\zy, v. 121. His persecution of Noncon- 
formists in New Hampshire, viii. 57w, 363, 

Cranfield, Sir Lionel, ix. 35. 

Cranmer, George, i. 65. 

Cranson, Dep.-Gov. John, vii. 291. 

Cranston, Reply of the Boston Donation 
Committee to, iv. 170. 

Crashaw, Capt. Raleigh, ix. 25. 

Crashaw, Rev. W., i. 115». 

Crawford, , 1761, ix. 435. 

Crawford, James, killed by Indians, v. 548. 

Crawford, Mrs. Susanna, Apparition of, viii. 

Creaghead, Rev. Mr., of Freetown, i. 256. 

Creek Indians, v. 549. Hostilities of the, 
555, 576 Murder by the, 577. Upper 
Creek Indians, 576. Upper Creek towns, 

Cresap, Col., x. 719. His son killed, v. 

Crispe, John, Letter to, from John Dye and 
others, vii. 91«. Letter of, 96ra. 

Crispe, Tobias, D.D., viii. 546. 

Crispe, Zachary, vii. 312. 

Crittenden, John J., LL.D., Hon. Memb. M. 
H. S., v. p. xii. ; vi. p. xii. His death, 
vii. p. xiii. 

Croatan, Va., i. 224. 

Crock, Justice, 1637, vi. 563. 

Crocker, Deacon Job ( ? ), 1677, v. 13. 

Crocker, John, iv. 101. 

Crofton, Rev. Zechariah, imprisoned, viii. 
197, 223. 

Croghan, Col. George, ix. 254, 259, 269, 272, 
274, 275, 282, 283, 299, 301, 306, 328, 342, 
343, 360, 380, 382, 384, 388, 390, 397, 402, 
408, 411, 413, 414, 419, 434, 438, 461; x. 

508. Letters of, to , ix. 246 ; to Major 

Gates, 247, 251, 260, 266. Indian intelli- 
gence from, 261. His Journal, 283-289, 

Crohon, Dennis, x. 606. 

Croizen, M., v. 340. 

Croker, Thomas, vii. 233. 

Cromett, Jeremiah, v. 333. 

Crompton, Dennis, vii. 559. 

Cromwell ?, Lord, viii. 197. 

Cromwell, Henry, viii. 181. 

Cromwell, Jacobus, v. 508. 

Cromwell, Oliver, Protector, ii. 120; iv. 470; 
V. 319; vii. 287, 418, 420, 432, 436,458, 
463, 473, 502n, 587w,589;vi. 77,285, 2S9n, 
290, 325re, 362, 363, 509n, 536re; viii. 122ra, 
200, 214, 378n, 687; x. 833. Letter from 
New-England ministers to, on his appli- 
cation for settlers in Ireland, ii. 115-118. 
Instructions to Major Sedgwick, 230. 
Successes in Ireland, 1649-50, vi. 75. At 
Wexford and Drogheda, 279. Sends an 
expedition against Hispaniola and Cuba, 
1655, 289, 291. Speech at the opening of 
Parliament, 1654, mentioned, 293, 294. 
His death, vii. 590, 591. 

Cromwell, Richard, vii. 502. Chosen Pro- 
tector, 591. His character, 591. 

Cromwell, Capt Thomas, and his crew, iii. 
441. (Crumwell), Homicide by, vi. 178. 

Crooke, Samuel, B.D., viii. 77. 

Crosby, , i. 60. 

Crosby. See Cosby. 

Crose, Daniel, guilty of murder, iii. 362. 

Crosman, Robert, Jr., v. 231, 238. 

Cross, Joseph, v. 302. 

Cross, Mrs. Mary. See Morey, Mrs. 

Cross in the ensign, defaced by Endecott, vi. 
131, 132. 

Croston, Mr., 1760, ix. 337, 339. 

Crouch, , M.P., 1670, viii. 219. 

Crouchley, Thomas, ix. 1. 

Crowne, Mr., 1680, v. 34. 

Crowninshield, Edward A., iii. 206. 

Crown Point, v. 368, 370, 388, 393, 394, 395, 
411, 434, 465, 466, 468, 478, 499, 500, 501, 
516, 523, 531, 533, 535, 537, 538, 540, 541, 
547, 565, 570, 573, 574; ix. 239, 300, 302, 
303, 341, 458 ; x. 594. Engagement with 
Indians at, v. 378. Fort built at, 388. 
Intended expedition against, 1755, 392. 
Evacuation of, b}^ the French, 500, 545. 
New fort at, 516, 518. Description of, 540. 
Called also Fort Frederick, 515, 516, 541. 
That name given it by the French, 540. 



Cruelty of the Indians towards their prison- 
ers, v. 318, 403, 410, 411,437,556,561; 
ix. 176. 

Cruger, Mr., x. 499, 696. 

Crager, Messrs., x. 597. 

Cruger, Hiirrv, x. 567, 600. 

Cruger, John, x. 582, 602. 

Crum, Samuel, vi. 180. 

Crump, Lieut.- CoL, English Gov of Guada- 
loupe, v. 493. 

Cramp, aprinter, viii. 428. 

Crygier (Uruyer, Cryar), Martin, vii. 61, 63. 
Notice of, 61??. 

Cudworth, Maj.-Gen. James, i. 20; iii. 301n; 
v. 31, 65, 66, 74, 80; viii. 251. Notices 
of, vii. 42n; viii. 251». 

Cudworth, Jonathan, v. 40. 

Culberton's Fort, Indian hostilities at, v. 479. 

Culgar, Capt., 1767, x. 597. 

Cullen, James, viii. 632re. 

Cullen, Thomas, letters to Increase Mather, 
viii. 632, 634. 

Cullett (Cullick?), Capt., 1657, vii. 82. 

Cullick, Mrs., Death of, 1647, viii. 545. 

Cullick, Capt John, vii. 82 (?), 451, 465, 
471, 513. John Davenport and William 
Goodwin, letter to John Winthrop, Jr., 

Culpepper, Lord Thomas, v. 52, 67, 75, 100. 

Culver, Mr., 1716, viii. 421. 

Culver's Root, viii. 420, 425. 

Culverwell, Rev. Ezekiel, viii. 77. 

Cumberland, R. I., vi. 299». 

Cumberland, Fort. See Fort Beausejour 
and Fort Cumberland. 

Cumberland County, Pa., iv. 144; v. 410, 
413, 425, 428. Indian hostilities in, 421, 
422, 446; ix. 410. 

Cumberland County, Va., iv. 181; v. 414. 

Cummins, Leonard, of Litchfield, v. 539. 

Cund, a sea term, iii. 140. 

Cunningham, Capt, 1760, ix. 304, 471. 

Cunningham, Mr., 1775, i. 266. 

Cunningham, Mr., killed, 1712, v. 333. 

Cunningham, Waddel, vs. Forsey, x. 536, 
540, bUfoll, 579. 

Cuppunaugunnit, vi. 200. 

"Curiosa Americana," by Cotton Mather, 
viii. 455. 

Curlow, Jacob, vi. 267. 

Currency, Colonial, x. 644. Tobacco, in Vir- 
ginia, ix. 133n. 

Curtenius, Peter T., Letters of, to the Bos- 
ton Donation Committee, iv. 163, 164. 
Letter to, from Samuel Adams, 165 ; from 
P. Boyer. 272. 

Curtis, Mr., 1688, viii. 517, 519. 

Curtis, George T., Member M. IT. S., v. p. 
ix. ; vi. p. ix. ; Cor. Memb. M. H. S., viii. 
p. xiii.; x. p. xvii. 

Curtis, John, v. 40. 

Curtis, William, i. 94, 95. 

Cushenoc. See Augusta. 

Cushing, Caleb, LL.D., Member M. H. S., 
v. p. ix. ; vi. p. ix. ; vii. p. ix. ; viii. p. x. ; 
ix. p. xiv. 

Cashing, Thomas, iv. 2, 40, 157, 171, 182, 
185, 187, 188, 239, 244, 275, 368, 371, 372, 
379, 428, 456. Letters of, to De Berdt, 347- 
356; to Stephen Saver, 356; to Roger 
Sherman, 358; to Arthur Lee, 360,361; 
to Joseph Reed, 363; to Wm. Cooper, 
364. Letter from Joseph Hawley to, 393- 

Cushing, Ch. Justice William, iv. 338. 

Cushman, Mrs. Mary (Allerton), iii. 455. 

Cushman, Robert, i. 133, 137; iii. 203; viii. 
231». Twice an agent to England, iii. 30, 
31, 43, 44, 47. Letters from, 36, 51, 54, 56, 
143, 160. Character of his negotiations, 
45, 48, 50, 60,_ 62. Answers complaints, 
51, 56, 60. Discouraged and disposed to 
remain, 54, 70, 72. His sermon at Ply- 
mouth, 55?i. His letter to Southworth, 71. 
Assistant in the Mayflower, 72. Passen- 
ger in the Fortune, 105, 114. Returns in 
the Fortune, 108, 122. Captured, 110, 122. 
Condemns Weston's colonists, 122. Pat- 
ent of Cape Ann in the name of, 168. 
Extract from a letter to, 191ra. Writes to 
Bradford, 201. His death, 206. Notice 
of, 206n. 

Cushman, Elder Thomas, iii. 201 ; v. 61 ; viii. 

Cussens, John, vii. 370. 

Custologa, an Indian, ix. 284, 285. 

Custologa's Town, ix. 268, 269, 272, 285, 
289, 321. 

Customers, ix. 139, 140. 

Custom-house in America, ix. 469 foil. 

Cuthbertson, Cuthbert, iv. 475. 

Cutler, Manasseh, LL. D., Member M. H. S., 
i. p. v. ; ii. p. v. ; iv. p. vii. 

Cutler, Timothy, D.D., i. 33. 

Cutshamakin, a Sagamore, iii. 438, 440,441; 
vi. 197, 248, 258. 

Cutt, Mr., 1724, v. 352. 

Cutt, Edward, iv. 216. 

Cuttaquene, Alleged attempt of, to murder 
Uncas, vi. 268-270. Sentenced by the 
commissioners, 343?i. 

Cutter, William, of Newcastle, 1654, Letter 
of, ii. 195. 

Cutter, William, of North Yarmouth, 1774, 
iv. 160. 

Cutting, John, vii. 10, 12, 21, 221, 476. 

Cutts, Mrs., 1683, v. 119. 

Cutts, Samuel, iv. 228. 

Cyprianus, St., viii. 76. 


D., J., Mr., 1682, v. 63. 

D., J., " Exposition of the Lord's Prayer," 

viii. 77. 
D., T., Mr., 1682, v. 64. 
Dade, J// 1 ., excommunicates Ferdinando 

Adams, vi. 432. 
Daggett, Napthali, Pres. of Yale College, ii. 

Daggett, Th. See Doggett. 
Dagworthv, Lieut.-Col, 1758, v. 4S1. 
Dale, Sir Thomas, ix. 1, 2, 5, 6, 28, 38, 39, 

40-46, 51, note after p. 488. Account of, 

52-59. His death, 59. 
Dale, Br. Valentine, appointed commissioner 

to treat with the Duke of Parma, ix. 52. 
Dalrymple, Col., iv. 371. 
Dalton, or Daulton, Rev. Mr., deprived, 

1637, vi. 563. 
Dalton, Michael, his " Countrv Justice," v. 

164; vi. 382. 
Dalton, Rev. Timothy, i. 212. Death of, viii. 

Dalvel, Capt., 1763, ix. 485. His death, x. 




Daman, Daniel, v. 40. 

Damaris Cove, Indian hostilities at, v. 341, 

Damariscove Islands, iv. 474, (Damorall's 
Cove) 478. 

Daraiscove Island, Me.,i. 234ft. 

Dammon, vi. 520. 

Damulic language, New Testament printed 
in the, viii. 445. 

Dana, Mrs. Matilda (Webber), ill- 247ft. 

Dana, Prof. James F., iii. 247ft. 

Dana, Richard H., Jr., Member M. H. S., v. 
p. ix. ; vi. p. ix. ; vii. p. ix. ; viii. p. x. ; 
ix. p. xiv. 

Dana, Judge Samuel, iv. 339. 

Danbury, Conn., Donation to Boston, 1774, 
iv. 16ft. 

Danby, Thomas, Earl of, Impeachment of, 
viii. 19, 346. 

Dande, Thomas, vi. 561. 

Dane, Nathan, LL.D., Member M. H. S., i. 
p. ix. 

Danforth, Mr., viii. 546. 

Danforth, Mrs. Hannah (Allen), viii. 373ft. 

Danforth, Rev. John, viii. 38. 

Danforth (Danford), Lydia. See Beaman, 

Danforth, Rev. Samuel, of Rozbury, v. 15, 
167 ; viii. 546 ?. Letter to Thomas Hinck- 
ley, v. 166. 

Danforth, Rev. Samuel, of Taunton, viii. 
373. Letter of, to C. Mather, to be com- 
municated to the ministers in Boston, i. 
255-260. Notices of, 255 ; viii. 373ft. 

Danforth, Dep.-Gov. Thomas, i. 10-12, 15, 
21; v. 1, (Danford) 68; vii. 160ft; viii. 
388ft, 501, 538, 546?, 709. Letters to In- 
crease Mather, 504, 505, 506, 507. Notice 
of, 504ft. 

Dangerfield, alias Willoughby, informer, 
1679, viii. 25, 26. 

Daniel, Capt., 1678, viii. 246. 

Daniel, CapL, 1689, v. 215. 

Daniel, Benjamin, killed, at Winter Harbor, 
v. 316. 

Daniel, Peter, ii. 262. 

Danks, Capt., 1759, v. 522. 

Danks, Capt. Isaac, 1775, iv. 257. 

Daphne, ship, x. 793. 

Darby, Lieut.- Col, 1760, ix. 348. 

Darby, George, viii. 62. 

Darley, Henry, vii. 163. 

Dartmouth, Eng., Pilgrims at, iii. 68-74. 

Dartmouth, Mass., i. 255, 256, 257; v. 9, 10, 
241, 242, 247, 291, 295; vi. 342. 

Dartmouth, William Legge, Earl of iv. 361, 
368; x. 697, 700, 749, 771. Letters of, to 
Gov. Gage, 712. 713,716; to Lord Dun- 
more, 718, 720, 721, 723, 724, 728, 734, 
735, 736, 737; to Gov. Penn, 729, 730, 
731, 732. Extract of letter of, 718. Let- 
ters to, from Gov. Eden, 692 ; Gov. Mar- 
tin, 698; Lord Dunmore, 718, 720, 721; 
Gov. Franklin, 708; Gen. Gage, 713. 

Darrell, John, i. 100. 

Dashwood, Capt., 1767, iv. 405. 

Dashwood, Samuell, ii. 262. 

Davaux, Count, viii. 712. 

Daveis, Charles S., v. 360ft. Cor. Memb. 
M. H. S., iii. p. vi. ; iv. p/xxiii.; v. p. 
xi. ; vi. p. xi. ; vii. p. xi. His death, viii. 
p. xiv. 

Davenport, Lieutenant, 1637, iii. 359. 

Davenport, Mr., 1646, vi. 379. 

Davenport, Mr., 1664, vi. 296. 

Davenport, Mrs. Abigail, viii. 264, 266, 307. 

Davenport, James, ii. 154. 

Davenport, Rev. John, iv. 296 ; vi. 4, 76, 94, 
165, 325ft, 357, 492; vii. 15, 150, 469, 471, 
589; viii. 55, 68, 76, 122, 123ft, 184, 187, 
190, 263, 266, 469ft, 614. Arrival of, in 
New England, vi. 344ft. Letters to John 
Winthrop, Jr., vii. 489-520, 521-532. Let- 
ter to Elizabeth Winthrop, 520. Fac- 
similes of his signature and seal, vii. plate 
10. Letter to William Goodwin, viii. 126 ; 

to , 181, 192, 202; to William 

Goffe, 198; to Mrs. Sarah Cotton, 546; 
to John Cotton, 547. Letters to, from 
Walter Fyler, 172; from Robert New- 
man, 173, 183, 201; from L Mr. Lang, 173; 
from John Winthrop, Jr., 174, 183; from 
William Hooke, 177, 194, 207 ; from Mr. 
Brooks, 181, 185. Letter found at his 
house, 186. Letters from Increase Mather, 
188, 205; from Humphrev Davie, 202, 
203, 204. Notices of, vii. 487ft ; viii. 126ft. 

Davenport, John, Jr., viii. 264, 266. 

Davids, James, pseudonym used by Col. 
John Dixwell, viii. 127ft, 164ft. 

David's Fort, Invasion of, v. 410. 

Davidson, William, iii. 409, 410. 

Davie (Davy), Humphrey, viii. 190, 198. 
Extracts from letters of, to John Daven- 
port, 202, 203, 204. Notice of, 190ft. 

Davie, Sir John, viii. 190. 

Davies, Capt., viii. 170. 

Davies, Benjamin, viii. 621, 639. 

Davies, James, i. 240, 241. 

Davies, John, vii. 161. 

Davies, Sir John, indicted for high treason, 
viii. 29. 

Davies, Capt R., i. 234, 240, 242, 245, 

Davies, Sir William, viii. 29. 

Davis, CapL, 1712, v. 334. 

Davis, Capt, 176- iv. 403; x. 521, 535, 
536, 569, 581, 582, 588, 593. 

Davis, Mr., 1654, vii. 488. 

Davis, Mr., of New Haven, 1682, viii. 609. 

Davis, Mr., 1775, iv. 197. 

Davis, Mrs., d. 1678, v. 28. 

Davis, Mrs. Catherine (Wendell), iv. 492. 

Davis, Daniel, Member M. H. S., i. p. v.; 
ii. p. v.; iv. p. vii. 

Davis, Eleazer, of Concord, v. 358. 

Davis, Hon. George T., Member M. H. S., 
iv.p. xxi. ; v. p. viii.; vi. p. viii.; vii. p. 
viii. ; viii. p. x. ; ix. p. xiv. 

Davis, Isaac P., ii. 238. Member M. H. S., 
i. p. ix. ; ii. p. xvii. ; Cabinet-keeper, p. 

Davis, Sergeant John, messenger to Narra- 
gansett Indians, iii. 432. 

Davis, John, H. C, 1651, lost at sea, vii. 35ra, 

Davis, Judge John,i. 85.; iv. 493, 494. Cited, 
ii. 156, 157; iii. 88, 131, 206, 315; viii. 
233ft, 689. Member M. H. S., i. p. v.; 
ii. p. v. ; iv. p. vii. ; President, p. xx. ; on 
the Standing Com., p. xx. ; on the Com- 
mittee of Publication of vol. 6, 9, 1st Se- 
ries; vol. 1, 4, 7, 2d Series, p. xxi. Notes 
by, v. 162, 187, 256. Some errors of, iii. 
372, 373. On the community of property, 
iii. 135. 

Davis, Deacon Joseph, iv. 267. 

Davis, Moses, v. 350. 



Davis, Nathaniel Morton, Member M. H. S., 
i. p. x. Memoir of, by N. Mitchell, iv. 

Davis, .Ifrs. Rebecca (Morton), iv. 492. 

Davis, Samuel, iv. 493, 494. Member M. H. 
S., i. p. vii. 

Davis, Capt. Sylvanus, v. 213. 

Davis, Thomas, iv. 492. 

Davis, William, iv. 492. 

Davis, lion. William T., Member M. H. S-, 
ix. p. xv. 

Davis Papers, Letters from the, vii. 88-98, 

Davison, Capt, v. 322. 

Davison, Christopher, ix. 15. 

Dawes, Abraham, ix. 140. 

Dawson, Dr., 1767, iv. 413. 

Dawson, Henfy B., Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
vii. p. xii. ; viii. p. xiii.; ix. p. xvii. 

Dawson, William, i. 66. 

Day, Stephen, commences printing at Cam- 
bridge, 1638, vi. 99. Letter from William 
Pynchon to, 376. Notice of, 376n. 

Day, Hon. Thomas, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., i. 
p. xviii. 

Deacons, Office of, viii. 11. 

Deale, , 1763 foil, ix. 483, 486, 488; x. 

489, 490, 491, 501, 515, 519. 

Dean, James, LL.D., Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
i. p. xvi. 

Dean, William, vii. 410. 

Deane, Capt., 1759, v. 505. 

Deane, Charles, i. 110; iv. p. vi.; Member 
M. H. S., i. p. xi. ; ii. p. xvii. ; iii. p. v. ; iv. 
p. xxi. ; v. p. viii. ; vi. p. viii. ; vii. p. viii. ; 
vi!i. p. x. ; ix. p. xiv. ; on the Standing 
Com., ii. p. xvi. ; iii. p. iv. ; on the Commit- 
tee of Publication of vol. 2, 4th Series, ii. p. 
xvi. ; vol. 3, 4th Ser., iii. p. iv. ; vol. 6, 
4th Ser., vi. p. vi. ; vol. 7, 4th Ser., vii. p. 
ii.; Rec. Sec, vii. p. vii.; viii. p. ix.; 
ix. p. xiii; on the Standing Com., i. p. 
xxi. Notes by, ii. 115, 119. Notes on 
the first Plvmouth patent, 156, 157, 163. 

Deane, Sir John, Death of, vii. 632rc, 633. 

Deane, Admiral Richard, 1653, vii. 463. 

Deane, Silas, iv. 49. 

Deane, Walter, v. 6 ; and others, to Thomas 
Hinckley, 234. 

Dearborn, Mrs., d. 1826, ii. 154. 

Dearing, George, deposition relating to 
Robert Nash, vii. 368. 

De Berdt, Dennys, iv. 439, 451. Letters of 
T. Cushing to, 347, 350-352, 356. Grant 
of the Massachusetts legislature to, 349, 
358. His accounts, x. 717. 

Debt, Attachment for, x. 690. 

Declaration concerning lawful sports to be 
used, by King James I., vi. 411. 

Declaration of Indulgence, 1663, viii. 207; 
1672, 144. 

Declaration of James II. for liberty of con- 
science, viii. 67, 114, 507, 508n, 666, 668, 
670, 697, 698, 700, 712. 

Declaratory Act, The, iv. 362. 

Dedham, Eng., vi. 412, 413, 452, 454. 

Dedham, Mass., i. 15-18, 20,201, 212; iv. 
364; v. 284n; vi. 81; vii. 326. 

Deerfield, Ufass., sufferings from the In- 
dians, ii. 235, 237; v. 318, 350, 372. 

Deering, Mrs.. 1723, v. 346. 

Deering, Col. Thomas, i. 45. 

Deer Island, vii. 536; viii. 517. 

De Foe, Daniel, his narrative of the appari- 

tion of Mrs. Veal, viii. 422n. His account 

of the storm of Nov., 1702, 457n. 
De Haas, Capt, ix. 331, 332, 413, 432, 434. 
De la Chasse (Delachase), Pierre, v. 340. 
De Lancey, Capt., 1760, ix. 319. 
De Lancey, Mr., his pamphlet, 1765, x. 584. 
De Lancey, Mrs., 1760, ix. 319. 
De Lancey, Lieut.-Gov. James, ix. 277, 300, 

304; x. 599, 602. Letters of, to R. Monck- 

ton, ix. 237, 238. 
De Lancey, Jemmy, ix. 303, 304. 
Delancev^ Oliver, ix. 477 ; x. 491, 696. Letter 

of, to Gen. Monckton, 569. 
De Lancey, Stephen, x. 549. 
De Lancey and Watts, ix. 485, 488; x. 501, 

544, 573. 
Delancy, James, x. 560. 

Delaval, , 1669, vii. 316. 

Delaware, vi. 335, 363 ; viii. 600 ; x. 801, 807. 

Proposed settlements of, ii. 24 ; vi. 94 ; from 

Connecticut, 1654, vii. 419, 420, 549. Ex- 
pedition to, 1664, and surrender of the 

Dutch, 309, 310. 
Delaware Bay, x. 733, 783. Capt. Young's 

voyage to Delaware Bay and River, in 

1634, ix. 81-131. He calls it Charles River, 

Delaware Indians, v. 430; ix. 248, 258, 266, 

289, 310, 312, 368, 411, 423, 424, 426, 431, 

434, 440; x. 518, 524, 723. 
Delaware River, v. 457, 460; ix. 81, 115, 

131; x. 730, 801, 825. 
Delaware troops, ix. 354; x. 800. 
De la Warre, Lady, ix. 28, 36. 
De la Warre, Lord, i. 222; ix. 1-6, 10, 13, 

14, 17, 22, 28, 32, 35, 36, 38, 50, 51, 55, 67. 
De la Warre, vessel, ix. 4, 55. 
Delft Haven, iii. 59. 

Dell, Mrs. Elizabeth (Bright), vii. 385n. 
Dell, Rev. William, his books burnt at Bos- 
ton, 1654, vi. 291. 
Dellingan, Mr., 1637, vi. 563. 
Dellius, Domine, i. 106. 
Demere, Capt., 1759, v. 535; ix. 337, 341. 
Demick, Capt., v. 403. 
" Demonstration of Love," by W. Codding- 

ton, vi. 312w. 
Deney, Rev. Thomas, i. 15. 
Denham, Mr., viii. 215. 
Denis, William, v. 220. 
Denison, Maj.-Gen. Daniel, i. 209; iv. 448; 

vi. 296; viii. 533, 586. Notice of, 533re. 
Denison, Mrs. Patience (Dudley), viii. 533n. 
Denison, Dr. Stephen, vi. 15. 
Denmark, Invasion of, by Tilly, 1627, vi. 33. 

Invasion of, bv the king of Sweden, 1627- 

28, 85. 
Dennis, Capt, expedition against Virginia, 

1651, vi. 363. 
Dennis, John, iv. 21. 
Dennv, Gov., 1760, ix. 278, 304, 306, 320, 

Denny, Henry G., A.M., Member M. H. S., 

viii. p. xi.; ix. p. xv. ; Cabinet-keeper, 

viii. p. ix. ; ix. p. xiii. 
Dent, ^^r., 1674, viii. 270. 
Dent, Rev. Arthur, viii. 77. 
Denton, Daniel (Ricbard?), his "Divine 

Soliloquy," viii. 630. 
Denys, Nicolas, Gov. of Canada, iv. 464, 

46*6?*, 470. 
Denys, Simon, iv. 470. 
Denvson, Daniel, ii. 117. 
Deptford, shij), v. 313. 



Derby, Capt, 1774, iv. 135, 142. 

Dering, Sir Edward, Death of, viii. 525. 

Desaussure, Hon. Henry William, Cor. 
Memb. M. H. S., i. p. xii. 

Desborough, John, vii. 502. 

Desbrough, John, viii. 215. 

Desenclares, M., ix. 233, 234. 

Desenclats, Desinclot, or Disenclot, M., ix. 
230, 232, 236. 

Desertion, ix. 436, 439. 

Desire, ship, vii. 22, 332. 

Desire of New England, vessel, vi. 128. 

Desne, Col., 1711, v. 328. 

Detroit, v. 438, 541 ; ix. 247, 249-252, 260- 
262, 266, 267, 275, 276, 283, 287, 288, 294, 
309, 312, 314, 318, 322, 328, 340, 342-345, 
347, 348, 352, 359, 360, 362, 363, 365-370, 
378, 380-386, 389, 391-395, 399, 405-408, 
411, 414, 416, 418, 419, 424, 425, 427, 430, 
432-436,438, 439, 483, 485; x. 489,491, 

Detroit Indians, ix. 282, 430. 

Deverson, Capt, 1768, iv. 427, 429,435. 

Devonshire, ship, v. 330, 445. 

Devotion, Ebenezer, iv. 7. 

Dewarken, Jacobus, v. 508. 

D'Ewes, Sir Simonds, vi. 551w, 575. Ex- 
tracts from his autobiography, i. 247-250. 
Notice of, 247. 

D'Ewes, Sir Willoughby, Bart, i. 247. 

De Witt, Benjamin, M.D., Cor. Memb. 
M. H. S., i. p. xiii. 

Dewitts, John, Attempted assassination of, 
1672, viii. 145. 

Dexter, Mr., vii. 197, 198. 

Dexter, Aaron, M.D., Member M. H. S., i. 
p. v.; ii. p. v.; iv. p. vii.; on the Com- 
mittee of Publication of vol. 3, 1st Series, 
p. xxi. 

Dexter, Henry M., D.I)., Member M. H. S., 
ix. p. xv. 

Dexter, Thomas, vii. 362. 

Dexter, Samuel, LL.D., d. 1816, iv. 339. 

Dick, Anthony, vii. 398. 

Dick, Charles, iv. 210, 211. 

Dick and Stewart, x. 621, 624. 

Dickens, , 1651, vii. 284. 

Dickenson, John, iv. 148w. 

Dickerson, Feleaman, i. 99. 

Dickinson, John, iv. 433. 

Dickinson, Nathaniel, v. 373. 

Dicks, , 1690, v. 273. 

Dieskau, Baron Johann Armand, v. 394. 

Dietericus, Conrad, yiii. 77. 

Dieudon (Doudon), v. 491, 492. 

Digby, Lord, viii. 188, 208, 210. His arrival 
in London, 213. 

Digby, Sir Kenelm, vi. 116 ; vii. 588, 593. 

Digges, , 1774, x. 703. 

Dighton Rock, ii. 142. 

Dike, Anthony, vi. 189, 190, 371. 

Dike, Jeremiah. See Dyke. 

Dill, George, of Salem, vi. 573. 

Dillingham, Mr., 1634, vi. 496, 498. 

Dillingham, Mrs., vii. 253. 

Dillingham, Edward, vi. 40 6 , 54, 55; vii. 253. 

Dillwyn, , 1775, x. 768. 

Dimmon, Zachariah, v. 40. 

Dimon, Rev. James, iv. 198. 

Dimon, Moses, viii. 628. 

Dinwiddie, , killed by Indians, 1756, v. 


Directory, Order of the, for the ordination of 
ministers, viii. 53w. 

Disborough, Lord, vii. 502. 

Disborough, Nicholas, Remarkable occur- 
rences to, viii. 86. 

Discovery, vessel, ix. 5, 19. 

Disney, John, D.D., Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
i. p. xiv. 

Disney, John, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., i. p. 
xvii. ; iii. p. vi. ; iv. p. xxii. ; v. p. x. : 
vi. p. x. His death, vii. p. xiii. 

Dissenters in England persecuted, v. 103 
persecuted in New Hampshire, viii. 57m 
479; in Bristol, 618; in England and Ire- 
land, liberty granted to, 666, 667 ; of New 
England, memorial of the, 699. 

Distilling in Salem, vi. 69. 

" Divine Afflations," by Cotton Mather, viii. 

" Divine Soliloquy," by Denton, viii. 630. 

"Divine Tragedy (A), lately acted; or, A 
Collection of Sundry Memorable Exam- 
ples of God's Judgments upon Sabbath- 
breakers," by Prynne, vi. 414. 

Dix, Abegell, i. 97. 

Dix, Abigail, baptized, viii. 666n. 

Dix, Deborah, baptized, viii. 666w. 

Dix, Mrs. Dorothy, ii. 136. 

Dix, Edward, baptized, viii. 666ra. 

Dix, Dr. Elijah, ii. 136. 

Dix, Elizabeth, baptized, viii. 666w. 

Dix, Mrs. Joane, i. 97. 

Dix, John, ii. 140. 

Dix, John, viii. 666rc. 

Dix, John, Jr., baptized, viii. 666w. 

Dix, Maj.-Gen. John A., Hon. Memb. M. 
H. S., vii. p. xii.; viii. p. xiii.; ix. p. 

Dix, Joseph, baptized, viii. 666ra. 

Dix, Miss Mary, ii. 136. 

Dix, Priscilla (Presella), i. 97. 

Dix, Samuel, i. 97. 

Dixie, Ensign, 1652, vi. 80. 

Dixon, Lieut, 1757, v. 441. 

Dixon, Mr., 1775, i. 266. 

Dixon, Adam, ix. 31. 

Dixson, Rachell, i. 99. 

Dixwell, Col. John, viii. 122, 127n, 154. 
Letter to Increase Mather, 164. Notice of, 

Dixwell, John, Jr., viii. 165n. 

Dixy, Mr., 1640, vii. 333. 

Djer, i.e. Dyer, Samuel, vi. 303. 

Dobbins, Daniel, vi. 88. 

Dobbs, Gov. Arthur, ix. 349. Letter from, 
to Gen. Amherst, 289. 

Dobbs, William, ix. 469. 

Dockett, John, ii. 281. 

Dod, John, killed, 1748, v. 378. 

Dodd, John, 1640, vii. 226. 

Dodson, Anthony, v. 40. 

Dodswoth, Matthew, i. 75. 

Doeg Indians, ix. 165. 

Doged, Thomas, i. 101. 

Dogget, Henry, iv. 268. 

Doggett, Mrs. Joan or Jane (Chilling- 
worth), vii. 37w, 43. 

Doggett, Thomas, vii. 37. 

Dogharty, Mr., 1760, v. 550. 

Dogs sent to New England, vi. 491. 

Dolbeare, Benjamin, iv. 401. 

Dolphin, sloop, wrecked, 1759, v. 505. 

Dolphin, sloop, carries provision to Boston, 
1774, iv. 150, 156. 

Dolman, Thomas, ii. 292. 

Dominica, iv. 259 ; x. 672. 



Donahue (Donaheu), Capt., v. 371. 

Donald, Ensign, 1761, ix. 398. 

Donaldson, Thomas, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
i. p. xix. ; iii. p. vi.; iv. p. xxiii. ; v. p. 
x.; vi. p. x.; vii. p. x. ; viii. p. xii. ; ix. 
p. xvi. 

Donalson, John, iv. 149. 

Done (Doane?), vi. 67. 

Done, John, iv. 79, 82. 

Dongan, Thomas, Gov. of New York, v. 
161, 180; viii. 366ra. Letter to the Duke 
of York, ix. 187. 

Donne, George, ix. 134, 148. 

Donne, John, ix. 11. 

Dony, Old, an Indian, v. 273. 

Donve, Mr., 1638, vi. 571. 

Doolittle (Doelitle), vii. 503. 

Dorchester, Carolina, v. 305. 

Dorchester, Eng., ii. 215, 216; iii. 169w. 

Dorchester, Mass., i. 201, 212, 263, 264, 266, 
271, 272; iv. 474, 486, 491; v. 280n; 
vi. 81. 

Dorchester Fishing Company, iii. 169ra. 

Dorchester Mill, vi. 514. 

Dorchester Plantation, in Connecticut, vi. 
370,580. Loss of cattle in, 515. 

Dorman, Lieut., v. 440. 

Dormer, Capt., iv. 487. 

Dorney, Henry, viii. 513. 

Dorr, Judge Joseph, iv. 336, 337. 

Dorrington, Mr., 1775, i. 264. 

Dorset, Edward, Earl of, iii. 456, 459. 

Dorset County, Md., iv. 143. 

Dorsetshire, Strange appearances in, viii. 

Dort, Synod of, i. 128. 

Doty, Col, 1758, v. 464, 475. 

Douglass (Dugles), William, of New Lon- 
don, vii. 241. 

Douglass, Dr. William, Letters from, to 
Cadwallader Colden, ii. 164, 189. 

Doun, Lieut., 1780, x. 813. 

Douw, Volckert, Mayor of Albany, ix. 454, 
455. Letter of, to Col. Bradstreet, 457. 
Letters of Bradstreet to, 455, 456. 

Dove of Noah, viii. 436?i. 

Dover, i. 201, 212; iv. 144; vii. 443. Indian 
incursions on, v. 311, 334, 352, 354. 

Dover Castle, viii. 206. 

Dow, Lieut., 1761, ix. 407; x. 511. 

Dowden, Lemuel, viii. 47. 

Dowdeswell, Gov. W., Letter of, to G. 
Chalmers, x. 828. 

Dowe, Henry, i. 98. 

Dowe, Mrs. Joane, i. 98. 

Downame, John, B.D., viii. 77. 

Downes, , 1662, viii. 187. 

Downes, George, ix. 142. 

Downes, William, i. 78, 79. 

Downing, Mr., 1712, v. 335. 

Downing, Mrs. Anne (Ware), vi. 40 d n. 

Downing, Rev. Emanuel, father of Emanuel 
the lawyer (?), letter to James Usher, 
ii. 120. 

Downing, Emanuel, vi. 3, 11, 16, 30, 112, 
113, 115-117, 130, 138, 167, 511, 512, 516, 
518, 536n, 555, 564; vii. 2, 13, 14, 17, 20, 
127, 169, 392, 448, 449, 633. Bill of ex- 
change on, by Isaac Johnson, vi. 88, by 
John Winthrop, 87. Bond to John Win- 
throp, Jr., in relation to interest in the 
iron-works, 89. Deed to Thomas Vin- 
cent of his interest in the iron-works, 89. 
Letter to Hugh Peter, 58 ; to John Win- 

throp, 33, 34, 35, 37, 39, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 
52, 53, 54, 56, 64, 66, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 
73, 90; to John Winthrop, Jr., 36, 40, 
41, 42, 43, 44, 59, 62, 63, 68, 69, 71, 74, 

75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 83, 85; to Fitz 
John Winthrop, 84, 86, 87. Fac-similes 
of his signature and seal, vi. plate 1. 
Letter from Isaac Johnson to, 29. Pre- 
parations to embark for New England, 
488. Date of the birth of, 40 d n. Notice 
of, 33re. 

Downing, George, father of Emanuel the 

lawyer (?), vi. 40 d n. 
Downing, Sir George, Bart., vi. 33n, 40 d «, 

76, 78-81, 397n, 545n; viii. 193, 197. Hi8 
wealth, vi. 114. Letters to John Win- 
throp, Jr., 536, 540, 543. Fac-similes of 
his signature and seal, vi. plate 6. Let- 
ter from John Winthrop, Jr., to, 524. 
Notices of, 536ft; viii. 193m. Captures 
three regicides, 188. Death of, 525, 535. 

Downing, James, vi. 40 6 , A0 d n, 40", 49, 56, 

483; vii. 14, 16, 19. 
Downing, John, vi. 55, 138. 
Downing, Joshua, vi. 79. 
Downing, Lucy. See Norton, Mrs. 
Downing, Mrs. Lucy (Winthrop), vi. 11, 

Zon, 56, 65, 85, 147,488, 524, 525, 543, 544; 

vii. 14, 158, 159, 448, 449. Postscript to a 

letter from Emanuel Downing to John 

Winthrop, Jr., vi. 74. 
Downing, Mary. See Barnardiston, Mrs., 

and Stoddard, Mrs. 
Downing, Robert, vii. 277. 
Downing, Susan, vi. 40^«; vii. 14, 16, 20. 
Downing College, vi. 545«. 
Downs, Thomas, v. 327. 
Dowse, Mrs., 1662, viii. 203. 
Dowse, Thomas, iv. p. xix. 
Dowse Library, By-laws relating to the, 

iv. p. xix. 
Doxie, Katharine, vi. 284, 285. 
Doxie, Thomas, vi. 279, 280, 284, 285. 
Doyly, Br. Charles, ii. 281. 
Drabicius, Nicholas, Predictions of, viii. 43, 

Dragon, ship, v. 320. 
Dragonnades in France, viii. 355n. 
Drake, Abram, Jr., viii. 553. 
Drake, Sir Francis, vi. 477. 
Drake, John, vi. 579. 
Drake, Samuel G., viii. 518w. His " Indian 

Captivities " cited, v. 454?*. 
Draper, Henry, i. 87. 
Draper, Lyman C, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 

vi. p. xii. ; vii. p. xii. ; viii. p. xiii. ; ix. p. 

Drawbacks of duties on liquors, x. 640. 
Drawbridge, Fall of the, at Boston, 1659, vii. 

Dray, James, ix. 178. 
Drelincourt, Charles, A fictitious narrative 

prefixed by De Foe to the " Christian's 

Defence against the Fears of Death " of, 

viii. 422n. 
Dress in New England, 1636, vi. 450. 
Drew, John, v. 347. 
Drinking healths, vii. 270. 
Drought in Plymouth Colony, 1623, iii. 142; 

in England* 1636, vi. 408, 410; in New 

England, 1646, 66; 1704, viii. 645. 
Drucour, Chevalier de, Gov. of Louisburg, 

v. 473, 474. 
Drummond, Mr., 1729, ii. 185. 



Drummond, a Scot, ix. 170. 

Drummond, Colin, x. 582, 587. 

Drusius, Johannes, viii. 408. 

Duane, Mr., 1765, x. 563. 

Dublin, Siege of, vi. 75. Eelief sent from, 
to New England, 1676, viii. 9, 56w, 690. 
Ecclesiastical commissioners in, 550. 
Letter from John Eliot and others to the 
churches in, 690. 

Dublin Castle, Plot for surprising, viii. 211. 

Ducasse, Lieut.-Gen. Jean Baptiste, viii. 

Duche\ Rev. Jacob, x. 759. 

Duchess of Gordon, ship, x. 776, 778. 

Duchfield, Mr., 1640, vii. 227, 228. 

Duck-hunting by the Indians, v. 339. 

Duckworth, Admiral Sir John Thomas, ii. 

Duditius, Andreas, " Quinquecclesiensis 
Episcopus," viii. 50, 55. 

Dudley, Col, 1724, v. 355. 

Dudley, Ann. See Winthrop, Mrs. 

Dudley, Joseph, Gov. of Massachusetts, ii. 
125, 206«, 208, 234, 294, 295, 304, 306, 
307; iv. 469; v. 66, 68, 74, 93, 94, 132, 
277, 279, 313n, 335, 336, 337, 453; viii. 
51, 234, 235, 388, 405m, 428, 435, 495, 
497, 499, 500, 502, 517, 525, 526, 530, 656, 
703, 704. Letters from Increase Mather 
to, 100, 112. Death of, 435rc, 438. Not- 
ices of, 482n, 656«. Letter of, ii. 308. 
Letters to Increase Mather, viii. 482, 484; 
to Edward Randolph, 483, 484, 485; to 
Cotton Mather, 485. Confinement of, 485.. 

Dudley, Patience. See Denison, Mrs. 

Dudley, Hon. Paul, viii. 484, 656. Notice 
of, 656«. 

Dudley, Rev. Samuel, vii. 327. 

Dudley, Gov. Thomas, iii. 335 ; iv. 294, 298 ; 
vi. 16, 26-28, 159, 167, 178, 180, 263, 314, 
347, 352, 476-478, 579, 584; vii. 140, 253, 
342, 375, 412; viii. 482w, 533rc. Mission 
to D'Aulnay, vi. 180. Letters to John 
Winthrop, vii. 110, 111, 112. Fac-simile 
of his signature, vii. plate 2. Notice of, 

Dudley, Thomas, H.C., 1685, viii. 484. 

Dudley, William, v. 336. 

Dudley Papers, ii. 234-237. 

Dudley party in Massachusetts, ii. 176, 184. 

Dudlye, , vi. 40 

Duel between the Duke of Hamilton and 
Lord Mohun, viii. 416. 

Duke, Dr., vii. 390«. 

Duke, Mrs., vii. 390rc, 393. 

Dulany, Mr., 1760, ix. 335. 

Dummer, Mrs. Ann (Atwater), viii. 227. 

Dummer, Jeremiah, viii. 227n. 

Dummer, Jeremy, Jr., viii. 227rc, 425n. 

Dummer, Richard, i. 94; iii. 335; vii. 30, 

Dummer, Gov. William, ii. 184, 308; v. 347, 
363, 364, 453 ; viii. 445, 458. His char- 
acter, v. 345. 

Dumoulin (Lat. Molinaeus), Pierre, viii. 77. 

Dunbar, Col., ix. 211. At Braddock's de- 
feat, 1755, v. 390. 

Dunbar, Maj., 1775, i. 262. 

Dunbar, David, Surveyor- General, ix. 196, 
202, 203. His removal, ii. 227. 

Duncan, Maj., 1764, x. 536, 577, 582, 587, 

Duncastle, ix. 389. 

Duncom, Sir John, viii. 215. 

Dundas, James, x. 606. 

Dundas, Thomas, x. 606. 

Dunham, Samuel, v. 57. 

Dunkirk captured by the French, vii. 429. 

Dunkirk, ship, v. 330. 

Dunlaps, Mr., ix. 334. 

Dunmore, Lady Charlotte Stewart, x. 755, 

Dunmore, John Murray, Earl of, x. 744, 
748, 777. Abstract of instructions to, 626. 
Instructions to, QS0 foil., mi foil. Addi- 
tional instructions, 690. His removal 
threatened, 721. Letters of, to Lord 
Dartmouth, 718, 719, 721; to Capt. Squire, 
750. Letters to, from Lord Dartmouth, 
721, 723, 724, 728, 734-737; M. Squire, 
750; Admiral Graves, 751-753; Geo. 
Montagu, 755; Capt. A. S. Hammond, 
776, 780-790; Capt. Bellew, 790. 

Dunmore, man-of-war, x. 787. 

Dunmore, schooner, iv. 186, 187, 188, 217. 

Dunn, John, LL.D., Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
i. p. xii. 

Dunstable, v. 355, 359, 539. Hostilities at, 

Dunster, David, ii. 198. 

Dunster, Edward Swift, ii. 190, 198. 

Dunster, Elizabeth (Glover), ii. 194. 

Dunster, Henry, Pres. of Harvard College, 
i. 216; ii. 190; vii. 272; viii. In, 546. 
Letters of, and to, i. 251; ii. 191. His 
covenant with Edward Winship, 198. 
Resigns the presidency of Harvard Col- 
lege, vi. 291. 

Dunster, Richard, ii. 191. 

Dunster, Thomas, ii. 191. 

Dunster Papers, ii. 190-198. 

Dunton, John, v. 193n; viii. 669, 670. 

Dupin, Baron Charles, Hon. Memb. M. H. 
S., v. p. xii.; vi. p. xii.; vii. p. xii.; viii. 
p. xiii. 

Duplessis, Ensign, 1760, ix. 328, 349, 359, 
384, 398. 

Du Ponceau, Peter Stephen, LL.D., Cor. 
Memb. M. H. S., i. p. xiv. 

Duppa, Brian, Bishop of Winchester, Death 
of, viii. 197. 

Dupper, , 1610, ix. 68. 

Duquesne, M, viii. 637. See also Fort 

Durdall, Hugh, Misdemeanor of, vi. 316. 

Durel, Capt., 1729, ii. 187. 

Durfee, Job, LL.D., Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
i. p. xvii. 

Durfee, William, iv. 131, 132. 

Durham, Eng., Capture of, 1640, vi. 143. 

Durham, N. II., letter, accompanying a 
donation to Boston, iv. 144. 

Durie, Rev. Robert, i. 125. 

Durien, , viii. 644. 

Durkee, William, iv. 7. 

Dury, Rev. John, vii. 504. 

Dustin, John, vii. 415. 

Dutch, The, on Long Hand, vii. 183, 184, 
187, 188, 191, 192. Difficulty with the, 
on Connecticut River, iii. 311, 328. Ex- 
pedition against, in 1664, vii. 189. Naval 
battle with the Spaniards in 1639, 219, 
298. Hostilities with the Indians, 412, 
477. War with England, 417, 418, 424, 
570. At New York, 512. Capture of 
New York by, in 1673, 570, 571. Sece- 
rnent on the Connecticut River, 44, 193. 
Their proceedings in Bantam, viii. 42. 




War with the, 130, 136, 21G. Naval en- 
gage men t with the, 198. Their successes 
in the Thames, 216. Of Mew Netherlands, 
ix. 121, 125-128. 

Dutch claim to New Haven Colony, vi. 340. 

Dutch East India Company, ix. 58, 59. 

Dutch West India Company, vii. 45n. 

Dutch Indians, vi. 274. 

Dutch Island (Aquednick), vi. 267. 

Du 'Diet, Father, ix. 42. 43. 

Duxhury, Mass., iii. 339/?, 383; iv. 484; v. 
10, 11; vi. 163, 170, 175; vii. 69. Separ- 
ated from Plymouth, iii. 303, 372, 426. 
Reply of the Boston Donation Committee 
to, iv. 259. Church in, v. 84, 85. Small- 
pox at, viii. 238. 

Duyckinck, Evert A., Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
viii. p. xiii. ; ix. p. xvii. 

Duvckinck, G., iv. 164. 

Dwight, Copt., v. 363. 

D wight, Mrs. Ann (Flint), i. 20. 

Dwight, Seth, i. 20. 

Dwight, Theodore, Cor. Memb. M. H. S-, 
i. p. xvi. ; iii. p. vi. ; iv. p. xxii. ; v. p. x. ; 
vi. p. x; vii. p. x. His death, viii. p. xiv. 

Dwight, Theodore, J>\, Cor. Memb. M. H. 
S., i. p. xvi. 

Dwi»ht, Timothy, 1671, i. 15, 18. 

Dwight, Timothy, D.D., LL.D., Cor. Memb. 
M. II. S., i. p. xii. 

Dwite, Mr., of Hartford, 1694, i. 102. 

Dye, John, vii. 89ra, Qbn. And others, letter 
to John Crispe and ethers, vii. 91-94». 
Letter of, vii. 96». 

Dyer, , of Stafford, murders his wife, 

v. 495. 

Dyer, Col., 1776, x. 774. 

Dyer, Mr., 1684, viii. 525. 

Dyer, Christopher, of Casco Bay, v. 507. 

Dyer, Capt. Judah, iv. 207. 

Dyer, Mrs. Mary, viii. 58. 

Dyer, Samuel, vi. 303. 

Dyer, William, Surveyor of the Customs at 
Boston, 1680, viii. 534, 535. Notice of, 

Dyke, Jiev. Jeremiah, vi. 4. 

Dyre, or Dyer, William, vi. 2S9, 322; vii. 
282, 283/ Case of William Coddmgton 
against, vi. 321. 

Dyxie, Robert, vi. 23. 


Eadon, Gov. See Eden. 

Eagle, ship, v. 445. 

Bale, Samuel, vi. 136. 

Eales, Mr., painter, viii. 28. 

Earl, Ralph, vii. 191. 

Earle, James, iv. 60. 

Earle, Sir Walter, vi. 566. 

Earthquake in New England, 163S, iii. 366; 
vi. 229,305; in Connecticut, 1677-78, viii. 
306; at Bristol, 1688, 872j in the West 
Indies, 1690, v. 262; in New England, 
1727, li. 172 foil. ; in New Haven, viii. 
609, 614. 

Earthquakes in New England before 163S, 
vi. 229; in Haddam, Conn., viii. 425. 

East, William, vii. -176. 

East Bay, v. 439. 

East Boston, vii. 307n. 

Eastburn, Robert, Narrative of the captivity 
of, among the Indians, 1756, v. 482-488. 

East Greenwich, It. I., iv. 135. 

East Haddam, letter to the Overseers of the 
Poor of Boston, iv. 57. 

Eastham (Nauset), iii. 97, 103,372; v. 10, 
133, 141. Settlement of, iii. 362, 426. 
Replies of the Boston Donation Committee 
to, iv. 197, 225. Smail-pox at, viii. 247. 

East Hampton, L. A, vii. 184, 425. Assist- 
ance to Boston in 1774, iv. 163n. 

East India Company, iv. 374, 379-383. 

East Indies, conversion of the natives, viii. 

East River, N. Y.. x. 778. 

Easton, Mr., of Newport, 1654, vi. 2S9. 

Easton, John, vii. 291. 

Easton, Nicholas, vii. 282, 283. 

Easton, Penn., ix. 440, 461. 

Eaton, , 1776, x. 774. 

Eaton, Mr., Death of, viii. 321, 322. 

Eaton, Mrs. Ann (Morton Yale), vi. 257; 
vii. 493. Sickness of, 473, 474. 

Eaton, Cadwallader, killed bv Indians, v. 

Eaton, C3TUS, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., iii. p. 
vi. ; iv. p. xxiii.; v. p. x. ; yi. p. x.; vii. 
p. x.; viii. p. xii.; ix. p. xvi. 

Eaton, Daniel, v. 247. 

Eaton, Francis, and family, iii. 449, 454. 

Eaton, Hannah. See Jones, Mrs. 

Eaton, Mrs. Mabel, Death of, vii. 475. 

Eaton, Moses, of Salisbur?/, v. 341. 

Eaton, Nathaniel, vi. 62, 135, 344; vii. 228. 

Eaton, Samuel, son of Francis, iii. 449, 454. 

Eaton, Samuel, brother of Theophilus, vi. 

Eaton, Samuel, son of Theophilus, Death of, 
vii. 475. 

Eaton, Mrs. Sarah, iii. 449, 454. 

Eaton, Theophilus, Gov. of the Colony of 
X, w Haven, ii. 250, 251, 252, 266, 267, 
268, 269; vi. 76, 94, 165, 325n, 346«; vii. 
19, 34, 184, 193, 278, 381, 420, 465, 688»; 
viii. 604/2, 611?/. Signer of the Confedera- 
tion in 1643, iii. 423. Commissioner, 430. 
Signs a treatv, 440. Letters to John 
Winthrop, vi.' 344, 345, 347, 350; to 
John Winthrop, Jr., 348, 353; vii. 468, 
469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 475, 476. Fac- 
similes of his signature and seal, vi. plate 
3; vii. plate 10. Lines on the death of, 
by Rev. Abraham Pierson, vii. 477. 
Death of, 489, 495; viii. 282, 469, 470. 
Notices of, vi. 344«; viii. 469m. 

Eaton, Thomas, viii. 125. 

Ebeling, Prof. Christoph Daniel, Cor. Memb. 
M. H. S,'i. p. xii. 

Eccles, Mr., 1682, viii. 38, 40. 

Eccles, Solomon, Banishment of, vii. 291, 

Eclipse of the moon, Oct. 17, 1632, vi. 456, 
457; of the sun, July 2, 1684, viii. 521, 
522; Oct. 3, 1832, vi. 456. 

Eddington, Ensign, 1760, v. 563. 

Eddis, , 1770, x. 622. 

Eddy, Serj., 1758, ix. 231. 

Eddy, Samuel, LL.D., Cor. Memb. M. II. 
S., i. p. xiii. 

Eden, Mrs., iv. 187. 

Eden, A lies. s< want, i. 97. 

Eden, Robert, Gov. of Maryland, iv. L v 7; 
x. 790. Letters of, to Lord Hillsborough, 
x. 617, 619-626; to Lord Dartmouth. 692. 



Edes and Gill, iv. 388. 

Edgar, Mr., 1722, v. 340. 

Edgar, the Peaceable, vi. 225. 

Edgar, ship of Admiral Sir H. Walker, v. 
330. Blown up, 331. 

Edgcombe, Samuel, i. 37, 38. 

Edgerly, , 1683, v. 118. 

Edgly, Thomas, vi. 24. 

Edict of Nantes, Revocation of the, viii. 644. 

Edisto River, Indian hostilities at, 1760, v. 

Edmandson, William, vii. 291. 

Edmonds, , 1689, v. 222. 

Edmonds, Sir Thomas, iii. 456, 459. 

Edsbury, Mr., 1629, vi. 30. 

Edward, King, vi. 406. 

Edwards, Lieut, 1629, ix. 142. 

Edwards, David ( V ), viii. 385, 500. 

Edwards, Hannah, i. 31. 

Edwards, J., viii. 431re. 

Edwards, Nathaniel, of Northampton, v. 

Edward's Fort, Engagement near, 1756, v. 

Egerton, Mr., 1639, vii. 207. 

Egerton. Anne. See Tyndall, Mrs. 

Egg Harbor, x. 782. 

Ei/cwy Baai?UK7j, vi. 282. 

Ekel, John, v. 459 

Elbridge, Giles, iii. 154, 336; vi. 572, 573. 

Elderkin, John, vii. 73, 82, 232, 236, 237, 
242, 248. Notice of, 33w. 

Elders, Church, vi. 184. 

Eldridge, Charles, Jr., iv. 49. 

Election of Governor at New Haven in 1658, 
vii. 495. 

Elfred, Capt., ix. 4. 

Elinor, vessel, ix. 19. 

Eliot, Capt., 1722, v. 343, 344. 

Eliot, Mr., 1683, v. 117. 

Eliot, Andrew, D.D., Letters of, to Thomas 
Hollis, iv. 398-461. 

Eliot, Rev. Andrew, of Fairfield, Conn., 
Cor. Memb. M. H. S., i. p. xiii. 

Eliot, Ephraim, Member M. H. S., i. p. viii. 

Eliot, Dea. Jacob, viii. 247, 370. 

Eliot, Rev. John, ofRoxbury, " the Apostle,'' 1 
i. 17, 21, 253, 267; vii. 151, 431; viii. 16, 
17», 21, 71, 95, 226w, 256, 258, 279, 330, 
336, 340, 495, 499, 502, 544?t, 615, 626. 
Death of, Ma}', 1690, v. 254. Letter to 
the churches in Dublin, viii. 690. Letter 
to, from John Wilson, vii. 3, 4. 
Eliot, Rev. John, H. C, 1656, viii. 627. No- 
tice of, 627. 
Eliot, Rev. John, H.C., 1685, viii. 627. No- 
tice of, 627. 
Eliot, John, D.D., ii. 208. Member M. H. 
S., i. p. v. ; ii. p. v. ; iv. p. vii. ; Cor. Sec, 
p. xx. ; Librarian, p. xx. ; Cabinet-keeper, 
p. xx.; on the Committee of Publication 
of vol. 1, 4, 5, 8, of 1st Series; 1, of 2d 
Series, i. p. xxi. His " Biographical Dic- 
tionary" cited, viii. 524re, 615w. 
Eliot, Rev. Joseph, i. 13 ('? ); vii. 568, 572, 
574, 575. Notices of, viii. 374re, 465re. 
His wife, vii. 575. Her death, viii. 465. 
Letters to Increase Mather, 374, 375, 378. 
Eliot, Hon. Robert, v. 337. 
Eliot, Samuel, d. 1820, iv. 444. 
Eliot, Samuel, LL.D., Member M. H. S., ii. 
p. xvii. ; iii. p. v. ; viii. p. xi. ; ix. p. xv. ; 
Cor. Memb., iv. p. xxiii. ; v. p. xi.; vi. p. 
xi. ; vii. p. xi. 

Eliot, Samuel A., Treasurer of Harv. Col., 

iv. 506. 
Eliot, Mrs. Sarah (Brenton), her death, viii. 

Eliot, William G., D.D., Cor. Memb. M. H. 
S., vii. p. xii. ; viii. p. xiii.; ix. p. xvii. 

Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, vi. 419, 426. 
Death of, viii. 197. 

Elizabeth, Queen of England, vi. 292. 

Elizabeth and Ann, vessel, i. %n. 

Elizabeth-Citv County, Va., iv. 65m. 

Elizabeth Island, i. 226. 

Elizabethtown, N. J., letter to the Committee 
of Correspondence of Boston, iv. 20. Re- 
ply, 22. Aid to sufferers bv the Boston 
Port Bill, 171. 

Elizabeth's Spring, R. I., vi. 299, 306. 

Elk, Head of, x. 807, 809. 

Elliot, — 1764, x. 519, 530. 

Elliot, Mr., killed by Indians, 1759, v. 548, 

Elliott, Charles, iv. 178. 

Ellie, Gov., v. 547. 

Ellis, Mrs. Anne, ix. 11. 

Ellis, Rev. George E., ii. 199, 200, 201, 245. 
Member M. H. S., i. p. x. ; ii. p. xvii.; 
iii. p. v.; iv. p. xxi.; v. p. viii.; vi. p. 
viii.; vii. p. viii.; viii. p. x. ; ix. p. xiv. ; 
on the Committee of Publication of vol. 
2, 4th Series, ii. p. xvi. ; vol. 9, 4th Ser., 
ix. p. ii. ; on the Standing Com., i. p. 
xxi. ; vii. p. vii. 

Ellis, Sir Henry, ii. 115. 

Ellis, Robert, ix. 11. 

Ellison, CW.,ix. 219. 

Ellmer (Erllmer), Edward, i. 94, 95. 

Elmes, Rev. Mr., d. about 1674, viii. 150, 
583, 584. 

Elms, Mr., 1639, vii. 179. 

Elton, Rev. Edward, viii. 77. 

Elton, Romeo, D.D., iii. 310rc; vi. 185rc. 

Elvick, Elizabeth. See Fletcher, Mrs. 

Ely, Joseph, v. 373. 

Emerson, Mr., 1683, viii. 359, 360. 

Emerson, George B., LL.D., Member M. H. 
S., vii. p. ix. ; viii. p. xi. ; ix. p. xv. 

Emerson, Rev. John, of Gloucester, Letter to, 
from Increase Mather and others, viii. 
111. Notice of, Hire. Letter to Increase 
Mather, 663. 

Emerson, Rev. John, of Manchester, cfc, 
viii. Ill, 112, 663. Notice of, Hire. 

Emerson, Rev. William, Member M. H. S., 
i. p. vii. ; on the Standing Com., i. p. xx. ; 
on the Committee of Publication of vol. 9, 
1st Series, i. p. xxi. His " History of the 
First Church " cited, viii. 96re. 

Emery, Samuel Hopkins, v. 167. 

Emigration to the British Colonies, x. 711. 

Emmet, Capt., 1756, v. 422. 

Emory, John, v. 427. 

Endeavor, schooner, iv. 61, 222. 

Endicott, Charles M., "Memoir of John 
Endecott," quoted, vi. 150 a w. 

Endicott, John, Gov. of Massachusetts, ii. 39, 
56, 248-252, 264-269; iv. 463; vi. 17, 43, 
54, 56, 57, 90, 91, 95, 103. 107, 114-116, 
171, 178, 210, 213, 252, 316, 344re, 365, 
384, 517, 578; vii. 113, 199, 251, 336, 417; 
ix. 159. In trouble for defacing the cross, 
vi. 132. Difference with John Humfrey 
relating to Peter's mission to England, 
145. Letters to John Winthrop, 132-136, 
138, 141, 143-146, 148-150, 150 6 ; vii. 156, 



157, 158; to John Winthrop, Jr., vi. 131, 
152, 153, 154. Fac-similes of his signature 
and seal, vi. plate 2; vii. plate 3. Memoir 
of, by Charles M. Endicott, mentioned, vi. 
150"«. Notice of, 131«. Commissioner 
on the Plymouth boundary, vii. 158. 

Endicott, John, of Boston, viii. 358. 

Endicott, William C, Member M. H. S., 
vii. p. ix. ; viii. p. xi. ; ix. p. xv. ; on the 
Standing Com., viii. p. ix. 

Enger. John, vii. 194. 

England, Threatened invasion of, by the 
French, v. 517. Immorality in, viii. 221. 
Cotton Mather on a colonial agent in, 
389. England's feeling towards the 
colonies in 1775, x. 762. 

English, Mrs., 1656, v. 410. 

English, William, ix. 139, 143, 147. 

English captives with the Narragansetts, vi. 

English seamen, i. 85. 

Englishman's Head, v. 491. 

Ennis, James, ix. 253, 276, 281, 336, 340. 

Ensign, Cross in the, defaced by Endicott, 
vi. 131, 132. 

Enslow, Ensign, 1760, ix. 352. 

Enterprise, ship, v. 329. 

Epigram by Prynne, vi. 462. 

Epiphanius, viii. 11. 

Episcopal Church in Boston, viii. 518. Ser- 
vice of the, intruded into the meeting- 
houses in Boston, 700. 

Episcopius, Simon, i. 127, 128, 129, 130. 

Eppes, or Eps, Mr., 168-, viii. 253, 513, 641, 

Epps, Daniel, i. 8; vii. 118n, 126^, 128, 131. 

Epps, Mrs. Klizabeth (Symonds), vii. 126. 

Epps, Mrs. Martha. See Symonds, Mrs. 

Erie, Lake. See Lake Erie. 

Ermin, , 1756, v. 422. 

Errington, Mr., 1663, viii. 214. 

Erskine, Archibald, viii. 487, 493. 

Erskine, John, D.D., Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
i. p. xi. 

Erving, Copt., 1775, i. 266. 

Erving, George William, Cor. Memb. M. H. 
S., i. p. xv. 

Erwin, Ensign, 1760, ix. 360. 

Erwin, George, iv. 148. 

Eschemains River, v. 527. 

" Essays to do Good," by Cotton Mather, 
viii. 441. 

Essex, Arthur Capel, Earl of, viii. 7, 101, 
105, 196, 330. Notice of, in. 

Essex, Mass., i. 209. 

Essex County, Mass., ii. 172, 174; iv. 64». 
Letter to the selectmen of Boston, 83. 
Aid to Boston in 1774, 191. 

Essex Institute, Historical collections of the, 
viii. 269ra. 

F.^tabrooke, Rev. Joseph, viii. 560. 

Estatoe, Capture of, 1760, v. 560. Engage- 
ment ne ir, 57S. 

Etchowee, Engagement near, 1760, v. 561. 

Etherington, , 1763, ix. 488. 

Euer, Dr., vi. 507. 

Eugene, Prince of Savoy, viii. 409. 

Europe, Transactions in', viii. 1(36-224, 636. 

Evans, Rev. John, his " Vertves of the Anti- 
moniall Cup, 1634," vi. 125w 

Evans, John, of Newcastle, Del., 1774, iv. 

Evans, Thomas, Kxecution of, viii. 215. 

Evans family, v. 362. 

Evelin, George, ix. 100,147. His treacherv 
82, 83. 

Evelin, Robert, ix. 141, 147. Sketch of, 100. 

Eveling, Copt Christopher, ix. 175. 

Everard, Edmund, viii. 20. 

Everett, Alexander Hill, LL.D., Member 
M. H. S., i. p. ix. 

Everett, Edward, LL.D., ii. 153. Member 
M. H. S., i. p. viii.; ii. p. xvii.; iii. p. v.; 
iv. p. xxi.; v. p. viii.; vi. p. viii.; vii. p. 
viii. ; on the Standing Com., i. p. xxi. 
His death, viii. p. xiv. 

Everett, Judge Moses, ii. 154. 

Everett, Rev. Moses, ii. 137. 

Evers, Charles M., & Co. iv. 222. 

Evrington, William, x. 621. 

Ewangso, an Indian, iii. 439. 

Ewer, Rev. Dr., 1767, iv. 417. 

Excommunicato capiendo, De, the writ, viii. 

Exeter, N. H., i. 201, 212; v. 272, 315. 
Letter to the Donation Committee of Bos- 
ton, iv. 230. Attack bv Indians near, v. 
315, 317. Indian murders at, 325, 333. 
Rev. Stephen Bachiler invited to settle at, 
vii. 105-108. Church in, viii. 361. Mur- 
der near, 1648, vi. 68. 

Expedition, vessel, ix. 59. 

Express, ship, iv. 504. 

Eyesight, Impaired, vii. 490-492, 539. 

Eyoree, a Cherokee town, burnt, 1761, v. 

Eyre, Col, ix. 290, 292. 

Eyre, Mrs. Catherine. See Winthrop, Mrs. 

Eyre, John, viii. 405«. 


F , x. 568. 

Fac-simile of part of Gov. Bradford's His- 
tory, iii. p. xix. 

Fac-similes of signatures and seals, vi. 587; 
vii. 635; of the signatures to the first 
Plvmouth patent, ii. 163; of the signatures 
of King William III. and the Earl of Not- 
tingham, viii. 711. 

Fairbanks, Jason, ii. 153. 

Fairfax, of Virginia, 1618, ix. 32. 

Fairfax, Catherine, daughter of Lord, wife 
of Sir M. Bovnton, vii. 162». 

Fairfax, George William, x. 630. 

Fairfax, Thomas, Lord, vii. 162/?, 495; viii. 
200, 202, 205, 206, 215. Defeated at Ad- 
derton Moor, vi. 356h. 

Fairfax, Thomas, Baron of Cameron, \. 447. 

Fairfax County, Va., iv. 64?i; v. 414. 

Fairfield, Conn., iii. 359n; iv. 143; vi. 334; 
vii. 213, 523, 567; viii. 628. Letter to the 
Donation Committee of Boston, iv. 133. 
Reply, 133. 

Fairweather, , 1672, viii. 141. 

Falcon, ship, vi. 118, 503. 

Falconbridge, Lord, viii. 215. 

Faldo, Rev. John, viii. 650. Notice of, 650?i. 

Fales, David, ii. 228, 229. 

Fall Town. See Bernardston. 

Falls, Mr., 1765, x. 573. 

Falmouth. Cttco Bay, Me., v. 213. Letter 
to the Donation Committee of Boston, iv. 
209. Replv, 209. Letter of the Second 
Parish, 261. Reply, 262. Treaty with 
the Indians, v. 363. 



Falmouth, Mass., letter to the Donation 

Committee of Boston, iv. 267. 
Falmouth, ship, v. 320. 
Famine in Germany, 1636, vi. 500, 502. 
Faneuil, Mr., ii. 123. 
Faneuil, Benjamin, iv. 378, 380. 
Fanner, John, iv. 265. 
Faribault, G. P., Cor. Memb. M. H. S.,iv. p. 

xxiii. ; v. p. xi.; vi. p. xi. ; vii. p. xi. ; 

viii. p. xii. ; ix. p. xvi. 
Farewell, George, viii. 704. 
Farmer, Judge, in Barbadoes, vii. 294. 
Farmer, John, Cor. Memb. M. B.. S., i. 

p. xv. 
Farmers of the revenue, ix. 139. 
Farmington, Conn., i. 109. Letters to the 

Donation Committee of Boston, iv. 13, 98. 

Replies, 14, 98. Bloody flux at, viii. 337. 
Farmington Indians, vii. 542. 
Farnald, Benjamin, iv. 216. 
Farnely Woods, viii. 214. 
Farnham, John Hay, A.M., Cor. Memb. 

M. H. S., i. p. xvi. 
Farnsworth, Stephen, v. 366. 
Farnworth, Rev. Mr., viii. 583, 585. 
Farrar, Sir George, iii. 51. 
Farrell (Ffarrell), Copt. Hubert, ix. 170, 174, 


Farrington, , vi. 152. 

Farrington vs. Downing, vi. 70, 71. 
Farwell, Lieut. Joseph, slain, v. 358, 359. 
Fast of the Pilgrims before leaving Holland, 

iii. 41. In Plymouth Colonv, in a time of 

drought, 142." 
Fast, General, in England, 1636, vi. 424, 425; 

19th June, 1661, viii. 167. Proposed on 

account of the fire in London, September, 

1666, vii. 529, 530. 
Fast, General, in Massachusetts Colony, Jan. 

20, 1636, vi. 448ra; April 12, 1638, vii. 157, 

201; Jan. 2, 1662, viii. 169. Observed by 

the General Court, Jan. 1681, 280. Gen- 
eral, in the United Colonies, 1678, 289. In 

1689, 709. 
Faunce, John, iv. 493. 
Faunce, Mary. See Morton, Mrs. 
Faunce, Mrs. Patience (Morton), iv. 492, 

Faunce, Deacon Thomas, iv. 493; v. 189; 

viii. 256. 
Fauquier County, Va., iv. Qin. 
Fav, Mr., 1682, viii. 506. 
Faye, Capt, drowned, 1710, v. 321. 
Fayer weather (Fairwether), Capt, v. 195. 
Faverweather, Rev. Mr., 1767, iv. 421. 
Feake, 3Irs. Elizabeth (Fones), vi. 348, 349, 

353, 360, 482, 489, 521, 522; vii. 157. 
Feake, Hannah, her marriage, vii. 183. 
Feake, Robert, vi. 40", 348, 349, 353, 522. 
Feake, Toby, vi. 348. 
Fees exacted under Andros, v. 156. 
Fell, Capt, 1764, x. 519. 
Fellows, Richard, vii. 405. 
Fells, Mr., 1627, iii. 219, 220. 
Felmingham, , daughter of Francis, vi. 

56, 57, 132, 143. 
Felmingham, Francis, vi. 132. 
Felons imported into the American colonies, 

x. 642. 
Felt, Rev. Joseph B., ii. 157; iii. 132n, 139w, 

Uln, 169«, 209n, 477. Member M. H. S., 

i. p. ix. ; ii. p. xvii.; iii. p. v.; iv. p. 

xxi. ; v. p. viii.; vi. p. viii.; vii. p. viii.; 

viii. p. x. ; Librarian, i. p. xx. ; ii. p. xvi. ; 

on the Standing Com., i. p. xx. ; on the 
Committee of Publication of vols. 5, 6, 7, 
8, of 3d Series, i. p. xxi. His " Ecclesi- 
astical History of Massachusetts," viii. 

Felton, Cornelius C, LL.D., Member M. H. 
S., iii. p. v.; iv. p. xxi.; v. p. viii. His 
death, vi. p. ix. 

Fen, Benjamin, vii. 567. 

Fenner, Capt. Arthur, vi. 307, 308, 311. 

Fenwick, Mr., viii. 403. 

Fenwick, Mrs. Elizabeth, vi. 336. 

Fenwick, George, i. 31; ii. 196; vi. 332, 
368rc, 549, 582, 583; vii. 53, 54, 83ra, 157, 
167. Signer of the Confederation, iii. 
423; of a treaty, 440. Commissioner, 
430. Letters to John Winthrop, vi. 365, 
367 ; to John Winthrop, Jr., 364, 365. Fac- 
simile of his signature, vi. plate 4. No- 
tice of, 364n. 

Ferar, Capt. Mark, iv. 272. 

Ferdinand, Emperor, vi. 420. 

Fergoran {i.e., Robert Ferguson), Mr., viii. 

Ferguson, Rev. Robert, viii. 59, 102, 104, 
107, 499, 533, 598. 

Ferguson, Thomas, iv. 178. 

Ferral, Capt, 1755, v. 392. 

Ferrar, Nicholas, ix.17, 68, 70. 

Ferus {Germ. Wild), Joannes, viii. 77. 

Fessenden, G. M., cited, iii. 95. 

Fetherston, , bookseller, vi. 483, 496. 

Feversham, ship, v. 320, 330. 

Ffrowd, 1635, ix. 187. 

Fienes, William. See Say and Sele. 

Fife, Synod of, 1591, vi. 433. 

Fifield (Fy field), Mrs., 1720, ii. 123. 

Fifth-monarchy men, vii. 515. 

Fifth of November, viii. 435. 

Filen, John, i. 99. 

Filer, Lieut, 1664, vii. 555. 

Filer (Fyler), Walter, Letter from, to John 
Davenport, viii 172. 

Fillingham, Francis, i. 99. 

Fillmore, Millard, LL.D., iy. 500. Hon. 
Memb. M. H. S., vii. p. xii.; viii. p. xiii. ; 
ix. p. xvii. 

Finch, Goodman, vii. 493. 

Finch (Fnnch), M., iv. 479, 480, 481, 489. 

Finch, Abraham, of Saybrook, i. 31. 

Finch, Daniel, Earl of Nottingham, Fac- 
simile of the signature of, viii. 711. 

Finch (Ffinch) Nicholas, viii. 176. 

Fines, Charles, iv. 294. 

Fire in Boston, March 14, 1652-53, vi. 155; 
Nov. 27, 1676, viii. 298, 574, 578; 1677, 
159,341; 1679,22, 597; March 20, 1760; 
v. 552; in London, September, 1666, vii. 
530; in Plymouth, in 1623, iii. 151; at 
Whitehall, Jan. 1662, viii. 186; at Wap- 
ping, 1682, 499; in Milford, 1660, vii. 544. 

Fire-arms and ammunition, Indians supplied 
with, iii. 235, 238, 275, 337. 

Firmin, Giles, vii. 273??. 

Firmin, Giles, Jr., letters to John Win- 
throp, vii. 273, 275, 276. Fac-similes of 
his signature and seal, vii. plate 5. No- 
tice of, 273». 

Firmin, John, vi. 457. 

First Narrows, v. 524. 

Fish, Goodman, vii. 243. 

Fish, iii. 162. Caught, 100, 105, 137. Used 
for manure, 100, 105, 142. Sent to Spain , 
202, 299. 



Fishbaugh, Joseph, v. 446. 

Figher, Ensign, of Dedham, 1671, i. 15, 16, 

L8, 20. 
Fisher, Capt. Daniel, vii. 160n; viii. 496. 
Fisher, Joshua Francis, A.M., Cor. Memb. 

M. II. S., i. p. xvii.; iii. p. vi. ; iv. p. 

xxii.; v. p. x.; vi. p. x. ; vii. p. x. ; viii. 

]>. xii.; ix. p. xvi. 
Fisher, Dea. Josiah, v. 366. 
Fisheries, v. 342, 351; vi. 280, 368. At 

Damariscove Islands, iii. 114, 115, 156. 

By gangs at Plymouth, 137. Debate in 

Parliament respecting, 141. Fatal to 

Plymouth, 158, 168, 262. Of Lyford's and 

Oldham's friends at Cape Ann, 196. Of 

Allerton for bass, 267-271, 273, 280, 282, 

286. Newfoundland, iv. 504. In Maine, 

v. 337, 338. 
'• Fisherman's Calling, The," by Cotton 

Mather, viii 408ra. 
Fisher's Island, ii. 204; vi. 278, 357, 368n; 

vii. 84//, 231-250, 474?*, 505. Granted to 

John Win'hrop, Jr., 83//, 84n. 
Fishing-vessels, Capture of, by French and 

Indians, v. 342. 
Fisk, Rev. David, i 212. 
Fiske, Rev. John, viii. 55. Comes to New 

England, vi. 397. Notice of, 397m. 
Fiske, Moses, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., i. p. 

xvi. ; iii. p. vi. 
Fiske, William, A.B., Member M. H. S., 

i. p. vi. 
Fitch, (U,1758, v. 464. , 
Fitch, Mr., 1675, vi. 297, 298. 
Fitch, Mrs. Alice (Bradford Adams), i. 22, 

Fitch, Ebenezer, D.D., Member M. H. S., 

i. p. vii. 
Fitch, Major James, i. 23. 
Fitch, Rev. James, i. 24, 34; vii. 460, 466, 

538; viii. 333, 336, 478, 480, 640. Letters 

to Increase Mather, 473, 474, 475. Letter 

from Samuel Hooker to, 340. Notice of, 

Fitch, Thomas, vii. 386m. 
Fitche, Gov., 1764, x. 544. 
Fitcher, Lieut., at Merry- Mount, iii. 236. 
Fitten, Rev. Mr., viii. 583, 584. 
Fitz-Harris, Edward, viii. 20». 
Fitzrandal, Nathaniel, a Quaker, 1678, v. 

Five Nation?, i. 102; v. 212, 250, 388, 540; 

ix. 427; x. 518. Sagamores of, v. 251. 
El., Mr., i. 13. 
Fleet, Capt., 1634, ix. 104. 
Fleet, Dispersion of, near Louisburg, by a 

storm, 1757, v. 445. 
Fleetwood, Charles, vii. 502, 511; viii. 187. 

Appointed Deputy for Ireland, vi. 81. 
Fleetwood, William, Bishop of St. Asaph, 

viii. 412. 
Flege, Thomas, i. 98. 
Fleming, Capt, 1759, v. 539. 

Fleming, , D /)., 1771, iv. 408, 430, 457. 

Flennning, Rev. Robert, the i/oiuu/er,d. 1716, 

i. 44. 
Fletcher, Capt., 1745, v. 400. 
Fletcher, Capt., killed, 1759, v. 521. 
Fletcher, Col., 1758, ix. 237. 
Fletcher. Benjamin, Gov. of Neio York, i. 
IOC; ii. 804. 

Fletcher, Mrs. Elizabeth (Elvick), i. 80. 

Fletcher, Rev. Henry, i. 80. 

Fletcher, Mrs. Mary (Pierson), viii. 599. 

Fletcher, Moses, iii. 449, 454. 

Fletcher, Pendleton v. 326. 

Fletcher, Rev. Seth, letter to Increase 

Mather, viii. 599. Notice of, 599ra. 
Fletcher, Thomas, iii. 201, 202, 213. 
Flint, Mrs. Esther (Willet), i. 10 (V), 15. 
Flint, Rev. Henry, of Braintree, i. 212. 
Flint, Ruth, i. 14. Her death, 20. 
Flint, Seth, i. 9, 12, 13, 14. Died, 1673, 19. 
Flint, Thomas, Assistant, ii. 49, 50. 
Flint, Thomas, Execution of, 1666, viii. 215. 
Flint, Rev. Timothy, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 

i. p. xv. 
Flood in the Connecticut River, 1639, vi. 

Flores, Capt., 1619, ix. 42, 43, 44, 46. 
Florida, iii. 28; viii. 172; x. 777. 
Floyd, Capt., 1690, v. 275. 
Fludd, Mr., 1689, v. 222. 
Fludd, Dr. Robert, vi. 383, 496. Works 

published bv, 484, 497. 
Flushing, v. 213; ix. 467, 468. 
Flving Point, Indian murders at, 1756, v. 

Flynt, Henry, i. 7n. 
Flvnt, Rev. Josiah, of Dorchester, i. In, 12, 

13, 18; v. 29. Married, i. 15. 
Fockes, , convicted of manslaughter, vi. 

Foley, Thomas, ii. 281. 
Folsom, Charles, A.M., Member M. H. 'S., 

v. p. ix. ; vi. p. ix. ; vii. p. ix. ; viii. p. xi. ; 

ix. p. xv. 
Folsom, Hon. George, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 

i. p. xvii.; iii. p. vi.; iv. p. xxii.; v. p. x. ; 

vi. p. x.; vii. p. x. ; viii. p. xii. His 

" History of Saco," viii. 599//. 
Folsom, Jeremiah, iv. 152, 154. 
Folsom, Col. Nathaniel, x. 707. 
Folye, Mr., 1644, vi. 61. 
Fones, Martha. See Winthrop, Mrs. 
Fones, Thomas, ii. 204; vi. 33, 37, 40.'n, 

Foote, Mr., proposes to establish iron-works 

at Providence, vi. 290, 291, 292. 
Forbes, Alexander, Lord, Letter from John 

Winthrop, Jr., to, vi. 518. Notice of, 

Forbes, Rev. James, letter to Increase 

Mather, viii. 581. Notice of, 5S1». 
Forbes, Gen. John, v. 478, 507, 544. Ex- 
pedition against Fort l)u Quesne. 479; ix. 

237, 244. 
Forbes, Hobert Bennett, Member M. H. S-, 

v. p. ix.; vi. p. ix.; vii. p. ix. ; viii. p. xi. ; 

ix. p. xv. 
Forbes, Sir William, Bart., Notice of, vi. 

Forbis, Capt, killed, 1711, v. 321, 331. 
Force, Hon. Peter, Cor. Memb. M. II. S., 

iv. p. xxiii. ; v. p. xi. ; vi. p. xi. ; vii. p. xi. 

His death, viii. p. xiv. His " Collection 

of Historical Tracts," 597//. 
Ford, Sir R., Lord Mayor of London, viii. 

Forefather's Day, iii. 88. 
Forett, .lames, vii. 30//. 
Forey, man-cj-war, x. 754. 
Forfeitures, x. 649. 

Forman, , x. 573, 5S2, 590. 

Fornication, vii. 271. 

Forrest, J., i. 266. 

Forsey, Thomas, «. Cunningham, x. 536, 

540", 554 foil. 



Forster, the interpreter, v. 551. 

Forster, Mr., 1681, viii. 630. 

Forster, Capt. John, viii. I7n, 183, (202?), 

Forster, John, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., viii. 

p. xiii. ; ix. p. xvii. 
Fort Albany (Fort Orange), iii. 234; vi. 

Fort Allen, ix. 304, 315, 319, 329, 338. 
Fort Ann, v. 437. 
Fort Augusta, Ga., v. 555; ix. 301, 304, 315, 

319, 329, 338. 
Fort Aurania, vii. 477. 
Fort Babel, Indian outrages at, v. 433. 
Fort Beausejour, Capture of, 1755, v. 396, 

Fort Bedford, v. 515. 
Fort Bigharn, Woman scalped at, v. 416. 
Fort Brunswick, ii. 176. 
Fort Burd, ix. 245, 353, 382, 395, 405, 409. 
Fort Chambly. (Shamblee), v. 324, 356. 

(Chamblee), deserted bv the French, 571, 

Fort Charles, v. 449. 
Fort Chartres, x. 525. 
Fort Cumberland, Maryland, ix. 243, 244, 

245, 382, 390, 431, 437. Indian hostilities 

near, v. 419. 
Fort Cumberland, Nova Scotia, called by 

the French Fort Beausejour, the name 

changed on its capture by the English, 

1755, v. 397. Indian hostilities near, 1755, 

389. ' Indian outrage near, 1757, 441. 

Subjection of Indians at, 553. 
Fort Detroit, v. 523. 
Fort Dummer, v. 363. Indian murders 

near, 377, 379, 380, 389. 
Fort Dunlop, v. 539. 

Fort Duquesne, iv. 368; ix. 237, 438. Ex- 
pedition against, 1758, v. 479. Killed 

and wounded at, Sept. 14, 1758, 480. 

Abandoned by the French, 544. 
Fort Edward, v. 433, 437, 439, 442, 443, 444, 

448, 455, 462, 463, 464, 466, 494. Built, 

394. Indian murders near, 415, 416, 506. 

Skirmishes near, 420, 436. 
Fort Frederic, Virginia or Maryland f, ix. 244. 
Fort Frederick. ' See Crown Point. 
Fort Frontenac, iv. 369; v. 418, 476, 477, 

478, 486, 489, 545. Expedition against, 

Fort Gardiner, Indian murder near, v. 457. 

(Garner's Fort), Indian hostilities near, 

Fort George, ii. 176; v. 387, 389, 433; x. 

Fort George, N. Y. city, x. 696. 
Fort Granville, Attack upon, by French and 

Indians, 1756, v. 420. 
Fort Griswold, iii. 356. 
Fort Henry, Woman killed near, v. 416. 
Fort Herkimer, Indian murders near, v. 

Fort Johnson, Attack on, by Indians, 1757, 

v. 440. 
Fort Juniata, v. 479. 
Fort La Gallette. See Oswegatchie. 
Fort La Havre, iii. 332n. 
Fort Lawrence, v. 396, 433. 
Fort Levi (Levee). See Point Levi. 
Fort Levis, afterwards called Fort William 

Augustus, ix. 308, 317. 
Fort Lewis, Guadaloupe, Capture of, 1759, 

v. 491. 

Fort Ligonier {formerly Loyal Hanning), v. 
495, 515. 

Fort Littleton, v. 427, 430, 479; ix. 254, 387. 

Fort Loudon, v. 535, 538. Distress at, 560; 
ix. 253-255, 271, 301, 320, 341, 347, 350, 
387. Siege of, by Indians, 1760, v. 574. 

Fort Massachusetts, Indian hostilities at, v. 
368, 418. Murders near, 416. Capture 
of, by French and Indians, 1746, 369. 
Engagement at, May, 1747, 375. Indian 
ambush near, 378, 380. 

Fort Medoctack, v. 452. 

Fort Miller, Indian murders near, v. 455. 

Fort Moore, v. 550. Abandonment of, 1760, 
v. 559. 

Fort Mystic, Attack on, iii. 356. 

Fort Narragansett, Attack on, viii. 228. 

Fort Niagara, v. 438, 498, 518, 541. Taken 
by the English, 545. 

Fort Nominack, v. 457. 

Fort Norridgwalk, v. 222. 

Fort Ontario, v. 423, 438. 

Fort Orange. See Fort Albany. 

Fort Oswego, v. 418, 464. Taken bv 
French and Indians, 1756, 423. Attacked 
by French and Indians, 502, 510. 

Fort Pejepscot, v. 271. 

Fort Pennington, v. 555. 

Fort Penobscot, v. 451, 453. 

Fort Pentagoit, x. 832, 833. 

Fort Pitt, or Fort Pittsburg, v. 509, 523, 
552; ix. 238, 243, 246, 247, 251, 260, 262, 
276, 283, 288, 304, 328, 335, 351, 352, 355, 
356, 359, 362, 366, 367, 379, 384, 389, 390, 
392, 394, 401, 404, 409, 411, 413, 415, 418, 
423, 425, 426, 430, 432, 434, 436, 437, 461; 
x. 574, 588, 604, 734. Rebuilt, 720, 724. 

Fort Piziquid, ix. 218. 

Fort Prince George, v. 550; ix. 341. Treaty 
concluded at, v. 548. Attacked by Indians, 
551. Indian murder at, 563. 

Fort Richmond, ii. 176. 

Fort Royal, ix. 448, 449. Reduction of, v. 

Fort Sackville, Indian hostilities near, v. 

Fort St. Joseph, v. 541. 

Fort Shirley, v. 379, 425, 428, 430, 431. 

Fort Stanwix, ix. 341; x. 502, 506. 

Fort Teconick, v. 222. 

Fort Ticonderoga, v. 464, 465, 467, 468, 471, 
475, 478, 494, 498, 499, 500, 501, 502, 511, 
517, 523, 545, 547. Engagement on the 
ice near, 433, 434. Defeat of Col. Parker 
near, 440. Major Roger's expedition to, 
448. Expedition against, 1758, 463-467; 
1759, 498. Engagements near, 494, 511. 
Capture of, 499. Indian murder near, 517. 

Fort Washington, x. 805. 

Fort William Augustus, ix. 309, 317, 341. 

Fort William Henry, v. 398, 413, 433, 436, 
443, 463, 465, 466, 467, 556. Indian mur- 
ders near, 419. Engagements near, 1756, 
420, 427. Siege and capture of, 1757, 441, 

See also Ashby's Fort, Crown Point, Culbert- 
son's Fort," Harwich Fort, Hinsdel, Hun- 
ter's Fort, M'Cord's Fort, McDowell's 
Fort, Pattison's Fort, Saco, St. John's 
Fort, Saybrook, Shilby's Fort, Turner's 
Fort, Venango, William's Fort. 

Fortescue, Sir John, vi. 382. 

Forth, Dannett, vii. 385n. 

Forth, Roger, vii. 387. 



Forth, Dr. William, vii. 385re. 

Fortune, ship, ii. 156. Its arrival, iii. 91, 
105, 114, 142. Its departure, 105, 108. 
Its freight, 108, 110, 118. Captured, 110, 
118, 122. Arrival in England, 118, 122. 

Foster, Capt, 1661, viii. 183. 

Foster, Copt. Hopestill, i. 12. 

Foster, Isaac, iv. 151. 

Foster, Rev. Isaac, v. 17, 28; viii. 93, 338, 
463, 464. Letter from Thomas Hincklev 
to, v. 13. Death of, viii. 331, 465. Notice 
of, 464n. 

Foster, Rev. Jacob, iv. 218. 

Foster, John, of Boston, 1689, viii. 538. 

Foster, John, of Suffolk Co., N. Y., 1774, 
iv. 162. 

Foster, John, of London, seeks for T. M. 
Harris's " Tour," ii. 140. 

Foster, Copt. John, iv. 210, 211. 

Foster, Hon. Theodore, Cor. Memo. M. H. 
S., i. p. xiii. 

Fothergill, Anthony, M.D., Cor. Memb. 
M. H. S., i. p. xiii. 

Fountaine, Mr., vii. 18. 

Fowey, man-of-war, i. 270, 274; x. 790. 

Fowkes, Henrv, vii. 96rc. 

Fowler, Mr., 1655, vi. 292. 

Fowler, Rev. George ( ?), viii. 583, 584. 

Fowles, Jfr., 1640, vi. 511. 

Fowles, Nathan, iv. 266. 

Fownes, Rev. George, Death of, viii. 584. 

Fox, George, vii. 289, 291. Message from, 
288. Accusations against, 293. Letter 
to, from W. Robinson, ix. 153. 

Fox, John, viii. 124; ix. 469. Cited, iii. 3. 

Fox, Rev. Thomas 1L, i. 277, 279. 

Fox, ship, x. 829. 

Foxcroft, Col. Francis, viii. 370. Notice of, 

Foxcroft, George, ii. 250, 251, 252, 266, 267, 
268; vi. 345 (?); vii. 21. 

Foxe, Rev. John, the martyrologist, viii. 77. 

Fox Islands, v. 351. 

Fox-skins, iii. 344. 

Foxwill, Richard, vi. 570. 

Foy, Copt., 1688, 89; v. 206; viii. 671. 

Foy, John, viii. 255, 496, 525, 527. 

Fran:, Nic Flammel, i. 12. 

France, Proclamation of war against Eng- 
land by, v. 365. Persecutions of Protest- 
ants in, viii. 43, 293, 355«, 510, 617, 621, 
642, 643. War threatened with, 198, 331, 
572. Victorv of the French over the 
Prince of Orange, 1677, 328. French 
invasion threatened, 347. War with, 
1712, 409, 411. Plague in, 1721, 453. 
Designs of, in America, 530, 705. Prepar- 
ations for war by, 691, 592, 637. 

Francis, Convers, /)./)., Member M. H. S , 
i. p. ix.; ii. p. xvii.; iii. p. v.; iv. p. xxi. ; 
v. p. viii.; vi. p. viii.; on the Standing 
Com., i. p. xx.; on the Committee of Pub- 
lication of vols. 3, 4, 5, 7, of 3d Series, i. 
p. xxi. His death, vii. p. xiii. 

Francis, John Wakefield, J/./J.,Cor. Memb. 
M. II. S., i. p. xiv. ; iii. p. vi. ; iv. p. xxii. 
His death, v. p. xi. 

Franciscan friar, vi. 571. 

Francke (Franckius), Dr. August K., viii. 
489, 445. 446. 

Francois, Xavier, an Indian, v. 364. 

Frankf it, Troubles at, iii. 3. Reported 
vision at, vii. 464. 

Franklin. Mr., 1682, viii. 498. 

Franklin, Benj., iv. 360, 361, 363, 373; ix. 
278; x. 518, 538, 543, 705, 708, 712, 729, 
743, 826. Chosen agent of Massachusetts, 
iv.*357. Letters to, from B. G. , x. 756, 762 ; 
from Robert Crafton, 764, 766. 

Franklin, John, viii. 47. 

Franklin, William, Gov. of New Jersey, 
Letter of, to Lord Dartmouth, x. 708. 

Franklyn, Capt, 1728, ii. 183. 

Franks, , his death, 1769, x. 603. 

Franks, Mr.. 1760, ix. 319. 

Franks, David, ix. 341 ; x. 606. 

Franks, Jack, x. 502, 504. 

Franks Town, v. 428. 

Frantz, John, v. 459. 

Frary, Theophilus, viii. 370, 371, 700. 

Frazer (Eraser), Col, 1759, v. 503, 520; ix. 

Frazer ( Fraser), a deserter, 1755, ix. 219. 

Frazer, or Fraser, Charles, Cor. Memb. M. 
H. S., i. p. xvi. ; iii. p. vi. ; iv. p. xxii. 
His death, v. p. xi. 

Frechenill, Col, Gov. of York, viii. 213. 

Frederick, Sir John, Lord Mayor of London, 
viii. 179. 

Frederick Countv, Va., iv. 64?i; v. 414; x. 

Frederick Town, Md., letter to the Dona- 
tion Committee of Boston, iv. 244. Replv, 

Freeborn, William, vii. 110. 

Ereelove, Morris, v. 127. 

Freeman, Capt, 1756, v. 427. 

Freeman, Constant, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
i. p. xiv. 

Freeman, Edmund, ii. 119; iii. 477; vi. 166, 
178. Assistant, iii. 367, 377, 384, 408. 
Brother-in-law of Beauchamp, 378, 404. 
Witness to agreement with Sherley, 382. 

Freeman, Edmund, Jr., iii. 404. 

Freeman, Enoch, iv. 209. 

Freeman, James, D.D., iii. 82n; v. p. xvii. 
Member M. H. S., i. p. v.; ii. p. v.; iv. 
p. vii.; Rec. Sec, i.p. xx. ; on the Stand- 
ing Com., p. xx. ; on the Committee 
of Publication of vols. 1, 3, 4, 5, 8, of 1st 
Series; vols. 1, 3, 9, of 2d Ser., i. p. 

Freeman, John, iii. 404/*; v. 81. Letter to 
Thomas Hinckley, 131. Letter from 
Josiah Winslow to, 8. 

Freeman, Hon. Nathaniel, Member M. H. S., 
i. p. vi. ; ii. p. v. ; iv. p. vii. 

Freemasonry, ii. 145. 

Freetown, i. 255, 256, 257. 

French, Lieut., 1724, v. 354. 

French, Benjamin F., Cor. Memb. M. H. S-, 
iv. p. xxiii. ; v. p. xii ; vi. p. xii.; vii. 
p. xii.; viii. p. xii.; ix. p. xvii. 

French, Copt. C., v. 577. 

French, Edmund, i. 44. 

FYeneh, Nathan, v. 379. 

French, The, supply Indians with fire- 
arms, iii. 235, 238. The colonies threat- 
ened by the, 1690, v. 244. Encroachments, 
3S7. Aggressions of the, in Maine, 1686, 
vi. 570. Supply Philip with ammunition, 
etc.. 309. Optured at Mount Desert, ix. 
42-46, and note after p. 488. 

French Creek, ix.' 362, 401, 412, 419, 424, 
426, 434. 

French Church in tin- Savoy, Liturgy of the 
Church of Kngand used in the, viii. 167. 

French discipline, in. 197. 



French neutrals, Treachery of the, v. 373. 

Expedition against, 412. 
French privateers, v. 244, 246. 
Fresh River, the Connecticut, iii. 311 ; v. 318. 
Fretwell, or Frotwell. Judge, vii. 294. 
Friedrichsthal, Le Chevalier, Cor. Memb. 

M. H. S., i. p. xviii. 
Friendship, ship, iii. 281, 347. Arrival of the, 

at Plymouth, 268, 270, 275, 287. Sails, 

271. Charged to the general account, 276, 

280, 299, 379, 402. 
Friendship, sloop, iv. 199, 266. 
Frier, Nathaniel, v. 117, 118. 
Frontenac, Gov. of, v. 477. 
Frost, Mr., of Boston?, 1775, i. 262. 
Frost, Elder Edmund, his death, i. 17. 
Frost, Capt. John, 1684, viii. 530, 535. 
Frost, John, killed, 1748, v. 379. 
Frost, John, of Kittery, 1775, iv. 216. 
Frost, Nicholas, vii. 379. 
Frothingham, Nathaniel L., D.D., Member 

M. H. S., i. p. x. ; ii. p. xvii. ; iii. p. v. ; 

iv. p. xxi. ; v. p. viii.; vi. p. viii.; vii. p. 

viii. ; viii. p. x. ; on the Committee of Pub^- 

lication of vol. 10, 3d Series, i. p. xxi. 

Memoir of William Parsons Lunt, D.D., 

iv. 508-514. 
Frothingham, Richard, Jr., Member M. H. 

S-, i. p. xi. ; ii. p. xvii.; iii. p. v.; iv. p. 

xxi.; v. p. viii.; vi. p. viii.; vii. p. viii.; 

viii. p. x. ; ix. p. xiv. ; Treas., i. p. xx. ; ii. 

p. xvi. ; iii. p. iv. ; iv. p. xx. ; v. p. vii. ; vi. 

p. vii. ; vii. p. vii. ; viii. p. ix. ; ix. p. xiii. ; 

on the Committee of Publication of vol. 

4, 4th Series, iv. p. iv. Notes by, iv. 347, 

393,398,399, 471, 488. 
Froude, James Anthony, M.A., Hon. Memb. 

M. H. S , viii. p. xiii.; ix. p. xvii. 
Fruit-trees in New England, vi. 146, 150 a , 

368,499; vii. 419,421. 
Frye, Rev. Jonathan, v. 358. 
Frveburgh (Pigwacket), v. 317. Love-well's 

light at, 357. 
Fryer, Nathaniel, viii. 357, 360, 361, 527. 

Notices of, 357«, 527«. 
Fugill, Thomas, vii. 278, 437. 
Fugitives, Rendition of, iii. 420. 
Fulham Library, discovery there of Brad- 
ford's ''History of Plymouth," iii. Pref. p. 

v. Notice of. p. vii. 
Fullam, Jacob, slain, v. 359. 
Fuller, Mrs. Bridget, iii. 265rc. 
Fuller, Edward, and familv, iii. 449, 454. 
Fuller, Samuel, Sen., iii. 76, 277, 448. Let- 
ter from, 51. Physician, 264, 278, 279, 

306. Letter of, 277. His death, 314, 451. 

His family, 449, 451, 454. 
Fuller, Samuel, Jr., iii. 265n. 
Fuller, Rev. Thomas, cited, ii. 216. 
Fullword, Capt., 1760, ix. 348. 
Fundv, Bav of, ii. 178; v. 490; x. 834, 836, 

838* 843, 844, 848, 850. 
Funes, Gregorio, D.D., Cor. Memb. M. H. 

S , i. p. xv. 
Furnace, A new, vi. 498. 
Fyfield. See Fifield. 
Fyler. See Filer. 


G., B., Letter of, to Isaac Johnson, vi. 32 a . 
Fac-similes of his signature and seal, vi. 
plate 1. 

G., B., Letters of, to Benj. Franklin, x. 756, 


G., D., signature used by Rev. Wm. Hooke, 
viii. 122m. 

G., J., i. 11. 

Gadney, John, i. 96. 

Gadsden, Christopher, iv. 178. 

Gage, Capt., 1758, v. 459. 

Gage, Col, 1758, v. 464, 569. 

Gage, George, ix. 87, 88, 91, 95, 99. 

Gage, Gen. Thomas, Gov. of Massachusetts, 
i. 266, 268; iv. 46, 47, 249, 250, 345, 433; 
ix. 238, 258, 341; x. 501, 504, 517, 518, 
521, 534-536, 566, 574, 589, 594, 711, 716, 
733, 745, 755. Queries submitted to, by 
G. Chalmers, with Gen. Gage's answers, 
iv. 367-372. Gov. of Montreal, v. 573. 
Letter of, to Lord Dartmouth, x. 713. 
Letters of Lord Dartmouth to, 712, 713, 
716. Extract of a letter of Lieut.-Gov. 
Carlton to, 594. 

Gager, Rev. William, i. 33. 

Gaile, Bethiah, 1697, v. 303. 

Gainsborough, Eng., i. 58-60. Church at, 
iii. 10, 411. 

Galbreath, William, x. 604. 

Gale, Abigail, baptized, viii. 666». 

Gale, Anna, baptized, viii. 666w. 

Gale, John, viii. 666». 

Gale, Matthew, ix. 182. 

Gale, Rev. Theophilus, viii. 343. Death of, 
264. Notice of, 264m. 

Galen, viii. 459. 

Galindo, Col. Juan, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
i. p. xvi.; iii. p. vi. 

Gallagher, , v. 479. 

Gallatin, Albert, LE.D., Cor. Memb. M. H. 
S., i. p. xv. 

Gallop, John, vi. 80, 194, 362; vii. 197, 426; 
(Galopp) iii. 360. 

Gallop, John, Jr , vii. 197, 236, 454, 466. 

Gallop, Capt. Joseph, iv. 107. 

Gallop's Creek, Indian murders at, 1756, v. 

Galloway, Joseph, x. 729, 795, 810. 

Gallup, Benadam, iv. 49. 

Gamblin, M., ix. 366. {Same as Capt. 
Gamelin, 343?) 

Gamlin, Robert, i. 93. 

Gammell, Prof. William, iii. 310n; iv. 471. 

Gannet, Matthew, of Scituate, 1680, v. 40. 

Gannett, Caleb, A.M., Member M. H. S. 
i. p. vi. 

Gannett, Rev. Ezra Stiles, D.D., ii. 245. 

Gard, Roger, vii. 345. Death of, 445. 

Gardenar, Richard, iii. 449, 454. 

Gardiner, Mr., 1757, v. 435. 

Gardiner, Sir Christopher, iii. 294-297. 

Gardiner, David, vii. 52«. 

Gardiner, John, the elder, i. 41, 42. 

Gardiner, John, b. 1734, i. 42. 

Gardiner, Dr. Jonathan, i. 41. 

Gardiner, Lieut. Lion or Lyon, iii. 356%; 
vi. 164,320,326, 370; vii. 482w. Comes 
over in the Bachelor, 1635, vi. 327. Let- 
ters to John Winthrop, Jr., vii. 52, 56, 
58-64. Fac-simile of his signature and 
seal, vii. plate 2. 

Gardiner, Hon. Robert Hallowell, Hon.. 
Memb. M. H. S., v. p. xii. ; vi. p. xii.. 
His death, vii. p. xiii. 

Gardiner, Mrs. Sarah (Palmes), i. 42. 

Gardiner, Sarah, daughter of the prece 
See Brainerd, Mrs. 




Gardiner's Wand, vii. 52w, 64. 

Gardner, Capt., 1676, ix. 170, 172. 

Gardner, Capt, 1708, v. 317. 

Gardner, Major and Mrs., 1776, x. 787. 

Gardner, Mr.. 1636, vi. 93. 

Gardner, Sir Chi i.->topker, Scottow's account 

of him, iv. 293, 332. 
Gardner, Mrs. Eliza (Allen Stone), viii. 

465, 545. 
Gardner, Ezekiel, iv. 190. 
Gardner, George, viii. 465n. 
Gardner, Lyon. See Gardiner. 
Gardner, Samuel Pickering, A.M., Member 

M. H. S., i. p. ix. ; on the Standing Com., 

p. xx i. 
Garland, Jacob, v. 326. 
Garlick, Joseph, vii. 62, 63. 
Garner's Fort, v. 475. 
Garnett, Thomas, ix. 10. 
Garrard, Rev. G., his letter to the Earl of 

Strafford quoted, vi. 582ra. 

Garrett, , 1654, vii. 418. 

Garrett, Copt., vii. 418, 476. Loss of his 

ship, 1657, 35n, 588. 
Garriard, John, accused of robbing the 

grave of a Narragansett woman, vi. 287. 
Garton. See Gorton. 
Gascheth, Henry, iv. 247. 
Gasparin, Count Agenor de, Hon. Memb. 

M. H. S., vi. p. xii.; vii. p. xii.; viii. p. 

xiii.; ix. p. xvii. 
Gaspe, iv. 464n. 
Gaspereau, v. 396. 
Gaspessie, v. 388. 
Gaspier Bay, ix. 423. 
Gatagan, — — , 1776, x. 790. 
Gatchel, Mr., 1774, iv. 30, 31. 
Gates, Capt., son of Sir Thomas, Notice of, 

ix. 52. 
Gates, Mrs., ix. 277, 441. 
Gates, Elizabeth, ix. 51, 52. 
Gates, Gen. Horatio, ix. 239, 249, 251, 253, 

255, 259, 263, 271, 335, 419, 441, 485; x. 

491, 501, 516, 523, 530, 573, 800. Letters 

to, from G. Croghan, 247, 251, 260,266; 

from Col. Bouquet, 310, 327, 404. 
Gates, Margaret, ix. 51, 52. 
Gates, Sir Thomas, ix. 1, 28, 31, 39, 43, 47, 

50, 54, 56, 66, 67, 112. Account of, 49-51. 

Death of his wife, 51. His death,52 ; 
Gauden, John, successively Bishop of Exeter 

and Worcester, vi. 282n; viii. 195. 
Gaulin, Michael Anthony (Golden, Mon- 
sieur), v. 344. 
Gault, William, i. 100. 
Gay, Lieut., 1761, ix. 379. 
Gay, Fisher, iv. 14, 15. 
Gay ton, Copt., 1745, v. 404. 
Geare, George, vii. 237. 
Gednev (Gidnev), Bartholomew, viii. 538. 
Gedney, Hannah, i. 100. 
Gedney, John, the father, i. 100. 
Gednev, John, the son, i. 100. 
Gedney, Ledia, i. 100. 
Gedney, Mrs. Sarah, i. 100. 
Geer, Amos, iv. 49. 

Gelespe (Gillespie), Patrick, viii. 166, 197. 
Gellam, Mr., 1647, vii. 378. 
Gendal, Justice, Walter, killed by Indians, 

1688, viii. 519. 
General Court. See Massachusetts. 
Geneva, iii. 3, 9. 

Geneva Bible used by the Puritans, iii. 6. 
QenlngB, Joseph, iv. 7. 

Geofe, or Gooffe, Mr., 1640, vii. 222, 223. 

Geoffrey, Mr., Death of, 1662, viii. 197. 

George, Capt., v. 193, 195. 

George, Indian teacher, v. 133. 

George L, King, v. 364; viii. 435. 

George II., King, v. 461, 572. 

George, Prince of Denmark, v. 262. 

George, Delawar, ix. 388. 

George, Capt. John, ii. 234. 

George, Katherine. See Sewall, Mrs. 

George, Madam Lydia. See Mather, Mrs. 

George, Lord Melville, v. 211. 

George, vessel, vi. 122 ; ix. 37. 

George Bonadventure, ship, viii. 285n. 

George's River, Capture of schooners in, by 

Indians, v. 433. 
Georgetown, Mass., v. 337; vii. 28n. Reply 

of the Boston Donation Committee to, iv. 

Georgia, ii. 146, 148; ix. 290, 349; x. 778, 

803. Harrassed by Cherokees, v. 559. 

Charter, x. 822. 

Gerard, , viii. 77. 

Germain, Pere, Jesuit missionary, v. 542. 
Germaine, Lord George, x. 749, 771. 
German emigrants, x. 694. 
German Flats, v. 478; ix. 484. Murder by 

Indians at, v. 414. Attacks on, by French 

and Indians, 448. Invasion of, 457, 458. 
Germantown, x. 809. 
Germany, Plague and famine in, 1636, vi. 

600, 502. 
Germany, James, Indian murder near his 

fort, v. 550, 576. 
Gerrish, Lieut., 1745, v. 402. 
Gerry, Elbridge, iv. 27, 28, 62, 69, 82, 202, 

216, 217, 226. 
Gerry, John, iv. 30. 

Ghent, Treaty of, x. 839, 840, 841, 844, 846. 
Gibbens, Sarah, a Quaker, ix. 155. 
Gibbins, Mr., 1636, vii. 57. Another ?, 1638, 

Gibbins, William, vi. 369, 371. 
Gibbon, Grant, iv. 21. 

Gibbons, Capt., afterwards Major- Gen., Ed- 
ward, i. 209; vi. 66, 76, 105, 283, 313n, 

515; vii. 308. Commands troops, 1645, 

iii. 435. His conversion, iv. 289. His 

death, vi. 291. 
Gibbons, Sarah. See Richards, Mrs. 
Gibbons William, vii. 193, 194, 535. 
Gibbs, Col., Governor of Carolina, v. 333. 
Gibbs, Mr., 1623, iii. 228. Mate of the 

Sparrow, 131; iv. 478. Captain of the 

True Love, Vi. 326, 329, 330. 
Gibbs, George, iv. 158. 
Gibbs, William, Member M. H. S., i. p. ix. 
Gibson, Mr., 1764, x. 516. 
Gibson, Mrs., 1686, viii. 61, 62. 
Gibson, Edmund, Bp. of London, x. 660. 
Gibson, John, x. 606. Petition of, ix. 192. 
Gibson, Rev. Richard, vii. 355n. 
Gibson, William, viii. 704. 
Gichawga Creek, ix. 365. 
Gidney, Mr., viii. 280, 282. 
Gidnev, Bartlv .new, viii. 538. 
Giffe^ Capt., viii. 166. 
Gifford, Mr., viii. 171. 
Gift, ship. iii. 253». 
Gift of God, ship, i. 232, 239. 
Gigles, Goodman, vi. 69, 253. 
Gilbard, Mr., chosen Assistant, vii. 278. 
Gilbert, Copt., 1607, i. 241, 242, 243, 244, 




Gilbert, Mr., 1660, vii. 518. 

Gilbert, Mr., 1678, viii. 14. Letter to, from 

Robert Newman, 182; from Mr. Viner, 

Gilbert, Capt. Bartholomew, i. 223. 
Gilbert, John, viii. 14ra. 
Gilbert, Joseph, iv. 37. 
Gilbert, Nathaniel, iv. 115. 
Gilbert, Capt. Raleigh, i. 231, 232, 236, 237. 

239, 240. 
Gilbraith, clerk, ix. 361. 
Giles. See Gyles. 
Gill, Ecles and, iv. 388. 
Gill, John, i. 265. 

Gill, Moses, Gov. of Mass., iv. 336, 337. 
Gillet, Adonijah, v. 372. 
Gillford, vii. 490, 527. 
Gillibrand, Thomas, ii. 281. 
Gilman, Jacob, v. 315, 325. 
Gilman, Jeremiah, his sons captured, v. 318. 
Gilman, Samuel, iv. 152, 153, 154. 
Gilman, Stephen, v. 315, 334. 
Gilmore, John, v. 535. 
Gilmore, William, his wife killed, v. 535. 
Gilpin, Joseph, iv. 227. 
Gilson, Dr., 1776, i. 271. 
Gilson, William, Assistant, iii. 306w. 
Ginkins. See Jenkins. 
Girling, Mr., Expedition of, to recover 

Penobscot, iii. 333. 
Gist, Mr., 1756, v. 416. 
Gladman, Maj., imprisoned, 1661, viii. 180. 
Gladwyn, or Gladwin, Maj., ix. 265, 267, 

269, 271, 272-275, 290, 297, 298, 434, 435; 

x. 506. 
Glasgow, ship, x. 781. 
Glasier, Col., 1758, v. 464. 
Gla«.tenbury, Conn., Letters to the Donation 

Committee of Boston, 1774, iv. 5; 1775, 

222. Reply, 141. 
Gloria Patri to be said after every psalm, vi. 

11 Glorious Combination, The," x. 602. 
Gloucester, i. 201, 212; iii. 247»; vi. 148. 

Letters to the Boston Donation Commit- 
tee, 1775, iv. 259, 260. Replies, 125, 260. 

Church at, vi. 77. Origin of the name, 

viii. 328ra. 
Gloucester County, Va., ix. 173, 176. Peti- 
tion of, 181 foil. 
Glover, Mr., 1671, i. 14. 
Glover, Mr., 1681, viii. 630. 
Glover, Rev. Mr., d. 1611, ix. 51. 
Glover, Rev. Mr., d. 1635, iii. 343. 
Glover (Glower), Charles, i. 94, 95. 
Glover, Henry, vii. 568. 
Glover, John," Sen., v. 129w. 
Glover, John, son o/Josse, H. C, 1650, M.D., 

ii. 195 ; viii. 4. Notice of, 4ra. 
Glover, John, of Boston, son of John, Sen., 

v. 63, 65. 
Glover, Rev. Josse, vi. 99w, 376rc. 
Glover, Mary. See Hinckley, Mrs. 
Glover, Nathaniel, of Dorchester, v. 129n. 
Glover, Rev. Pelatiah, viii.,171, 199. Notice 

of, 17 In. n ii; 

Glover, Thomas, letter to Thomas Hinckley, 

v. 129. 
Gloves, Price of, in 1625, v. 29. 
Gluston, v. 422. 
Gnadenhiitten, Destruction of, by the 

French, v. 412. 
Goade, Abigail, vi. 57. 
Goade, Thomas, vi. 44 ; vii. 16, 17. 

Goats, iii. 209, 215, 366, 376. 379. 

Godbertson, Godbert, iv. 475. 

Godde, Rev. Dr., vi. 563. 

Godfrev, Sir Edmundbury, Murder of, viii. 
17, 345, 346, 591. 

Godfrey, Edward, vii. 198, 342, 365. Let- 
ters to John Winthrop, 335, 377, 378; to 
John Winthrop, Jr., 380. Fac-similes of 
his signature and seal, vii. plate 7. No- 
tice of, 377n. 

Godolphin, Sir William, iv. 503. 

Godwyn, or Goodwin, Thomas, D.D., viii. 

Goffe, Lieut.- Col, 1710, 1722, v. 321, 340. 

Goffe, Edward, his debts, vi. 14, 15, 31, 40&. 

Goffe, Elizabeth, viii. 149. 

Goffe, Mrs. Frances, viii. 122w, 123w, 140, 
143, 149, 153, 154, 160, 161, 261. Letter 
to her husband, 133. Letter from William 
Goffe to, 136. 

Goffe, Rev. Stephen, viii. 122w. 

Goffe, Thomas, iii. 228. Of the Massachu- 
setts Companv, ii. 250, 251, 252, 266, 267, 
268, 269. Of the Plymouth Adventurers, 
iii. 213%. 

Goffe, Col. William, the regicide, vii. 501 n, 
297w, 538n; viii. 59, 103, 107, 127, 156, 
166, 172, 173, 179, 184, 198, 199rc, 260, 
261rc, 533. Queries by, 130-132. His 

daughter, 149. Letter to , 128; 

to Edward Collins, 135; to his wife, 136; 
to William Hooke, 151 ; to Increase Ma- 
ther, 156, 159, 160, 162, 163. Letters from 
William Hooke to, 122, 143, 148; from 
John Davenport, 198; from Peter Tilton, 
224. Notice of, 122w. 

Gold, Maj., 1675, vii. 576. 

Gold, Mr., 1664, vii. 554. 

Gold, Mr., of Clapham, 1661, viii. 174, 179, 

Golden Phoenix, vessel, ix. 47. 

Goldsmith, Frances, pseudonym used by the 
wife of the regicide Goffe. See Goffe, 

Goldsmith, Ralph, ix. 161, 162. 

Goldsmith, Walter, pseudonym used by the 
regicide Goffe. See Goffe, W. 

Golston, Ro., vi. 567. 

Gondomar, Sarmiento, Conde de, ix. 

62, 85, 86, 98, 99. A follower of, mobbed, 
89. King James's subserviency to, 89-91. 

Goochland County, Va., iv. 181. 

Goodale, Thomas, slain, v. 377. 

Gooddens, Adam, i. 97. 

Goodell, Ab'l, iv. 271. 

Goodell, Abner C, A.M., Member M. H. 
S., ix. p. xv. 

Goodenhouse, Samuel, vii. 494. 

Goodhue, Jonathan, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
i. p. xiv. 

Goodin, Anne, i. 99. 

Good Intent, brigantine, x. 624. 

Goodman, Godfrey, Bp., his error in regard 
to Calvert's conversion, ix. 98, 99. 

Goodman, John, iii. 449, 454, 455. 

"Good News from New England," by Ed- 
ward Winslow, viii. 229, 230. Reprinted, 
i. 195-218. 

Goodrich, John, Jr., iv. 161. 

Goodridge, Samuel, iv. 42. 

Goodwin, a mason, viii. 367. 

Goodwin, Col., 1764, x. 530. 

Goodwin, Rev. Ezra Shaw, Member M. H. 
S., i. p. viii. 



Goodwin, Ichabod, Jr., iv. 218, 219. 

Goodwin, John, viii. 237. 

Goodwin, Nathaniel, letter to the Boston 
Donation Committee, 1775, iv. 254. 

Goodwin, Nathaniel, 18 — , i. 26//. 

Goodwin, Thomas, D.D., vi. 293; viii. 150, 
189, 190, 193, 195, 208, 509. 

Goodwin, William, i. 94, 95; vii. 511, 512, 
514; viii. 79, 545, 584. Letters to John 
Winthrop, Jr., vii. 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 514. 
Fac-similes of his signature and seal, vii. 
plate 2. Letter to, from John Norton, 450 ; 
from John Davenport, viii. 126; from Mr. 
"Whiting, 216. Letter from, to John Win- 
throp, Jr., cited, 470?/. Notices of, vii. 
44/i ; viii. 126«, 545//. 

Goodyear, , 1631, vii. 363/1. 

Goodyear (Guddier), Mrs., vii. 150. 

Goodyear, Stephen, iii. 440; vi. 351, 352; 
vii. (Goodier) 418, 495, 496, 500, 589; viii. 
125. Notice of, vi. 348//. And Theophilus 
Eaton, letter to John Winthrop, 347. 

Gookin, Maj.-Gen. Daniel, i. 14,21; (Gook- 
ins) v. 1; vii. 518. Letter to John Win- 
throp, Jr., vii. 446; to Increase Mather, 
viii. 626. Notice of, 626«. 

Gookin, Rev. Daniel, viii. 615. 

Gookin, Eliza, viii. 627?/. 

Gookin, Rev. Nathaniel, ordained, viii. 388. 
Notices of, 388«, 508//. 

Goose, Capt. William, i. 99. 

Gordon, Capt., 1710, v. 320. 

Gordon, Capt., 1760, ix. 259, 268, 275, 302, 
412, 418, 431-434. 

Gordon, Lord Adam, x. 573, 580. 

Gordon, Capt. Benjamin, v. 577. 

Gordon, Capt. Peter, v. 563. 

Gore, Capt., of ship Sunderland, 1711, v. 329. 

Gore, Gov. Christopher, iv. 339. Member 
M. H. S., i. p. vi. ; Pres., i. p. xx. 

Gore, Capt. Robert, 1623, iv. 486. 

Goree, Island of, surrendered to the Eng- 
lish, v. 490. 

Gorgeana, Me., vii. 91n, 333//, 377w. 

Gorges, Sir Ferdinando, i. 250; ii. 157, 285, 
286; iii. 95, 141», 225; vi. 3; vii. 88-96//, 
195», 342, 346, 347, 348, 349, 350, 351, 352, 
353, 360, 363//, 377»; ix. 47. Fac-simile 
of his signature, ii. 163; of his signature 
and seal, vii. plate 7. Cited, iii. 148. 
Weston's abuse of, 150. Grant from, 251. 
Petition of, against the Massachusetts 
colony, 296. Project for making Gover- 
nor of New England, 328. Letter to Sir 
Henrv Vane, John Winthrop, and others, 
vii. 329; to John Winthrop, 331. Grant 
of the province of Maine to, 348, 353, 354. 
Notice of, 329//. 

Gorges, Ferdinando, son of Sir Ferdinando. 
Notice of, vii. 424//. 

Gorges, John, iii. 148; vii. 424. 

Gorges, Robert, iii. 191n; vii. 307. Grant 
to, iii. 148, 168n. His government, 149. 
Calls Weston to account, 150; arrests him, 
152. Returns to England, 154. 

Gorges, Thomas, vii. 331, 345. Letters to 
John Winthrop, 333, 335. Fac-similes of 
his signature and seal, vii. plate 7. No- 
tice of, 333». 

Gorges, William, vii. 377/1. 

Gorgias, of Leontium, viii. 409. 

Gorham, Col., 1746, v. 374; 1745, 403. 

Gorham, Capt., afterwards Major, Joseph, 
V. 506, 521; ix. 222-236, 485; x. 535. 

Expedition down the St. Lawrence, v. 

Gorham, Capt. Josiah, iv. 144?. 264. 
Gorham, letter to the Donation Committee 

of Boston, iv. 257. Reply, 258. 
Goring. George, Baron, ix." 140. Sketch of, 

vii. 432. 
Gorrell, Ensign, 1761, ix. 398, 424, 426. 
Gorsius (Gorscius), Jacobus, viii. 377. 
Gorton, Samuel, iii. 425, 443, 444; iv. 304; 

vi. 147, 181, 346, 380, (Garton) 550; vii. 

279, 586. Letters to John Winthrop, Jr., 

601, 602, 604, 627. Fac-similes of his sig- 
nature and seal, vii. plate 11. Notice of, 

Gorton, Samuel, Winslow's account of, i. 

Gose, Mr. (John Goss?), vi. 371. 
Goshen, v. 457. Indian murders at, 475. 
Gosnall, Capt, 1629, vi. 31. 
Gosnold, Capt. Bartholomew (Gosnoll), i. 

223-227, 228, 230. Names Cape Cod, iii. 

Gosuoll's Island, i. 226. 
Goss. See Gose. 
Gostlin (Goslyn), Capt, vii. 304. 
Gostlin, Benjamin, vi. 44; vii. 22. 
Gostlin, Mrs. Jane (Winthrop), vi. 67. 
Gostlvn, Thomas, vi. 33, 35, 40 c , 43, 44, 45, 

67,*567; vii. 17. 
Gostyate, Capt, ix. 449. 
Gott, Mrs., 1644, vi. 147. 
Gott, Charles, vi. 112, 113, 115, 116. Letter 

of, iii. 265. Letter from Hugh Peter to, 

vi. 116. Notice of, iii. 266». 
Gouge, Mr., Forged letter to, falsely attri- 
buted to Increase Mather, viii. 59, 100, 

101, 104, 108n, 112, 113, 525, 528, 533. 
Goulburn, Henrv, Letter of, to George 

Chalmers, x. 842. 
Gould, Mr., of Salem, 1775, iv. 194, 195. 
Gould, Benjamin A., ii. 241. 
Gould, Jeremiah, vi. 316, 318. 
Gould, Jeremy, returns to England, 1651, 

vii. 282, 283. 
Gould, Nathaniel, slain, v. 377. 
Gouldman, i. 10. 
Gourgues, Dominique de, ix. 42. 
Gouten, Dr., 1710, v. 322, 323. 
Gove, Mrs. Mary. See Appleton, Mrs. 
Governor-general to be sent to New Eng- 
land, viii. 198, 526, 573. 
Goy, Capt, 1758, v. 454. 
Grafton, Mr., 1688, viii. 672. 
Grafton, John, viii. 282, 498, 500. Notice 

of, 282n. 
Grafton, Joseph, vi. 154. 
Grafton, ship, v. 445. 
Graberg af Hem^o, Count Jakob, A.M., 

Cor. 'Memb. M. H. S., i. p. xviii. 
Graham, Capt.-LieuL, 1763, ix. 487. 
Graham, James, Attorney- General, viii. 517. 

Imprisoned, v. 190, 192. 
Graham, Lieut-Col- James D., Cor. Memb. 

M. H. S., i. p. xviii.; iii. p. vi.; iv. p. 

xxii.; v. p. x.; vi. p. x. ; vii. p. x. His 

death, viii. p. xiv. 
Grahame, James, LL.D., Cor. Memb. M. H. 

S., i. p. xvi. 
Grammar-schools, Boston and Roxbury, 

viii. 635//. 

Grancey, de, iv. 462. 

Grand "Diable, rideau, taken at Isle aux 

Noix, v. 671. 



Grand Marian, Island of, x. 834, 838, 840, 
841, 848, 849. 

Granger, Thomas, iii. 397. 

Grant, Copt., of Conn., 1756, v. 428. 

Grant, Copt., 1764, x. 515. 

Grant, Lieut.- Col., 1761, v. 561; ix. 449. 
Expedition against the Cherokees, 577- 

Grant, Maj., of the Highlanders, 1758, v. 
479, 480, 481. Taken prisoner, 482. Re- 
leased, 534. 

Grant, Charles, ix. 389. 

Grant", Francey, ix. 451. 

Grant, Joseph, iv. 114, 115. 

Grant (Graunt), Zeth, i. 94. 

Grantham, Letter to the Vicar of, by Bishop 
Williams, vi. 404-407. 

Granville, Lord, iv. 504. 

Grape Island, i. 261. 

Grattan, Thomas C, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
i. p. xvii. ; iii. p. vi. ; iv. p.xxii.; v. p. x. ; 
vi. p. x. His death, vii. p. xiii. 

Graves, Mr., vi. 62, 63, 512; vii. 303. Mas- 
ter of the Plough, 89n. 

Graves, Rev. Mr., i. 38, 50. 

Graves, Asael, v. 380. 

Graves, Richard, vii. 55. 

Graves, Samuel, wounded, 1748, v. 379. 

Graves, Admired Samuel, iv. 80; x. 733, 
734, 755. Letters of, to Lord Dunmore, 
751, 752, 753. 

Graves, Thomas, viii. 339. 

Grav, Copt., wounded, 1763, x. 489. 

Gray, Mr., of Boston, 1775, i. 272. 

Gray, Edward, iv. 131. 

Gray, Francis Calley, LL.D., Member M. 
H. S., i. p. viii.; ii. p. xvii.; iii. p. v.; on 
the Standing Com., p. xxi. ; on the Com- 
mittee of Publication of vol. 9, 2d Series; 
vol. 8, 9, 10, 3d Series. 

Gray, Horace, Jr., Member M. H. S., v. p. 
ix. ; vi. p. ix. ; vii. p. ix. ; viii. p. xi. ; ix. 
p. xv.; on the Standing Com., vii. p. vii. 

Gray, John C, LL.D., Member M. H. S., 
i. p. x.; ii. p. xvii ; iii. p. v.; iv. p. xxi.; 
v. p. viii.; vi. p. viii.; vii. p. viii. ; viii. 
p. x.; ix. p. xiv. ; on the Standing Com., 
iii. p. iv. ; Vice-Pres., viii. p. ix. 

Gray, John H., ii. 201. 

Gr ;1 y, Pardon, iv. 131, 132. 

Gray, Samuel, iv. 7. 

Gray Eyes, an Indian, ix. 411. 

Grazing, at Plymouth, iii. 162. 

Great Carrying; Pbice, v. 414, 475, 482. 

Greathead, Mr., viii. 214. 

Great Hope, ship, iii. 333. 

Great Island, v. 115, 117. 

Great Meadow, in Putney, v. 366. 

Great Tom, an Indian, v. 133. 

Green, , declines to be Massachusetts 

Councillor in 1774, x. 714. 

Green, Mr., 1651, ii. 194. 

Green, Mr., of Mendham, 1774, iv. 151. 

Green, Bartholomew, viii. 663/a. 

Green, Henry, v. 116, 118. 

Green, Rev. Henry, of Beading, i. 212. 

Green, Mrs. Jane"(Pvgan), i. 29, 32. 

Green, John, ii. 288, 290, 292. 

Green, Jonas, i. 32. 

Green, Mrs. SidlyField (Pool), i. 48. 

Green, Samuel, printer, d. 1702, vii. 161. Let- 
ter from Benjamin Bullivant to, viii. 663. 
Notice of, 663ra. 

Green, Samuel, m. 1798, i. 48. 

Green, Samuel A., M.D., Member M. H. S., 

v. p. ix. ; vi. p. ix. ; vii. p. ix. ; viii. p. xi. ; 

ix. p. xiv. Cabinet-keeper, v. p. vii. ; vi. 

p. vii. ; vii. p. vii. Librarian, viii. p. ix. ; 

ix. p. xiii. 
Green, Sarah. See Adams, Mrs. 
Green, Timothy, i. 32, 46, 50 ; viii. 453, 455, 

Green-brier River, Va., Indian hostilities 

on, v. 412. 
Greenbush, JV. Y., Description of, i. 105. 

Greene, , vii. 601w. 

Greene, Mr., of Warwick, 1664, vi. 296. 
Greene, Mr., of Warwick, 1775, iv. 208. 
Greene, Abigale, i. 93. 
Greene, Hon. Albert G., Cor. Memb. M. H. 

S., v. p. xii. ; vi. p. xii. ; vii. p. xii. His 

death, viii. p. xiii. 
Greene, Bartlet, viii. 124. 
Greene, Lieut.- Col. Christopher, x. 772. 
Greene, Edward, vi. 24. 
Greene, George Washington, A.M., Cor. 

Memb. M. H. S., vi. p. xii.; vii. p. xii.; 

viii. p. xiii. ; ix. p. xvii. 
Greene, Isaak, vii. 6. 
Greene, Jacob, i. 93. 
Greene, John, of Charlestown, arrives in 

Massachusetts, 1632, i. 93. 
Greene, John, of Providence, vi. 226. Fined 

and imprisoned, 212, 213. 
Greene, Joseph, i. 93. 
Greene, Gen. Nathaniel, x. 815. 
Greene, Mrs. Perseverance, i. 93. 
Greene, Ralph, vii. 307. 
Greene, Richard, iii. 129. 
Greene, William, iii. 118-120. 
Greenfield, Mrs. Barbrey, i. 101. 
Greenfield, Barbrey, daughter of the preced- 
ing, i. 101. 
Greenfield, Mary, i. 101. 
Greenfield, Samuel, i. 101; vi. 95; vii. 105. 
Greeiihill, i?e*;.William,viii. 77, 150, 583,584. 
Green Islands, v. 348. 
Greenland, Dr. Henry, vii. 575. 
Greenleaf, Joseph, iv. 3. 
Greenleaf, Simon, LL.D., Member M. H. S., 

i. p. x. 
Greenlif, Mr., 1669, i. 10. 
Greenough, Deacon Thomas, iv. 2, 271, 275. 
Green's Harbor. See Marshfield. 
Greensmith, Stephen, vii. 172, 338. 
Greenway, Mr., murdered in London, vi. 

Greenwich, Conn., viii. 310. 
Greenwich, Eng.. offered for sale, vii. 503. 
Greenwich, N. Y, x. 505, 515, 517, 523, 

535, 546, 569, 577. 
Greenwood, Francis William Pitt, D.D., 

Member M. H. S., i. p. ix. 
Greenwood, William, vi. 60. 
Gregory the Great, iv. 313. 
Gregson, Thomas, iii. 423, 430. 
Grenfield. See Greenfield. 
Grenville, Hon. George, iv. 453. 
Gresham College, viii. 440, 682. 
Greville. Robert. See Brooke, Lord. 
Grev, Maj -Gen., 1780, x. 795, 801, 804, 807, 

808, 809. 
Gridley, Col., 1756, v. 427. 
Gridley, Jeremy, iv. 426. 
Griffin, Ann, Deposition of, viii. 421-424. 
Griffin, Frederic, Cor. Memb. M. H. S. 

iii. p. vi. ; iv. p. xxiii. ; v. p. x. ; vi. p. x. ; 

vii. p. x. ; viii. p. xii. ; ix. p. xvi. 



Griffith, Mr., 1681, yiii. 326. 

Griffith, Frances, wife of Sir M. Boynton, 
vii. 162re. 

Griffith, Sir Henry, vii. 162«. 

Griffith, or Griffiths, John Hugh, Letter of, 
to George Findlay, x. 792, 811. 

Grigshy, Hugh Blair, LL.D., Cor. Memb., 
v. p. xii.; vi. p. xii. ; vii. p. xii.; viii. p. 
xiii. ; ix. p. xvii. 

Grimsby, Eng., i. 121. 

Grindaf, Edmund, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, vi. 415, 458. 

Grindon, Edward, ix. 23, 24. 

Grinman, Copt., 1760, v. 555. 

Griswold, Rev. Mr., 1753, i. 50. 

Griswold, Elizabeth. See Pratt, Mrs. 

Griswold, Matthew, vii. 405-408, 416, 535, 
560, 584. His wife and daughter, 585. 
Notice of, 405n. 

Groom, S., his " Glass for the People of 
New England," iii. 387. 

Groone, John, viii. 176. 

Grosse, Henrv, viii. 176. 

Grote, George, D.C.L., Hon. Memb. M. H. 
S., vii. p. xii.; viii. p. xiii.; ix. p. xvii. 

Groton, Conn., ii. 204. Letter to the Boston 
Committee of Correspondence, iv. 47. 
Replv, 49. Letter to the Boston Donation 
Committee, iv. 107. Reply, 108. 

Groton, Eng., controversy with Boxford, vi. 
567. Sale of J. Winthrop's estate in, 36. 

Groton, Mass., v. 326. Letter to the Over- 
seers of the Poor of Boston, iv. 7. Indian 
murder at, v. 315. Incursions upon, 350. 

Groton, North, i. 45. 

Groug, , 1646, vi. 379. 

Groveland, Mass., vii. 28n. 

Grover, John, viii. 215. 

Grow, Edward, iv. 114, 115. 

Guadaloupe, v. 492, 493, 500; ix. 304. 
Subjection of, to the English, v. 491. 
Articles of capitulation, 493. 

Gualther, Rudolph, viii. 76. 

Guard, Mr., vii. 445. 

Gudburn, Peter, iii. 213. 

Guerick, Otto de, viii. 404. 

Guest, Ensign, 1758, v. 481. 

Guiana, i. 88; viii. 191. Proposition among 
the Pilgrims to settle in, iii. 27, 45. 

Guilford, vii. 548, 558, 570n. 

Guizot, Francois Pierre Guillaume, LL.D., 
Hon. Memb. M. H. S., iv. p. xxiii. ; v. p. 
xii.; vi. p. xii.; vii. p. xii.; viii. p. xiii.; 
ix. p. xvii. 

Gumstock, Adam, iv. 208. 

Gun, A curious, at Boston, 1723, v. 347. 

Gunn, Samuel, A'. 379. 

Gunpowder, Tax on, in Virginia, x. 662. 

Guppy, Reuben, vii. 335, 336. 

Gurdon, Brampton, vi. 32 6 n, 452, 454, 456, 
472, 495, 551, 552, 556; vii. 11, 139, 226, 
251n, 255. Eighty-three years of age, 
1649, vi. 568. Letters to John Winthrop, 
559, 561, 565, 567, 568; vii. 632. _ Fac- 
similes of his signature and seal, vi. plate 
6; vii. plate 11. Notice of, vi. 659n. 

Gurdon, Brampton, Jr., vi. 560. 

Gurdon, Edmund, vi. 563. 

Gurdon, .John, vii. 632. 

Gurdon, Merial. See Saltonstall, Mrs. 

Gurganey, Kdward, ix. 23. 

Gustavus Adolphns, King of Sweden, 

40°, 454, 455, 456. Death of, 486: 
Guthery, Rev. Mr., 1661, viii. 166. 

vii. 16. 

Gwins Island, Evacuation of, x. 789. 

Gyles, James, v. 450. Killed, 453. 

Gyles, Capt. John, his captivity among the 

Indians, v. 449-454. 
Gyles, Thomas, v. 449. Killed, 450. 


H , x. 523. 

Habeas Corpus Act, viii. 390. 
Hacket. a priest, ix. 96. 
Hacy, Mrs. Judith, Letter of recommenda- 
tion of, from the church at Ipswich, viii. 

"Hades looked into," by Cotton Mather, 

viii. 427w. 
Haddam, Conn., Earthquakes in, viii. 425. 
Hadlev, Mass., v. 269, 326; viii. 78n, 82n. 

Church in, 78. Sickness at, 80, 337. 
Hagar, Mr., elected member of the Mary- 
land Assemblv, x. 694, 695. 

Hahn, , 1761, ix. 381 

Hail-storm, July 26, 1682, viii. 629. 
Haines, , master of Sir John Popham's 

ship, i. 231. See also Haynes. 
Haiselup, Mr., 1757, v. 447. 
Haldimand. Col, 1760, ix. 265, 303,318, 356. 
Hale, Col., 1767, x. 597, 598, 601. 
Hale, Rev. Edward E., Member M. H. S., 

v. p. ix. ; vi. p. ix. ; vii. p. ix. ; viii. p. xi. ; 

ix. p. xv. 
Hale, Hon. George S., Member M. H. S., 

viii. p. xi.; ix. p. xv. 
Hale, Sir Matthew, his " Contemplations," 

viii. 575. His death, 575w. 
Hale, Nathan, LL.D., Member M. H. S., i. 

p. viii. ; ii. p. xvii. ; iii. p. v. ; iv. p. xxi. ; 

v. p. viii. On the Standing Com., i. p. 

xx. His death, vi. p. ix. 
Hale, Thomas, vii. 19. 
Hales, John, of Eton. viii. 575. 
Half-breed Will, a Cherokee, v. 581. 
Half-moon, Indian murder at the, v. 507. 
Halifax, Viscount, viii. 145, 499. 
Haliburton, Thomas Chandler, iv. 464n. 

Cor. Memb. M. H. S-, i. p. xv. ; iii. p. vi.; 

iv. p. xxii. ; v. p. x.; vi. p. x. ; vii. p. 

x. His death, viii. p. xiv. 
Halifax, N. S., v. 422,503, 505, 539; ix. 

277, 349; x. 803. Arrival of the fleet at, 

1757, v. 445. Indian murders at, 447. 
Halket. Sir Peter, ix. 211. 
Hall, Capt., 1773, iv. 37S, 379, 382, 383, 384, 

385, 3b7, 460. 
Hall. Capt., 1755, v. 400. 
Hall, Col., 1769, x. 619. 
Hall, Goodman, vii. 246. 
Hall, Mr. and Mrs., 1636, iii. 345. 
Hall, Rev. Mr., 1637, vii. 11. 
Hall, Mrs. Ann (Thornton), viii. 664n, 665. 
Hall, Francis, vii. 250. 
Hall, Henry, ix. 3. 
Hall, John, sailor in the Bachelor, 1625, vi. 

Hall, John, Sen., of Taunton, 1690, v. 232. 
Hall, Joseph, Bishop of Nonvich, i. 113, 115, 

117, 130; vi. 282. 
Hall, Jo^iah, iv 5. 
Hall, Rev. Nathaniel, ii. 146, 147. 
Hall, Capt. Nathaniel, v. 215, 217. Notice 

of, viii. 664. 
Hall, Samuel, 1635, vii. 24, 26n. 



Hall, Samuel, Constable of Taunton, 1690, 

v. 238. 
Hal!, Stephen, iv. 159. 
Hall, Rev. Thomas, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 

i. p. xiii. 
Hall, Willis, iv. 247, 248. 
Hallam, Alexander, i. 30. 
Hallam, Edward, i. 30. 
Hallam, Henry, LL.D., Cor. Memb. M. H. 

S., iii. p. vi. ; iv. p xxiii. 
Hallam, Mrs. Lydia (Adams), i. 47-49. 
Hallam, Nicholas, i. 32. 
Hallam, Mr. Robert, i. 48, 49. 
Hallam, Rev. Robert A., i. 17, 37, 39, 49. 
Hallam, Mrs. Sarah (Pygan), i. 29, 32. 
Hallam, Sarah, daughter of the preceding, i. 

Hallet, William, vi. 348, 349, 353, 521, 

Halley, Edmund, viii. 444. 
Hallowill, B., i. 266. 
Halsey, Luther, D.D., Cor. Memb. M. H. S, 

i. p. xvii. ; iii. p. vi. ; iv. p. xxii. ; v. p. 

x. ; vi. p. x. ; vii. p. x. ; viii. p. xii. ; ix. 

p. xvi. 
Ham, Joseph, v. 346. 
Hambach, ix. 423. 
Hambleden, Mr., 1659, vii. 233. 
Hamblin. See Hamlin. 
Hamden (Hamlin ?, see p. 249), Mr., vii. 

Hamden, John, iv. 484. 
Hamilton, Capt, 1755, v. 396. Killed, 1759, 

Hamilton, Col, 1780, x. 810. 
Hamilton, Lieut, 1760, v. 561. 
Hamilton, Maj,, 1760, ix. 349. 
Hamilton, Maj., 1780, x. 803. 
Hamilton, Mr., captured by the Indians, 

1722, v. 340. 
Hamilton, Mr., inspector of stores, 1760-62, 

ix. 362, 432, 461. 
Hamilton, Col. Andrew, Gov. of New Jersey, 

i. 106. 
Hamilton, Maj. Frederick, v. 563. 
Hamilton, James, Duke of his duel with 

Lord Mohun, 1713, viii. 416. 
Hamilton, James, Marquis of, Patent 

granted to, 1631, for lands in Connecticut, 

viii. 603. Fac-simile of his signature, ii. 

Hamilton, Gov. James?, x. 538, 543. 
Hamilton, Gov. James, ix. 267, 335, 338. 

Letters of, to Gen. Monckton, 278, 315, 

329. Goes to England, x. 535. 
Hamilton, John, President of the Jerseys, 

Letter to, from J. Peagrum, and reply, 

ix. 204. 
Hamilton, Marquis of ii. 157, 163. 
Hamilton, Wm., Letter to, from G. Chal- 
mers, x. 830 ; from Col. T. Barclay, 840. 
Hamlin, Mr., 1660, vii. 249. 
Hamlin (Hamblin), Giles, his death, v. 213. 
Hamlton {sic), i. 201. 
Hammersly, Mr., solicitor, 1767, x. 596, 

Hammond, Capt., 1776, x. 791. 
Hammond, Col., Gov. of Carisbrooh Castle, 

vi. 465; vii. 432. 
Hammond, Lieut., 1694, i. 102. 
Hammond, Lawrence, note from his journal, 

1678, v. 13. 
Hammond, William, of Watertown, d. 1662, 

vi. 395, 396 ; vii. 401. 

Hammond, William, son of the preceding, 

vi. 395, 396. 
Hamon, Mr., 1681, viii. 615. 
Hamond, Capt. A. S-, Letters of, to Lord 

Dunmore, x. 776-790. 
Hamor, Capt. Raphe, ix. 25w, 81. 
Hampden, John, vi. 365w, 566; viii. 538w. 
Hampden, John, Jr., Letter from Simon 

Bradstreet to, viii. 538. 
Hampton Court offered for sale, vii. 503. 
Hampton, Eng., Plague in, 1636, vi. 429. 
Hampton, N. H., i. 212; (Winicowett) vii. 

88n. Settlement of, vii. 98n, 101, 106. 

Storm at, viii. 457. Attack of the Indians 

upon, 1677, 552-554. 
Hampton, Va., x. 750. 
Hampton Road, x. 786. 
Hanam, Capt., i. 237. 
Hanbury, Mr., 1640, vi. 169. 
Hancock, Apthorp and, ix. 221. 
Hancock, John, iv. 24, 25, 27, 45, 83, 84, 86, 

153, 180, 190, 239, 374, 379, 388; x. 740. 
Hand, deserter, 1761, ix. 436. 
Handmaid, ship, iii. 253n. 
Handson, Mr., taken by the Indians, 1722, 

v. 340. 
Hanford, Thomas, viii. 311, 312, 313. Let- 
ters to Increase Mather, 623, 625. Notice 

of, 623n. 
Hankredge, Richard, viii. 226. 
Hankredge, Sarah. See Mather, Mrs. 
Hankridge or Hawcrit, Sarah. See Cotton, 

Hanover Township, Penn., Indian murders 

in, v. 448, 457, 482. 
Hanson, Capt., 1623, iii. 152. 
Hanson, Mr., of Maryland, 1674, viii. 270. 
Hanson, Alice. See Bradford, Mrs. 
Hanson, John, of Austerfield, Eng., 1575, i. 

76, 77. 
Hanson, John, of Dover, 1724, v. 354. 
Hanson, John, of Maryland, 1775, iv. 244. 
Haram, an Indian, ix. 386, 388. 
Harcourt, Robert, iii. 27w. 
Harcourt, Sir Sj'mon, The brother of, vi. 

Harden. See Harding. 
Harding, Capt. Richard, i v. 61, 62, (Harden) 

222, 223. 
Harding, Robert, vi. 198. 
Hard wick Township, Indian murders in, 

v. 416. 
Hard win (Harding), Grace, vii. 89-96w. 
Hardy, Admiral, 1757, v. 444, 461, 545. 
Hardy, Mr., 1763, x. 489, 490. 
Hardy, Sir Charles, ix. 448 ; x. 542. 
Hardye, Jo., vii. 211. 
Hare, Nicholas, ix. 61. 
Harford County, Md., iv. 38w. 
Harison, Rev. Mr., 1635, vii. 8. 
Harlakenden or Harlaekenden, Roger, 

1637-38, vi. 226; vii. 265. His widow, 

Harlakenden family, vii. 136. 
Harlock, Thomas, vii. 39. 
Harlow, Capt., 1607, i. 240. 
Harmainson, Jno., iv. 66. 
Harman, John, sailor, 1635, vi. 328. 
Harmon, Capt, 1712, v. 335, 339, 341, 345, 

346, 352, 353. 
Harmon, Mr., 1707, v. 316. 
Harriman, John, Notice of, viii. 660n. 
Harrington, Mr., iv. 412. 
Harrington, Sir James, viii. 167. 



Harrington, John, viii. 66 6n. 

Harrington, Marv, viii. 666n. 

Harris, , 1654, vii. 130. 

Harris, , of London, 1684, viii. 61. 

Harris, , D.D., of Honiton, Eng., iv. 

398, 401, 403, 417, 425, 441, 442. His 
death, 453, 457. 

Harris, Mr., 1688, viii. 672. 

Harris, Benjamin, publisher, iv. 279; vii. 

Harris, Caleb, iv. 131. 

Harris, Clarendon, ii. 139. 

Harris, Rev. Henry, ii. 182; viii. 415. 

Harris, James Winthrop, ii. 139. 

Harris, John Alexander, ii. 139. 

Harris, Mary Dorothy, ii. 139. 

Harris, Nathaniel, vii. 92ft. 

Harris, Mrs. Rebekah (Mason). See Wait, 

Harris, Robert, of Littleton, Letter of, 1775, 
iv. 241. 

Harris, Robert, D.D., viii. 76. 

Harris, Thaddeus Mason, D.D., Member 
M. H. S., i. p. vi.; ii. p. v.; iv. p. vii.; 
Cor. Sec. (pro. tern.), p. xx. ; Librarian, 
p. xx.; Asst. Libr., p. xx. ; on the Com- 
mittee of Publication of vols. 7, 10, 1st 
Series, vol. 2 of 2d Series, vol. 7 of 3d 
Series, i. p. xxi. Rev. John Pierce studies 
with, i 281. Memoir of, by N. L. Froth- 
ingham, ii. 130-135. List of his writ- 
ings, 153-155. "Tour," 140. "Minor 
Encyclopaedia," 141. ''Patronage of Ge- 
nius," 141. "Natural History of the 
Bible," 142. " Constitutions of the Free- 
masons," 144. " Memoirs of Oglethorpe," 
146, 148. His unfinished " History of 
Dorchester," 149. 

Harris, Thaddeus William, M.D., ii. 139, 
141. Member M. H. S., i. p. xi.; ii. p. 

Harris, Thomas, viii. % 

Harris, Walter, i. 92. 93ft. 

Harris, William, v. 92, 95. Report concern- 
ing his right to lands at Pautuxet, 1679, 
ii. 290-292. Accusations of Roger Wil- 
liams against, 1639, v. 30. His case re- 
presented by Thomas Hinckley, 1682, 82; 
viii. 597. 

Harris, Wi\\h\m, father of Thaddeus Mason, 
ii. 130. 

Harris, William, D.D., Cor. Memb. M. H. 
S., i. p. xiv. 

Harris, William Thaddeus, iii. 456. 

Harrison, Ensian, killed, 1759, v. 498. 

Harrison, Mr." 1639, vii. 221. 

Harrison, Mrs. Dorothy (Symonds), viii. 

Harrison, Francis, ix. 203, 204. 

Harrison, G., x. 546. 

Harrison, Maj.-Gen. John, vii. 463. 

Harrison, Rev. Thomas, D.I)., viii. 330,583, 
584. Letters to John Winthrop, vii. 434, 
435, 438. Fac-similes of his signature and 
seal, vii. plate 9. Notice of, 434/?. 

Harrison, Gen. William Henry, iv. 500. 

Harrold, John, vii. 449. 

Harrope, Va , ix. 143, 145. 

Ilarrv, on linlim). v. 581. 
Ilarr'vs, Mr., 1688, viii. 649. 
Hart,' Mr., d. 1635 or 1636, vi. 46. 
Hart, David, viii. 28, 37. 
Hart, [sacke, i. 98. 
Hart, John, i. 93. 

Hart, William, vi. 570. 

Hartford, Conn., (Sekioge or Suckiag) i. 
109, 110, 201; (New-towne) iii. 342; iv. 
9, 16n; v. 68; vi. 244, 245, 248n, 268, 271, 
301, 336, 353, 354, 370, 375n, 379, 384, 
386, 387ft, 581ft, 585; vii. 66, 451, 494, 
498, 507, 513, 514, 517, 535, 555. 556, 557, 
558, 565, 570, 571, 575, 581, 596n, 597; 
viii. 88, 626. Trade there, iii. 313. Aid 
from, against Indians, 428. Letter to the 
Donation Committee of Boston, iv. 89. 
Replv, 90. Seizure of Dutch possessions 
at, vii. 193, 194. Church at, 530. Churches 
at, 568. Jail at, 585. Strange occurrences 
at, viii. 86-88. Case of possesion in, 466 
foil. Differences in the church at, 470. 

Hartford Colony, its danger, 1681, viii. 602. 

Hartley, David, his plan of conciliation be- 
tween the colonies and Great Britain, x. 
757, 759, 760, 768, 770. 

Hartlib, Samuel, vii. 504. 

Harvard (Harver), John, d. 1644, i. 217. 

Harvard College, i. 288; iii. 384n; iv. 412, 
433, 472, 507; vi. 344??, 536n; vii. 138ft, 
257, 401ft ; viii. 89ft. 93, 99, 264, 315, 338, 
339, 388, 389, 390, 484, 496, 501, 510, 521, 
522, 615ft, 626, 627, 645, 649, 656, 660, 663, 
671, 677ft, 700, 702, 705, 712, 714. Library, 
ii. 147. Donation of books from T. Hollis 
to, iv. 402, 409, 426, 427, 441. Choice of 
a President, 1769, 444. General Court 
held at Cambridge, 452, 457. Foundation 
of the Lawrence Scientific School, 506. 
Emanuel Downing's recommpndation that 
it be established, vi. 47. Mathew Cra- 
dock's proposed donation to, 130. Resig- 
nation of President Dunster, and election 
of President Chauncy, 291. Notice of the 
" Theses," 1678, viii." 248 ; 1686, 63. Elec- 
tion of Rev. Samuel Torrey as President, 
99. Removal of John Emerson from, 111. 
Petition in behalf of, 113. William Pen- 
nover's bequest to, 305. Catalogue of 
1682, mentioned, 311. Sir Matthew Hol- 
worthy's donation to, 502. T. Danforth's 
accounts, 504-507. Printing the laws, 
516. Time of commencement in 1684, 
521, 522ft; 1688, 671. State of, and dona- 
tions to, 1678-79, 593. Sir Robert Thor- 
ner's donation to, 678. Hebrew Psalters 
for, 680. Election of Samuel Nowell as 
Treasurer pro tempore, 694. 

Harvey, Maj., 1759, v. 504; x. 490. 

Harvev, Sergt., killed, 1724, v. 348. 

Harvey, Benjamin, killed, 1747, y. 387. 

Harvev, Sir John, Gov. of Virginia, ix. 9, 
71, 78, 79, 101, 102, 104 foil., 133, 149, 152. 
His declaration of the State of Virginia, 
60-74. Account of him, 60-62. IIi'< dif- 
ficulties, 82. Matthew's reasons for his 
expulsion, 131. His return to Virginia 
and subsequent conduct, 134 foil. Causes 
of his removal, 136-147. His ruin, 147, 

Harvey, John, of N. Carolina, 1774, iv. 86, 
88, il2. 

Harvey, William, v. 6, 238. 

Harwich, Mass, See Brewster. 

Harwich Fort, Plan of, to be procured, vi. 
31, 32. 

Harwood, George, ii. 250-252, 266-268 ; vii. 

Harwood, Thomas, ix. 132, 135. 

Hasell, William, vii. 2. 



Haselrig, Sir Arthur, vi. 48, 292, 542 ; vii. 420, | 
592 ; viii. 592. Imprisonment of, vi. 293, 
294. (Hezilridge) Appointed Governor 
of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 542. Fac-simile 
of his signature, vi. plate 4. Notice of, 

Haselrig, Sir Thomas, vi. 364ra. 

Hassenclover, Mr., x. 526, 577, 593. 

Hastings, CapL, 1711, v. 333. 

Hatarask, Va., i. 224. 

Hatch, Capt. Crowel, his anger against the 
Boston Committee of Donations, iv. 188. 

Hatfield, v. 269. Letter to the Donation 
Committee of Boston, iv. 242. 

Hathaway, John, Sen., v. 238. 

Hatherly, Timothy, iii. 151, 213, 227, 285, 
290; vi. 157, 158, 166, 333; vii. 15. Ar- 
rives at Massachusetts, i. 94; iii. 268, 271; 
vi. 40 e . Partner with the Ptymouth 
Colony, iii. 246, 258, 268, 280, 282, 287. 
His excuses and conduct, 269, 271-276. 
Visits Kennebec and Penobscot, 274, 275. 
Returns to England, 275. Troubled about 
the Friendship, 301. Settles at Scituate, 
301, 368. His accounts, 302. Assistant, 
301, 343, 351, 367, 377, 384, 408. Com- 
missioner, vi. 178. 

Hathorne, Capt., or Maj. William, vi. 56, 57, 
66, 138, 143, 252, 254; vii. 213, 214, 241, 
312, 313, 512, 543. Commissioner, iii. 
430. Agent to England, viii. 217. No- 
tice of, 270n. 

Hatsel, Mr., 1663, vii. 522. 

Hatton, Mr., of Maryland, 1675, viii. 270. 

Haugh, Mr. Atherton, vi. 487. 

Havanna, x. 589, 810. 

Have, La, Nova Scotia, iii. 332w; (La Heve) 
iv. 463, 464. 

Haven, Nathaniel Appleton, A.M., Cor. 
Memb. M. H. S., i. p. xv. 

Haven, Samuel F., iv. 280. Member M. H. 
S., v. p. ix. ; vi. p. ix. ; vii. p. ix. ; viii. p. 
x. ; ix. p. xiv. 

Havered, Mrs., 1647, viii. 544. 

Haverhill, Mass. (Pentucket), i. 201, 212. 
Settlement of, vii. 27, 29, 274. 

Haviland, Gen., 1760, v. 573, 574. 

Haviland, Lieut.- Col., v. 510,570, 571; ix. 
239, 270, 300, 315, 318, 319, 326. 

Haviland, Rev. Mr., d. before 1677, viii. 
583, 585. 

Hawes, Thomas, vi. 574. 

Hawke, schooner, iv. 143. 

Hawker, Capt., 1764, x. 512. 

Hawkins, James, vi. 219, 222, 240, 253. 

Hawkins, John, his wife, v. 275. 

Hawkins, Nathaniel, iv. 146, 147. 

Hawkins, Thomas, same as the following t, 
vi. 219, 222, 240. 

Hawkins, Capt. Thomas, vi. 66; vii. 145. 
Letter (with Nehemiah Bourne) to John 
Winthrop, 297. Notice of, 297m. 

Hawkins, Maj. Thomas, of Virginia, 1676, 
ix. 173, 174, 186. 

Hawkredd(Hawkridge), Anthony ,viii. 351w. 

Hawkridge, Elizabeth. See Coney, Mrs. 

Hawkridge, Mary. See Coney, Mis. 

Hawks, Eleazer, Jr., v. 372. 

Hawks, Francis Lister, D.D., Cor. Memb. 
M. H. S., i. p. xvii. ; iii. p. vi.; iv. p. 
xxii. ; v. p. x. ; vi. p. x. ; vii. p. x. His 
death, viii. p. xiv. 

Hawks, Sergt. John, v. 368, 370. 

Hawley, Lieut., v. 380. 

Hawley, Mr., ix. 102, 104, 133. 

Hawley, Gabriel, ix. 100, 101. 

Hawley, Jerome, ix. 134, 141. Appointed 
Treasurer of Virginia, 101, 134, 137. 

Hawley, Joseph, Letter of, iv. 393. 

Haworth, Robert, ii. 191. 

Hawthorne. See Hathorne. 

Hay, Capt., 1760, ix. 256, 432; x. 604. 

Hay, Ensign, 1760, ix. 346. 

Hay, Alexander, iv. 235. 

Hay, Lord Charles, ix. 270. 

Hay, or Hayes, John, ix. 279, 280. 

Hayes, James, ii. 281. 

Hayman, John, iv. 475. 

Haynes, Maj., viii. 173. 

Hay ties (Haines and Heynes), John, Gov. of 
Massachusetts, afterwards of Connecticut, 
iii. 335; vi. 11, 128, 196, 230, 244, 251, 
260-262, 325n, 343, 368, 372, 373; vii. 5, 
126 ; viii. 339rc. Letters to John Winthrop, 
vi. 355, 356; to John Winthrop, Jr., 354, 

358, 359, 361; vii. 452-467. Fac-simile 
of his signature and seal, vi. plate 3 ; vii. 
plate 9. Death of, vii. 49; viii. 469, 470. 
Notices of, vi. 354rc; viii. 469«. 

Haynes, Rev. Joseph, viii. 467, 468. Death 

of, 469, 470. Notice of, 469«. 
Havnes, 3frs. Mabel (Harlakenden), vii. 5, 

128, 452-456, 458-462. Sickness of, vi. 

359, 360, 361. 
Hays, James, v. 317. 

Haysel (hay-harvest), 1636, vi. 408. 

Hayward, Mr., viii. 504. 

Hay ward, Hon. Elijah, Cor. Memb. M. H. 

S-, iii. p. vi. ; iv. p. xxiii. ; v. p. xi. ; vi. 

p. xi. ; vii. p. x. His death, viii. p. xiv. 
Hayward, John, Sen., of Braintree, v. 535. 
Hayward, John, son of the preceding, shot, 

1759, v. 535. 
Hayward (Haeward), Thomas, i. 92. 
Hazard, Carder, iv. 146, 147. 
Hazard, Ebenezer, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 

i. p. xi. 
Hazell, John, ii. 48, 51, 55, 56, 57, 58, 61, 62. 
Hazelrig. See Haselrig. 
Heald, Fphraim, iv. 200, 202. 
Healths, Drinking of, vii. 270. 
Heard, Col., 1776, x. 776. 
Heard, Ann, of Cocheco, v. 272. 
Heard, Tristram, v. 346. 
Heardman, John, vii. 500. 
Hearne, Thomas, i. 68. 
Heath, Capt, 1724, v. 355. 
Heath, Isaac, vii. 4. 
Heath, John, iv. 256. 
Heath, Sir Robert, ix. 140, 142. 
Heath, Thomas, iii. 213. 
Heath, William, i. 94, 95. 
Hebrew Psalters for Harvard College viii.. 

Hector, ship, vii. 19. 

Hedge, , 1636, vii. 1. 

Hedge, Frederic H., D.D., i. 277n. Mem- 
ber M. H. S., iv. p. xxi. ; v. p. viii.; vi. 

p. viii.; vii. p. viii.; viii. p. x. ; ix. p.. 

xiv. Notice of Dr. Pierce by, i. 293. 
Hedge, Levi, LL.D., Member M. H. S., i. p.. 

Heights of Abraham, v. 527. 
Helin, Jacob, v. 458. 
Hemingway, Mrs. (Holme Mather),. 

viii. 657. 
Hemingway, Daniel, letter to Increase 

Mather, viii. 657, 659. Notice of, 657».. 




Hempsted, Joshua, i. 50. 

Henchmnn, Richard, letter to Cotton Ma- 
ther, viii. 604. Notice of, 664n. 

Henderson, John, v. 377. 

Henderson, Joseph, iv 202. 

" Henderson's Purchase," v. 458. 

Hendriek, Sayamoreof the Mohawks, killed, 
1755, v. 337. 

Hendricks Capt, 1776, x. 772. 

Heneage Court, iii. Tin. 

Henfield, Mr., 1683, viii. 283. 

Henige House, iii. 71. 

Henlev, Mr., 1774, iv. 64m. 

Henman, Mr., 1682, viii. 609. 

Henrico, Va., ix. 54. 

Henrico County, Va., iv. 64m; ix. 169. Let- 
ter to the Boston Donation Committee, iv. 
184. Reply, 185. 

Henrietta. Queen of England, viii. 200, 206, 

Henry, Mr., ix. 335. 

Henry, Prince, ix. 52-55. 

Henry, Rev. Philip, viii. 406. 

Henshaw, Benjamin, iv 115. 

Henshaw, George, iv. 115. 

Henshaw, Joshua, ii. 131m. 

Henshaw, Joshua, Jr., iv 2, 275. 

Herbert, Mr., 1659, vii. 183. 

Herbert, Capt. Edward, iv. 85, 86, 112, 124, 

Herbert, George, quoted, iv. 287, 329. 

Herb-market in London removed, viii. 180. 

Herd, Capt., 1712, v. 335, 

Herd, Lieut., 1712, v 334. His son, v. 333. 

Hereford, Storm, earthquake, and wonder- 
ful birth at, 1661, viii. 175. 

Heresy, ii. 66. 

Herport, , iv. 435, 436. 

Herryman, John ?, and his wife, vii. 489-492, 

Hervey, Lord Arthur, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
v. p* xii.; vi. p. xii.; vii. p. xii. ; viii. p. 
xiii.; ix. p. xvii. 

Hewes, Mr., 1625, iii. 196m. 

Hewes, Rev. Mr., 1635, vii. 16. 

Hewes, Joseph, iv. 85, 86, 112. 

Hewett, Rev. John, D.D., vii. 208. 

Hewitt (Huet), Fphraim, i. 217. 

Hewson, Col., 1662, viii. 181. 

Hewson, Thomas, vi. 470, 471, 578. 

Heydon, Sir Christopher, i. 87. 

Hevdon, Fiances, i. b7. 

Heyes, John, viii. 319, 322. 

Heylin, Dr. Peter, his " Coal from the Altar," 
vi. 404. 

Hibbins, Mrs. Anne, viii. 58. 

Hibbins, William, ii. 37, 39,60; iii. 401,403; 
vi. 58, 59, 313m, 314, 317; vii. 201, 303. 

Hickes, John, vii. 188. 

Hickman, 1761, ix. 438. 

Higgins, Christian, letter to Col. Jackson, 
iv. 223. Letter to, from Col. Jackson, 

Higgins, Capt. Christopher, iv. 272. 

Higgins, John, settler Ht Nauset, iii. 426. 

Higgins, Joseph, of Wellfleet,\\. 190. 

Higgins, Capt. Jos., of Lyme, iv. 223. 

Higgins, Joseph, Jr., of Lyme, iv. 223. 

Higginson, Capt., son of Rev. Francis, of 
Baiem, viii. 199, 200, 201. 

Higginson, Rev. Francis, of Salem, Hi. 263??, 
204??; iv. 288; vi. 184m, 536m; viii. 26971. 
Ordained, iii. 266. 

Higginson, Rev. Francis, Jr., vi. 536n. 

Hiirginson, Rev. John, vii. 34. 35, 543; viii. 

199, 340, 630, 673. Statement by, 269. 

Apology of, 270. Letters to Johii Win- 

tbrop, vii. 394; to John Winthrop, Jr., 

399, 400; to Increase Mather, viii 278, 

282, 2>*3. 285, 287 Fac-simdes of his 

si^naure and seal, vii. plate 8. Notices 

of, vii 394/?; viii. 269m. 
Higginson, Na b miel, vii. 399. 
Higginson, Mrs Mary (Blackman Atwater), 

vii. 512; vi i. 301." 
Higginson, Mrs. Sarah (Whitefield), vii. 400. 
Higginson, Stephen, Member If. H. S., i. p. 

Higgi-on, Mrs., 1640, vii. 333. 
Higher 'aw appealed to, in 1781, iv. 344, 345. 
Highlander, Intrepidity of a, at the capture 

of Quebec, v. 553 
Hisrhl n lers of Scotland, viii 331, 336. 
Hildreth, Bichard, Cor. Memb. M. H S-, v. 

p. xii ; vi p. xii.; vii. p. xii. His death, 

viii. p. xiii. 
Hi 1, Gen., 1711, v. 328; viii. 411. 
Hill, Lieut., 1763, x. 490. 
Hill, Mr., of London. 1644, vi. 59, 161. 
H II, Mr., if Virginia, 1674, viii. 269. 
Hill, Mr., of Boston, 1769, x. 614. 
Hill. Mrs., of London, vi. 59. 
Hill, David, v. 350. 

Hill, Mrs. Elizabeth (Bradford), i. 77, 78, 81. 
Hill, Henry, iv. 2, 275. Letters for the 

Donation Committee of Boston, 107, 128, 

129, 133, 134, 135, 142. 
Hill, James, i. 78, 81. 
H 11. John, viii. 293. 

Hill, Thomas, of Boston, Eng., 1627, vi. 28. 
Hill. Thomas, in Virginia, 1637, ix. 136. 
Hill, Thomas, D.D., Member M. H. S., viii. 

p. xi.; ix p. xv. 
Hill Valent ne, vii. 222, 378. 
Hid, William, i. 92, 93m. 
Hillard, George S., LL.D., Member M. H. 

S, i. p. x.; ii. p xvii.; iii. p v.; iv. p. 

xxi.; v. p. viii.; vi. p. viii.; vii. p. viii.; 

viii p. x.; ix. p. xiv. ; on the Standing 

Com., ix. p. xiii. ; on Com. to revise the 

By-laws, iv. p. vi. 
Hiller, Joseph, iv. 168. 
Hd iard, Rev. Timothy, ii. 135. Letter to, 

iv 215. 
Hillsborough, Lord, iv. 355, 426,446,453; 

x. 500, 550, 551, 553, 728. Circular letter 

from, iv. 426m. Circular to col* nies, 438. 

Letters from Gov. Kden to, x. 617-624. 
Hilton, Col., of Exeter, v. 312, 313, 317, 

359. Murdered by Indians, 325. 
Hilton, Edward, iii. 240. 
Hdron, William, iii. 96, 105. 
Hinckley, Abigail. See Lord, Mrs. 
Hinckley, Fxperience, v. 65, 111. 
Hincklev, Mrs. Mary (Glover), v. 12, 57, 

120, 129, 207, 211, 248, 255, 280, 286, 300. 

Letters from Thos. Hinckley to, 1, 147, 

212; from John C> tton to, 113. 
Hinckley, Mrs. Mary (Hichards), v. 147. 
Hinckley, Mehitable" See Avery, Mrs. 
Hinckley, Mercy. See Prince, airs. 
Hincklev, Reliance. See Stone, Mrs. 
Hmcklev, Samuel, d. 1662, v. p. xiii. 
Hinckley; Sarah. See Bacon, Mrs. 
Hincklev, Thomas, Gov. of the Colony of 

New Plymouth, ii. 207m; v. Ill; viii. 57», 

236, 244??, 695. Commissioner, with others, 

to determine the controversy respecting 



Hog Island, v. 72. Commissioner, -with 
others, to defend the right of the Colony 
to Narragansett lands, 90. Judge of the 
Prerogative Court in Barnstable County, 
150. Commissioner t<> administer oath of 
allegiance, 151. Councillor of the Prov- 
ince of Mass. Bay, 301. Attorney for 
Elizabeth Backhouse, 802. His account 
with the Treasurer of Plymouth Colony, 
141. Address to the King, in behalf of 
the Colony of Plymouth, 169. Lines on the 
death of Gov. Josiah Winslow, 53. Peti- 
tion, in behalf of the Colon}', to Sir Ed- 
mund Andros, 149. Letters from, to Rev. 
Messrs. Allen. Mather, Torrey, and Wil- 
lard, 41; Sir Henry Ashhurst, 201, 225; 
William Blathwayt, 65, 74, 94, 123, 153; 
Simon Bradstreet, 88, 244; Edward Cran- 
field, 122; Isaac Foster, 13; Mrs. Mary 
Hinckley, 1, 147, 212; Sir Leoline den- 
kins, 128; Jacob Leisler, 243; Increase 
Mather, 227, 287; Lords of the Privy 
Council, 135; Eail of Rochester, Lord 
High [Yeasurer, 143; William Stoughton 
and Joseph Dudley, 132; Peter Thacher, 
16; Ichabod Wise wall, 292. Letters to, 
from Isaac Aldington, 197, 301; James 
Alien and others, 43; Samuel Angier, 11; 
Sir Henry Ashhurst, 206; William Bassitt, 
214; William Blathwayt, 91, 94; William 
Bradford and Nathaniel Thomas, 190; 
Simon Bradstreet, 203, 21*4, 258, 259, 265, 
266,*267; Benjamin Church, 219, 220, 270; 
Thomas Cooper and others, 2; John Cut- 
ton, 22, 55, 103, 189,278; Edward Cr in- 
field, 121; Samuel Dan forth, 166; Thomas 
Danforth, 191; Walter Dean and others, 
234; John Freeman, 131; dames Keith, 6; 
Jacob Leisler, 232,249; Joseph Lord, 304; 
Cott n Mather, 248; Increase Mather, 209; 
Matthew Mavhew, 61; Joshua Moodey, 
73, 116; S unuel Phillips, 26; Robert Pike, 
281; Samuel Prince, 192, 216, 303; Ed- 
ward Randolph, 82,93,96, 122; Edward 
Rawson, 141; Edward, Willi. on, and Ann 
Rawson,62; John Saffin, 187; Peleg San- 
ford, 67, 69; Samuel Sewall, 253; George 
Shove, 23, 57, 87; Da i^l Smith, 207; 
Samuel Spraeue, 307; Nathaniel Stone, 
306; Samuel Torry, 111; Samuel Treat, 
186; John Walley, 208, 223, 233, 239, 247, 
250, 260, 263, 284; Richard Williams and 
others, 4; Roger Williams, 21, 29; Josiah 
Winslow, 8; Ic abod Wisewall, 144, 276, 
285, 299; Benjamin Wooiibridge, 130; 
Samuel Worden, 224, 282. Notice ot, v. 
p. xiii 

Hinckley Papers, The, v. p. xiii-xv., 1-308. 

Hinsdel, Col. Ehenezer, his fort, v. 372, 
379; his mill, 379, 380, Indian ambush 
at, 369 

Hindsdel, Mehamen, v. 317. 

Hingham, Mass., i. 201, 212, 261; iii. 368, 
370; iv. 8, 205; vi. 158. 

Hinsdale, N. H., Indian hostilities at, v. 

Hint n, Sir Thomas, ix. 108, 133. 

Hir-t Grove, ii 125, 126. 

Hispaniola, vii. 152. Expedition against. 
1654-55. vi. 289, 291, 293; vii. 420, 476. 

u Histrio-Mastix," bv Prynne, vi. 415, 419. 

Hoadly, Charles J., Corf Memb. M. H. S, 
ix. p. xvii 

Hoar, Col, 1759, v. 510,511. 

Hoar, Mrs. Bridget (Lisle), i. 19. Letter to, 

viii. 571. Notice of, 57 Ira. 
Hoar, Daniel, viii. 571rc. 
Hoar, Eben. Rockwo-d, LL.D., Member M. 

H. S., vii. p. ix. ; viii. p. xi. ; ix. p. xv. 
Hoar 5 John, viii. 571. 
Hoar, Rev. Leonard, President of Harvard 

College, i. 17, 18, 19; viii. 571n, 572. 
Hoar, Mrs. Marv, letter to Bridget Hoar, 

viii. 571. Notice of, 57 In. 
Hoar, Samuel, LL D., Member M. H. S. 

i. p. x. ; ii. p. xvii ; iii. p. v. 
Hoare, Richard, vi. 124. 
Hobamak, iii. 103, 114. Expresses fears, 

112. Jealous of Squanto, 113, 114. Ac- 
companies the Pilgrims to Massachusetts, 

113. His services, 114; iv. 485 (Hober- 

Hobart, Rev. Gershom, viii. 237, 599. 

Hobart, Rev. Jeremiah, Letter of. to Increase 
Mather, viii. 661. Notice of, 66 In. 

Hobart (Hubbard), Nehemiah, i. 21; viii. 

Hobart, Rev. Peter, viii. 237«, 661rc. 

Hobb, Capt, 1757, v. 433. 

Hobbs, Capt. Humphrev, v. 379. 

Hobby, Mr., 1651, vi. 363. 

Hobby, Sir Charles, v. 320, 321, 322. 

Hobby, William, vi:i 704. 

Hobermack. See Hobamak. 

Hobson, John, ix. 134. 

Hobson, William, iii. 213. 

Hoekamoanko, vii 423. 

Hocking, , killed at the Kennebec, the 

consequences, iii. 316 322. 

Hodgdon,Alexander, iv. 82, 98, 126,272,273. 

Hodge, Andrew, x. 611, 612, 614. 

Hodges, Capt., v. 427. 

Hodges, Henry, v. 232. 

Hodges, John, vi. 124. 

Hodgshon, Robert, ix. 155, 156. 

Hodgson, Robert, iv. 502. 

Hofmeister, Johann, viii. 77. 

Hog, Lawsuit about a, viii. 441. 

Hog Island, i. 262; viii. 517. Controversy 
respecting, v. 72, 78-80, 123, 127, 128. 

Hogan, . killed, 1757, v. 447. 

Hogan, Major, 1764, x. 518. 

Hogarth, Lieut, 1764, x. 516. 

Hogg, Lieut., 1756, v. 425, 426, 428, 430. 

Hngg, Robert, iv. 24. 

Hoit's "Antiquarian Researches " cited, vii. 

Holbadge, " Sister," vii. 494. 

Holbeck, William, iii. 448. 

Holbrook, Samuel, y. 40. 

Holburne, Vice-Admiral Francis, v. 444. 

Holden, Randall, ii 288,290,292; vii. 601n. 

Holder, Christopher, ;x 155, 156. 

Holgrave, John, vi. 101. 

Holland, Mr., 164- vii. 370. 

Holland, Joseph, iv. 52 

Holland, Josiah G-, M.D., Member M. H. 
S-, v. p. ix.; vi. p. ix. ; vii. p. viii.; viii. 
p. x. ; ix. p. xiv. 

Holland, Robert, iii. 201, 213. 

Holland, States ot, v. 50, 56. Declaration of 
war by, against England, 1652, vi. 79, 81. 
Internal affairs of, 295. War with Eng- 
land, 1651, 362; 1664, 531; with Spain, 40<*. 
Inundation in, vii. 429. 597, 618. Condi- 
tion of, 1676, 527. Calamities in, 597. 
See also Netherlands. 

Holled, Mr., 1631, vi. 579. 



Ilollibut, Goodman, 1667, vii. 563. 

Ifollis, Lord, ii. 280, 281. 

Mollis, Thomas, viii. 677rc. Letters of Rev. 
A. Eliot to, iv. 398-461. 

Holloway, .lames, v. 143, 144. 

Holman." Mr , 1676, viii. 299. 

Holman (Holmar), Edward, i. 94, 95. 

Holme, Mrs. Ann (Isherwood), viii. 657. 

Holme, Mrs. Ellen, viii. 659. 

Holme, John, viii. 657. 

Holmes (Homes), Lieut, 1760, v. 564; ix. 
359, 369. 

Holmes (Homes), Sergt.,v\. 223. 

Holmes, Abiel, D.D., LLD., Member M. H. 
S., i. p. vi.; Cor. Sec, p. xx.; on the 
Standing Com., p. xx. ; on the Committee 
of Publication of vols. 7, 10 of 1st Series, 
vols. 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10 of 2d Series, p. xxi. 

Holmes, Christopher, iv. 58. 

Holmes, John, viii. 19. 

Holmes Rev. John, Death of, 1675, viii. 228. 

Holmes, Obediah, ii. 52, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 
61, 70. Prosecution of, 27, 30, 32, 42, 44. 
Letters of, 45, 53. 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, M.D., Member 
M. H. S., iv. p. xxi.; v. p. viii.; vi. p. 
viii.; vii. p. viii.; viii. p. x. ; ix. p. xiv. 

Holmes, William, vi. 244, 245, 247. Com- 
mands an expedition to Connecticut 
River, iii. 313re. To march against the 
Pequots, 355w. 

Holston's River, Siege of a fort on, v. 420. 

Holt, Mr., of Pennsylvania, ix. 335. 

Holt, Abigail. See 'isherwood, Mrs. 

Holt, Catherine. See Mather, Mis. 

Holt, Edmund, viii. 657«. 

Holt, John, a painter, x. 576. 

Holt, Sir John, v. 248. 

Holton, Joshua, v. 367. 

Hoi way, Thomas, vi. 242. 

Holworthy, Ladtj, viii. 502. 

Hoi worthy, Sir Matthew, his donation to 
Harvard College, viii. 502. 

Holvoke, Edward, Pres. of Harvard College, 
iv. 410, 426. His death, 1769, 441. 

Homer, Arthur, B.D.,Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
i. p. xiii. 

Homer, Jonathan, D.D., Member M. H. S., i. 
p. vii. 

Homes. See Holmes. 

Homes, Thomas, i. 96. 

Hommius, Eestus, i. 128. 

Honor and Dorothy, skip, ix. 174. 

Honvwood, Sir Robert, Jr., viii. 215. 

Hood, Samuel, Vis&mnt Admiral, iv. 438. 

Hook, Capt., 1683, v. 121. 

Hook, J//- , of Dublin, 1667, viii. 668. 

Hook, Mrs., viii. 76 ?, 668. 

llooke, E'lenezer, vii. 594, 595. 

Hooke, Mrs. Eleanor ( Norton), vi. 94. 

Hooke, Francis, vii. 195n. 

Hooke, Humphrey, of Bristol, Kng., vi. 94; 
vii. 197ra. 

Hooke, Jacob, iv. 77. 

Hooke, Mrs. Jane (Whalley), viii. 133, 136, 
141, 161. Her sickness, 149, 153. Her 
donations to New England, 262. Letters 
fr 'in, to Rebecca Russel, 260; to Increase 
Mather, 261, 262, 263,264,206; to John 
Wilson, 267. Notice of, 127/&. 

Hooke. John, iii. 448, 451. 

II oke, Robert, viii. 577. 

Hooke, Walter, viii. 149. 

llooke, William, of York, vi. 94. Letters to 

John Winthrop, vii. 195, 196, 197. Fac- 
similes of his signature and seal, vii. plate 
4. Notice of, 195n. 

Hooke, Rev. William, vii. 499, 501, 503, 
507n; viii. 133, 156, 162, 174, 179, 190, 
193, 260, 263, 298n, 301, 304, 309, 585. 
Letters to John Winthrop, Jr., vii. 587, 
590, 594; to William Goffe, viii. 122, 143, 
148; to John Davenport, 177, 194, 207; to 
Increase Mather, 582. Fac-siniiles of his 
signature and seal, vii. plate 11. His 
daughters, 587; viii. 177. His wife, vii. 
587n, 589. His death, viii. 160, 583w. 
Notices of him, vii. 587«; viii. 122n. 

Hooker, James, iv. 266. 

Hooker, Joanna. See Shepard, Mrs. 

Hooker, Rev. Richard, iv. 331; v. 269. 

Hooker, Rev. Samuel, i. 109; viii. 467. His 
son, 338. Letters to Increase Mather, 337, 
338; to James Fitch, 340. Notice of, 

Hooker, Mrs. Susanna, viii. 545. 

Hooker, Rev. Thomas, i. 217; iii. 193; iv. 
296; vi. 31, 221, 223, 247, 357, 390, 403, 
546, 581n; vii. 10, 11, 381; viii. 337n, 
339«, 546, 548. Letters to John Win- 
throp, vi. 388, 389; to John Winthrop, 
Jr.. 387. Fac-similes of his signature and 
seal, vi. plate 4. Removes to Connecti- 
cut, vii. 45. His book about baptism, viii. 
70. His death, 544, 545. Notices of him, 
vi. 387w; viii 544«. 

Hooper, , declines to become a council- 
lor in Massachusetts, 1774, x. 714. 

Hooper, George, iv. 24. 

Hooper, Robert, Jr., iv. 29. 

Hooper, William, iv. 24. 

Hoops, Adam, ix. 302, 304. 319, 339, 387, 
392, 394, 395, 405, 409, 461. Letters of, to 
Col. Bouquet, 263; to Gov. Monckton, x. 
604, 608. 

Hoornbeek, Prof, i. 159, 160. 

Hoosick (Hosuck, Hoosuck), v. 416, 417, 

Hope, Me. See Appleton, Me. 

Hope, The, ship, ii. 230; vii. 55. 

Hopkins, Admiral, x. 779-781. 

Hopkins, Mr., a Boston carpenter, 1775, i. 

Hopkins, Mrs. Ann (Yale), vii. 471, 473- 
476. Her insanity, vi. 336. 

Hopkins, Constanta, iii. 448, 452. 

Hopkins, Damaris, iii. 448. 

Hopkins, Daniel, iv. 194. 

Hopkins, Edward, Gov. of Connecticut, vi. 
165, 362, 365, 381, 383, 384, 385, 545; vii. 
19, 49«, 169, 381, 390h, 4S7«, 538/?. Signs 
the Confederation in 1643, iii. 423. Com- 
missioner, 430. Signs a treaty, 440 In- 
voice of goods sent to John Winthrop, 
Jr., 1635, vi. 325- Arrival of, in New 
England, 344n. Letters to John Win- 
throp, Jr., 325, 329, 331, 332, 334, 335, 
336, 337, 339,341, 343; to John Winthrop, 
333; to John Mason, 888. Fac-similes of 
his signature and seal, vi. plate 3. Visit 
to England, 1651, 362. Estate of, vii. 50, 
504, 512, 514. His death, viii. 610. No- 
tices of, vi. 825ft; viii. 6K>». 

Hopkins, Mrs. Elizabeth, iii. 448, 452. 

Hopkins, Giles, iii. 448, 452. 

Hopkins, Jo<iah, iv. 103, 104. 

Hopkins, Oceanus, born at sea, iii. 77, 448, 



Hopkins, Stephen, of London, in exploring 
parties, iii. 81, 83. Visits Massasoit, 102. 
Assistant, 306, 315, 327, 343. His family, 
448, 452. 

Hnpkinton, Mass., iv. 450. 

Hoppin, Nicholas D.D., Member M. H. S., 
vii. p. ix. ; viii. p. xi.; ix. p. xv. 

Hop-on, Maj.-Gen., v. 491. Death of, 492. 

Horn, Gnstavns, vi. 455. 

Horn, John, v. 327. 

H< me, Rev. John, viii. 577. 

Horneck, Anthony, viii. 577. 

Horocks, Rev Mr., 1640, ii. 193. 

Horr >cks. Rev. James, x. 630. 

Horry, Daniel, iv. 178. 

Horse of Widow Ingersoll taken for the pub- 
lic service, vi. 149. 

Horsey, Mr., of London, 1678, viii. 352. 

Horsey, a shipwright, 1760, ix. 297, 298, 310, 

Horsmanden, Mrs., x. 619. 

Horsmariden, Chief- Justice Daniel, x. 492, 
501, 523, 540, 541, 545. Accepts the second 
seat of justice, ix. 448. Report (with 
others) to Gov. Monckton, 477. Slow, x. 
501. At death's door, 619. 

Hosack, David, M.D., LL.D., Cor. Memb. 
M. H. S-, i. p. xiv. 

Hoskins Mr , 1662, viii. 196. 

Hoskins, Edward, v. 518. 

Hosmer, Rev. Stephen, i 51. 

Hosmer, lirus, Letter from, iv. 115. 

Ho-on, John, iv. 273. 

H stages required of Indians, iii. 439. 

Hosuck. See Hoosick. 

Hotchkis, Rev. Thomas, viii. 577. 

Hough, Atherton, iii. 335. 

Houghton, Mr., ii. 132. 

Housa'onic (Ousetonnuck), i 103. 

Housebuilding, vi. 475. At Ipswich, vii. 

Hovev, Crtpt. Ebenezer, iv. 204, 205. 

How, Lieut,-CoL, 1760, ix. 238; Col., 1765, x. 

How, Mr., 1678, viii. 343, 501. 

How, Abraham, i. 102. 

How, B ithsheba, viii. 165ra. 

How, E|>hraim, viii. 609. 

How, Joseph, iv. 236. 

How <r I, Lord, of Escrick, viii. 636. 

Howard, Mr., 1661, viii. 551. 

Howard, John, if Windham, 1774, iv. 7. 

Howard, John, killed, 1748, v. 378. 

Howard, Joseph Jackson, LL D., Cor. 
Memb. M. H. S-. viii. p. xiii ; ix. p. xvii. 

Howard, Robert, viii. 704. 

Howard, Thomas, Earl of Arundel, returns 
from his embassy to Germany, 1636, vi. 420. 

Howard's Perry, x. 806. 

H we, Lieut, killed, 1758, v. 472. 

Howe, Mr., d. before 1628, vii. 1, 2. 

Howe, Mr., 1640, vii 401. 

Howe, Lieut. Daniel?, 1638, vi. 247. 

Howe, George, Viscount, v. 464, 468, 470, 
543. Death of, 467. 

Howe, Rev. James Blake, i. 280. 

Howe (How) Nehemiah, v. 366. 

Howe, Perl y, iv. 56. 

Howe, R.. of Cape Fear, 1774, iv. 24. 

Howe, h'ichard, Earl, Admiral, x. 788. 807. 

Howe, Gen. Sir William, i. 270; iv. 372; x. 
778, 784, 788. At the ba'tle of Bunker 
Hi 1, i 263. Issues a proclamation, 269. 

, Orders the Old North Meeting House to 

be pulled down, 271. Evacuates Boston, 
272, 276. Objects to the title His Excel- 
lency General Washington, 275. His strat- 
egy'in 1777 blamed, x. 805-810. 

Howell, Geonre, ii. 126, 127. 

Howell, Mrs Katherine (George). See Se- 
wall, Mrs. 

Howell, Nathan, settlement of his estates, 
ii. 122-129; viii. 460, 461. 

Howes, Capt., 1775, iv. 240. 

Howes, or Howe, Edward, of Lynn, vii. 16. 

Howes. Edward, vi. 40 c ra. Letters to John 
Winthrop, Jr., 467-513. Fac-similes of 
his signature and seal, vi. plate 5. Prefa- 
tory Address to a Treatise on the North- 
west Passage inscribed to John Winthrop, 
Jr., 4^0n. His magnetical engine, 500; 
viii. 377n. Notices of, vi. 467rc, 512rc. 

Howgall, Francis, vii. 289. 

Howland, Rev Mr., of Plympton, iv. 254. 

Howland, Mrs. Elizabeth (Tilley), iii. 449, 
450, 453. 

Howland, Lieut. Jabez, v. 208; viii. 231. 
Notice of, 23 In. 

Howland, John, iii. 76, 227, 382, 447. Over- 
board, 76. In the exploring party along 
Cape Cod Bav, 83. Assistant, 306, 315, 
327. His command on the Kennebec, 317. 
Settlement of partners with, 400, 402. 
His family, 447, 450, 453. 

Hubbard, Deacon, 1775, i. 269. 

Hubbard, Mr., 1760, ix. 352, 401. Another, 
1764, iv 412. 

Hubbard, Benjamin, vi. 219. 

Hubbard, Francis, viii. 4. 

Hubbard, Gilbert Harrison, A.M., Cor. 
Memb. M. H. S.,i. p. xii. 

Hubbard, Rev. Joshua, i. 106; vii. 293. 

Hubbard, Nehemiah. See Hobart. 

Hubbard Richard, i. 17. 

Hubbard, Stephen, iv 115. 

Hubbard, Thomas, vii. 46. 

Hubbard, Wiliain, the elder 1 ?, of Ipswich, 
vi. 104; viii. 4. 

Hubbard, Rev. William, vii. 131; viii. 4, 5, 
91, 340, 502, 521n, 671. His narrative of 
the Indian wars, iii. Pref. p. xv., 41w, 
62rc, 15 In; iv 467, 468, 470, 475; viii. 
232ra, 233-235, 239. 

Hubbert, P , i. 212. 

Hubert, Goodman, 1660, vii. 243. 

Huckms, (Hookins), Lieut. Robert, his 
widow, v. 272. 

Huckins, Thomas, v. 13. 

Huddleston, John, Letter from, iii. 125. 
Supplies from, 125. 

Hudibras, Allusion to, iii. 131». 

Hudson, , viii. 376. 

Hudson, Mr., 1662, viii 181, 199, 549, 550. 

Hudson, Hon. Charles, Member M. H. S., 
v p. ix. ; vi. p. ix. ; vii. p. ix. ; viii. p. 
x. ; ix. p. xiv. 

Hudson, Thomas, iii. 213. 

Hudson*, Mrs., vii. 301. 

Hudson's Bav, vi 481. 

Hudson's Bav Companv, v. 332. 

Hudson's River, iii. 41ra; vi. 8, 38,363, 504, 
512; ix. 125, 128; x. 493 foil, 514. 
Offer to tran -port the Pilgrims to the, iii. 
42, 43, 48. Pilgrims sail toward, 77; and 
intend settlement at, 99. Dutch at, 163. 

Huet, Dr., his widow, 1659, vii. 593. 

Hughs, Mr., 1681, viii. 477.j 

Hull, Mr., 1645, vii. 445. 



Hull, Mr., of Maryland, 1675, viii. 270. 

Hull, Ed wan I, vii. 64n. 
Hull, Hannah, viii. 520ra. 

Hull, John, vii. 314; viii. 170, 249, 520n. 
His diary cited, vi. 155n, 229«. Letters 
to James Richards, vii. 533, 534; to 
John Winthrop, Jr., 536. Fac-similes 
of his signature and seal, vii. plate 10. 
Warrant to John Richards, 536. Notice 
of, 533ft. 

Hull, Capt Joseph, iv. 266. 

Hull, Rev. Joseph, vii. 378, 445. 

Hull, Robert, vii. 533ft. 

Hull, Mass., i. 201, 212. 

Hulton, Mr., 1770, iv. 452. 

Hulton, Nathaniel, viii. 659. 

Humber, ship, v. 330. 

11 Humble Address," ii. 217. 

Humboldt, Baron Alexander von, Cor. 
Memb. M. H. S-, i. p. xiv. ; iii. p. vi.; 
iv. p. xxii. 

Hume, Joseph, M.P., iv. 504. 

Humfrev, John, Dep.-Gov. of the Massa- 
chusetts Colony, ii. 248-251,264-269; iii. 
335; vi. 28, 40", 69, 93, 102, 145, 147, 156, 
158, 316, 341, 467ft, 496, 500, 508. Petition 
in behalf of, by Hugh Peter, to the Gene- 
ral Court of Massachusetts, 96. Letters 
to Isaac Jolmsou, 1, 9, 10, 12; to John 
Winthrop. 5, 10, 17; to John Winthrop, 
Jr., 18. Fac-similes of his signature and 
seal, vi. plate 1. Notice of, In. 

HumtVey, Lady Susan, daughter of the Earl 
of Lincoln, wife of Deputy- Governw John, 
vi. In. 

Humlreys, Rev. John, his recantation, viii. 

Humming-bird, vi. 40". 

Humphreys, Robert, v. 142. 

Humphries, Col., Death of, 1654, vi. 286. 

Hunckes, Maj., Gov. of Barbadoes, 1641, vii. 

Hungarv, viii. 42, 43, 105. Revolution in, 
v. 103. 

Huugerford, Thomas, vii. 234. 

H unking, Him. Mark, v. 337. 

Hunniwell, Lieut, wounded, 1690, v. 273. 

Hunniwell (Hunuel), John, v. 346. 

Hunniwell (Hunuel), Stephen, v. 363. 

Hunt, Copt., 1623, iv. 485. 

Hunt, Rev. Mr., of Dartmouth, 1720, i. 

Hunt, Abraham, iv. 21 

Hunt, Capt. Ephraim, v. 241. 

Hunt, Peter, Sen., v. 4. 

Hunt, Capt. Thomas, the kidnapper, iii. 95, 

Hunt, Maj. William, v. 399. 

Hunter, Capt., x. 577. 

Hunter, Rev Jo-eph, i. 91, 92, 94, 100, 115ft, 
118, 119, 266; ii. 120; iii Pref. p. v., 10ft, 
3 In, 460«. Cor. Memb. M. H. S., i. p. 
xviii.; iii. p- vi.; iv. p. xxii. Collections 
concerning the ea ly history of the found- 
ers of New Plymouth, i. 51-85. Bio- 
graphical uoticeof Philip Vincent, 86-90. 
Correspondence with and services rendered 
respecting Br n ford's History, iii. Pref. p. 
v. Cited, Pref. p. xviii. 411. His death, 
v. p. xi 

Hunter, Gov. Robert, viii. 431. 

Hunter, ship, v 524. 
Hunter's Fort. v. 448. 
Hunting, Elder John, i. 19, 21. 

Huntington, L. 1., vii. 65. Church gathered 

at, viii. 302. 
Hunt< on, Rev. Benjamin, ii. 144. 
Huntoon, Jno., Jr., iv. 77. 
Huntoon, Philip, v. 325. 
Huntoon, Samuel, killed by Indians, v. 325. 
Hunuel. See Hunniwell. 
Hard, Andrew, iv. 272. 
Hurlbut, George B., i. 43. 
Hurlbut, Mrs. Mary (Bulkley), i. 42, 43. 
Hurlburt, John, iv. 49. 
Huron, Lake, ix. 345. 
Hurons, v. 541; ix. 427. 
Hurricane at Rehoboth, 1671, i. 14; at 

Plymouth, iii. 337; in Leicester, July 10, 

1759, v. 511; in the West Indies, 1678, 

viii. 335; near Venango, 1760, ix. 285. 
Husbandmen, Company of, vii. 8t-96n, 98, 

101, 346. 
Huskanawing, viii. 407. 
Hussey, Capt , 1755, ix. 218. 
Hufcheson, Mr., 1671, vii. 151. 
Hutchins, or Hutchings, Mr., ix. 265, 266, 

267, 269, 272, 276, 285, 327. 
Hutchins, David, v. 317. 
Hutchins. Thomas, ii. 250-252, 266-269. 
Hutchinson, Mr., 1644, vi. 60. 
Hutchinson, Mr., of London, 1639, vii. 222. 
Hutchinson, Mrs. Ann, iii. 387; vi. 48, 

156, 227; vii. 279; viii. 59. 
Hutchinson, Capt. Edward, Jr., vi. 300, 

Hutchinson, Edward, Sen., of Boston, vii. 

110, 111. 
Hutchinson, Elisha, grandfather of Gov. 

Thomas, v. 256, 314; viii. 424, 676, 700, 

713. And others, petition to King James 

II., 701. 
Hutchinson, Elisha, son of Gov. Thoma*, iv. 

378, 380. 
Hutchinson, Elisha, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 

i. p. xv. ; iii. p. vi. ; iv. p. xxii. ; v. p. x. ; 

vi p. x.; vii p. x. ; viii. p. xii. 
Hutchinson, Foster, i. 268. 
Hutchinson, Francis, iii. 386; vi. 313«. 
Hutchinson, h'ichard, ii 281. 
Hutchinson, Thomas, Gov. of Massachusetts, 

iii. Pref. p. xv.; iv. 29,345, 376,878,880; 

x. 713, 745. Attack on his house, iv. 

406, 407. The "Collection of Original 

Papers," 444. His History, 454. Would 

have done better not to be Governor, 454. 

Remarks on Isaac Johnson's will, vi. 20«. 

His " History of Massachusetts Bay " 

cited, viii. 109ft, HOn, 123n, 366/i, 370ft, 

520«, 524h, 530ft, 531?*, 534«. 
Hufton, Samuel, iv. 274. 
Hyde, Edward, Earl of Clarendon, viii. 211. 
Hyde, Capt. Elijah, iv. 44. 
Hyde, Elijah, Jr , iv. 45. 
Hyde, Lawrence, Viscount, created Earl of 

Rochester, viii 499. 
Hylan I, Stephen, iv. 227. 
"Hypocrisy Unmasked," by Edward Win- 
slow, vii. 601ft. 

Illinois Indians, v. 541; ix. 423; x. 525,724. 
Illinois River, ix. 400. 
Immorality in England, viii. 221. 
Impressment in Boston, viii. 370, 519. 



Impressment of arms, &c, in Salem, vi. 150. 

Ince, Capt, his death, 1760, v. 559. 

Ince, Jonathan, vii. Son, 5S8n. 

Incendiarism in Milford, Conn., vii. 544, 545. 

Inches, Henderson, iv. 2, 275. 

Inchequin, Lord, vii. 144. 

Increase, ship, vii. 401«. 

Independents, x. 602. Controversy of Pres- 
byterians with, vi. 383. 

Indian Bible, Eliot's, vii. 151. 

Indian captives, viii. 231, 232, 233. Action 
of the General Court in relation to, 689. 

Indian corn found, iii. 82. Taken and after- 
ward paid for, 82, 83, 103. Planted, 100. 
More cultivated by the Indians, 102. Ob- 
tained in 1622, 129, 130. More planted 
by the Pilgrims, 134, 208. Trade with, 
167, 204, 208. Increased value of, 302, 

Indian grants, x. 606-608. 

Indian graves, iii. 82. 

Indian John, v. 133. 

Indian languages, i. 252. Translations into 
the, viii. 679. 

Indian War, 1664, vi. 531. 

Indian "Wars, Mather's History of the, viii. 
158, 342, 353, 576, 578, 581. Relief to 
sufferers by the, sent from Dublin, 9, 690. 

Indian and French Wars, Niles's History of 
the, continued, v. 309-589. 

Indians, vii. 546. To be hunted with dogs, 
ii. 235-237. Anticipation of sufferings 
from the, by the Pilgrims, iii. 25, 78. 
First seen by a party under Standish, 81. 
Flee and are followed, 81. Seen around 
a grampus, 83, 84. First encounter with, 
85. At Plymouth, 93. Treaty with, 94. 
Mortality among the, 95, 102, 110. 315, 
325. Kidnapped by Hunt, 95, 96. ' Hos- 
tile, 96-98. Their treatment of Dermer, 
97. Raise more corn, 102. Expedition 
against, to revenge the supposed death of 
Squanto, 104. Massacre by, in Virginia, 
125, 126. Settlers at Weymouth become 
servants of, 130. Conspiracy of, against 
Weston's company, 131. Robinson's 
letter as to killing," 164. Trade with, on 
the Kennebec, 233 ; for wampum, and the 
effects, 234. Supplied with ammunition 
and fire-arms, and taught the use of them, 
235, 238, 275, 337. On Connecticut River, 
311, 349. Hocking trades with, on the 
Kennebec, and is killed, 317, 353. Viewed 
as common enemies, 353. Sold into 
slavery, 360. Land reserved for them, 
374. General conspiracy of the, 416. 
Confederation against them, 416. Society 
for propagating the Gospel among the, 
443. The Governor of Virginia makes 
peace with the, 1774, iv. 187. Donation 
from those in Barnstable to the poor in 
Boston, 1775, 215. One accused of mur- 
der, v. 87. Measures for repelling inva- 
sions of, 88, 89. Rising of the, at the 
eastward, 121, 122. Number of the Chris- 
tian Indians at Eastham, &c, 131; in 
Plymouth Colony, 132. Salary of their 
ministers, 1684, 132. Relief to those at 
Eastham, 186. Outrages by, in Maine, 
203, 204. Submission of the, 1713, 336. 
To be exchanged for Moors, vi. 65. 
Provision for the, 116. Depredations of, 
near Salem, 1645, 150. Near Duxbury, 
163. Religion of the, 225. Executed at 

Plymouth, 301. The Southern, hired by 
Nincunnett to fall upon Uncas, 358. Mur- 
ders by the, 370. Peace made with the, 
1645, 374. War with the, 1664, 531. 
Hostile attitude of the, 585. Labors of 
Thomas Mayhew among the, vii. 34, 36, 
37. Attack of, on Savbrook, 1636, 56. 
Hostilities of the, 68, 82, 321-325, 411, 
412, 413, 423, 426, 462, 518, 541, 575, 576, 
577, 578, 579, 580, 581, 582, 583, 598, 627- 
631. Religious instruction of the, by 
John Blackleach, 150; by Thomas James, 
485, 486. R. Mather on a church of, viii. 
71. Hostility of the, 85, 370, 377, 519, 
582, 586, 675, 705. Erroneous reports of 
the, 245. Capture of Thomas Cobbet, Jr., 
by, 290w. War with the, 300, 576, 664. 
Sickness among the, 311, 337. Ran- 
dolph's account of the treatment of the, 
by the colonists, 531. Attack by, upon 
Hampton, 1677, 552. Conversion of the, 
679. Gen. Amherst's talk to, ix. 240- 
242. Treatment of, by the British govern- 
ment, 443. Cause of their hostility upon 
the Ohio, x. 720, 723. See also the names 
of various tribes of Indians; also, Tor- 
ture of captives. 

Indigo, Culture and manufacture of, vi. 81, 
82, 150". In Virginia, x. 682. 

Indulgence, Declaration of, viii. 207, 666. 

Industry, sloop, ix. 469, 471. 

Infant baptism, viii. 580. 

Ingersol, Capt., 1755, v. 392. 

Ingersol, Maj., 1758, v. 489. 

Ingersoll, Widow, her horse taken for public 
service, vi. 149. 

Ingolls, Henry, vi. 152. 

Ingraham, William, letter to Increase 
Mather, viii. 647. 

Innemo, an Indian chief, iii. 436. 

Inoculation, ii. 1G7 foil.-, viii. 449, 454. 

Inquisition in Spain, vi. 40 e . 

Instruments, Mathematical, bought for Har- 
vard College, viii. 500. 

Intrusion, Writs of, viii. 517. 

Inundations in Holland, viii. 429, 597, 618. 

Invasion of England intended by the 
French, 1759, v. 517. 

Invincible, ship, v. 445. 

Iowa Indians, ix. 382. 

" Ipswich (Eng.), Newes from," by Prynne, 
vi. 422-434. 

Ipswich, Mass. (Agawam), i. 6, 10, 12, 13, 
47, 201, 212; ii. 205; iii. 209, 343; iv. 
474, 486, 491; v. 117, 352; vi. 118m, 557, 
570»; vii. 216, 401«; viii. 91. Church 
at, vi. 80, 106; vii. 121, 125, 535; viii. 
288, 290, 292, 294, 297. Grant of Castle 
Hiil to John Winthrop, Jr., vi. 103. In- 
tended sale of Castle Hill to inhabitants 
of, 104. Court at, 289. Reception of S. 
Hall at, vii. 24. 

Ireland, Answer to Cromwell's application 
for settlers in, ii. 115-118. Letter on the 
use of the name Puritan in, 120. Mili- 
tary operations in, 1649-50, vi. 75. Suc- 
cesses of the Parliamentary forces in, 152, 
279, 466. Reduction of, by Cromwell, 
vii. 457. War in, 600. Relief sent from, 
to New England in 1676, viii. 9, 56«, 690. 
Condition of, 1686-87, 63, 64, 65. Con- 
spiracy in, 125. Proposals of the Parlia- 
ment in, 209. Strange appearances in, 
210. Plot discovered in, 211. Particulars 



of the plot, 213, 214. Re1i?ious liberty 

in, 400. Prosecution of Nonconformists 

in, 550. 
Irish, The, vi. 491. Accused of the Piixton 

liots, x. 5"9; and to be hung right or 

wrong, 511. 
Irish wars compared to Indian, vii 629. 
Iron-works, vi. 61, 80, 89, 516, 517, 518; vii. 

40 Ira, 500, 589. At Providence, vi. 290. 

To be built in Connecticut, 516. At 

Braintree, vii. 403. At Lvnn, 4u2, 403. 

At New Haven, 403, 404, 406, 477, 524. 
Iroquois Indians (Hyrocois), vi. 512. 
Irven, Dr., 1781, x. 814. 
Irving, , refuses to be councillor in 

Massachusetts, 1774. x. 714. 
Irving, Washington, LL.D, Cor. Memb. 

M. rl. S , i. p. xv.; iii. p. vi ; iv. p. xxii. 
Isaac, an Indian teacher, v. 133. 
Isabel, sloop, iv. 114. 

Isbeiwood, Mrs. Abigail (Holt), viii. 657. 
Ishmael, a slave, i. 40. 
Island Battery, v. 463. 
Isle au Mote, v. 564, 565. 
Isle aux Coudres, v. 522. 
Isle aux Noix,v. 566; ix. 270, 300, 315, 318. 

Engagement near, v. 564. Fort at, sur- 
rendered by the French, 570, 571, 573, 

Isle Madame, v. 524. 
Isle of Wight (Gardiner's Island), vii. 52«, 

64, 500. 
Isle Orleans, v. 503, 519, 521. 
Isle Koyale, ix. 307, 322. 
Isles of Shoals (at first called Smith's Inland ), 

iii. 242; iv. 478, 486; vii. 31, 334, 377, 

378m, 443. 
Iteansis, a Penobscot chief, v. 336. 
Itopatin, brother of Powhatan, ix. 32. 
Ive, J' b ii, viii. 502, 571. 
Ives, Mr., 1677, viii. 13. 


Jacatra, ix. 58. 

Jacie (Jessie, Jessev), Rev. Henrv, vii. 162; 
viii. 197, 262, 263, 583, 584. 'Letters to 
John Winthrop, vi. 452, 465; to .lohn 
Winthrop", Jr., 454, 457, 459. Settled in 
London, 460. Fac-simile of his signature, 
vi. plate 5. Notice of. 452». 

Jaokoid, a Penobscot chief, v. 336. 

Jackson, , 1646, vi. 346. 

Jack>on, Col., iv. 224. Letter from C 
Higgins to, 1775, 223. 

Jackson, Dr., from Kittery, v. 352. 

Jackson, Abraham, iv. 492. 

Jackson, Rev. Arthur, Death of, viii. 584, 

Jackson, Charles, LL.D., Member M. H. S., 
i. p. viii., 280. Extract from a letter of, i. 

Jackson, George, vii. 385». 

Jackson, Homer, viii. 41, 42, 44. 

Jackson (John V), of Salem, vi. 194. 

Jackson, Jonathan, 1680, v. 40. 

Jackson, Rev. Joseph, ii. 137. 

Jackson, Rebecca. See Mo ton, Mrs. 

Jackson, Mtl Remember (Moiton), iv. 492. 

Jackson, Richard, i- 75. 

Jackson, Thomas, executed, iii. 362. 

Jack Straw, an Indian, iv. 487. 

Jacob, Capt., 1759, v. 517. 

Jacob, Abraham, ix. 138. 

Jacob, Rev. Henry, vi. 452re. 

Jacob, John, ix. 140. 

Jacob, Capt. John, of Hingham, 1C89, v. 

Jacobs, Capt., 1756, v. 421, 426, 429, 430, 

Jacobson, , 1762, ix. 469. 

Jacobsou, Capt., 1764, x. 525, 542, 569, 592. 

Jai ombe, Rev Samuel, viii. 219. 

Jacquontu, Sachein of Block Island, vi. 217, 

Jafltn ipatam, Conversions in, viii. 679. 

Jamaica. L. L, vii. 566. Church gathered 
at, viii. 302. 

Jamaica, \V. I., v. 156,262; vii. I46n, 152, 
313; viii. 170; ix. 258, 445; x. 490, 589, 
672. Commissioners of, vii. 64. Voyage 
to, by John Blackleach, 151 foil. Battle 
at, 152. 

Jam°s \.,King,x 51; vi. 404, 518ti; viii. 
197n, 469ra. Hostility of, to the Puri- 
tans, iii. 9. Gives Harcourt a patent to 
settle in Guiana, 27. His patent to the 
Virginia Companv, 28. Application to, 
by the Pilgrims, for religious freedom, 28, 
29. Prohibit* sale of fire-arms to Indians, 
235, 241. His Book of Sports required 
bv Laud to be observed, vi. 411. (Jrants 
Of, x. 833, 834, 84 1, 845. 

James, Duke of York, afterwards King 
James II., v. 131, 224, 247, 254, 283, 319; 
vii. 310, 311, 315, 433; viii. 30, 42, 179, 
181, 186, 200, 201, 208, 212, 213, 216, 225, 
334, 345, 369, 489, 494, 499, 507, 50Sn, 591, 
617, 619, 651, 669, 670, 671, 673, 680, 688, 
699, 703, 704, 707, 712, 713, 714. Procla- 
mation of, in Plymouth Colony, v. 135. 
Petition and ad<!ress to, from the General 
Court of the Colony of New Plymouth, 137. 
Letter to the Governor of the Colony of 
New Plymouth, 139. Coronation of, 141. 
Answer to Mr. AIsop's speech, 152. 
Aduress to from Plymouth C'olonv, 169, 
210, 213. His " Declaration for Liberty of 
Conscience," viii. 67, 114, 115. Memorial 
presented to, by Increase Mather, 114. 
Addresses to, bv the congregations in 
New England, 697, 698. Petition of In- 
ciease Mather and others to, 701. 

James, Duke of Cambridge, baptized, viii. 
210. Death o£ 210*, 216, 

James, Duke of Monmouth, v. 140, 182; viii. 
25, 26, 27, 144, 207/*, 223, 334, 637. Arrest 
of, 497. 

James, Maj., 1765, x. 562, 564. 

James, Mr., 1640, vii. 333. 

James, Mr., imprisoned, 1682, viii. 498. 

James, Sagamore of Saugus, Death of, 1633, 
id. 325/1. His wife, vi. 570n. 

James, servant of J. Winthrop, Jr., vi. 269. 

James, a slave, i 41. 

James, John, Execution of, viii. 195. 

James, Rev. Thomas, of Charlestou-n, i. 
92/i, 93//; vi. 219 V. 

James, Rev. Thomas, of Easthmnpton, son 
of tin j>i (.ceding, vii. 278. Letters to John 
Winthrop, Jr., 482, 484; to the Governor 
and Assistants of Conn., 483. Fac-suniles 
of his signature and seal, vii. plate 10. 
Notice of, 482n. 

James, I nomas, of Providence, iii. 364; vi. 
219 V, 243, 244. 



James, Capt. Thomas, his voyage in search 

of the North-west Passage mentioned, vi. 

James, William, i. 94, 95. 
James vs. Lechmere, iv. 334. 
James, ship, i. 9Sn; iii. 160, 3S7n; viii. 163w. 
James City County, Va., iv. 63w. 
James River, ix. 5*5. 
James River County, letter to the Donation 

Committee of Boston, iv. 186. 
Jamestown, Va., ix. 29, 108, 112, 164, 171. 
Jane, wife of Uncas, vi. 232. 
Janeway, Rev. James, viii. 150, 282, 583, 

Japazaw, King of the Potomacs, ix. 21, 25, 

Jarvis, , a tailor. 1764, x. 523, 524, 525, 

Jarvis, Maj. E. B., Cor. Memb. M. H. S., i. 

p. xviii. ; iii. p. vi. ; iv. p. xxiii.; v. p. 

x. ; vi. p. x. ; vii. p. x. ; viii. p. xii. ; ix. 

p. xvi. 
Jarvis, Edward, M.D., Cor. Memb. M. H. 

S., i. p. xviii. 
Jay, Mr., agent of King's College, N. Y., x. 

Jay, John, iv. 162. Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 

i. p. xi. 
Jay, Ron. William, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 

i. p. xvi. ; iii. p. vi. ; iv. p. xxii. 
Jeans, Mr., viii. 45. 

JefFerie, , 1630, vi. 3. 

Jeffers (Gifford?), Mr., 1662, viii. 170. 

Jefferson, John, ix. 60. 

Jefferson, Pres. Thomas, iv. 337; ix. 1. 

Jeffery, Serg. Thomas, iii. 359. 

Jeffrey, Mr., 1628, iii. 240rc. 

Jeffreys, Chief-Justice George, viii. 30, 45. 

Jeffries, Mr., 1650, vi. 76. 

Jeffries, David, on the Boston Donation 

Committee, 1774-75, iv. 2, 3, 26, 27, 35, 

36, 60, 62, 67, 74, 78, 83, 88, 90, 94, 96, 

98, 100, 102, 112, 113, 123, 124, 141, 143, 

160, 176, 177, 190, 193, 199, 213, 229, 232, 

233, 240, 263, 275. 
Jeffries, John, one of the Twenty Associates, 

ii. 228. 
Jeffries, Dr. John, iv. 351. 
Jeffries Creek, Manchester, vii. 274. 
Jeffryes, a Scotchman, at Piscalaqua, y. 83. 
Jekyll, Mr., 1728, ii. 179, 183. 
Jemison, Farewell, v. 190. 
Jenemo. See Ninigret. 
Jenison, Nathaniel, vs. Caldwell, &c, iv. 

336, 337. 

Jenkins, , killed, 1760, v. 555. 

Jenkins, Ensign, afterwards Lieut., of the 

Royal Americans, 1758, v. 481 ; x. 294. 
Jenkins, Aaron, v. 455. 
Jenkins, Rev. I., viii. 197, (Ginkins) 264, 

266, 267. 
Jenkins, Sir Leoline or Lionel, v. 72; viii. 

102, 107», 113, 528. Letter from Gov. 

Brad street to, ii. 306 ; from Thomas Hinck- 
ley to, v. 128 . 
Jenkinson, Daniel, ii. 225. 
Jenks, Benjamin, iv. 131, 132. 
Jenks, Jonathan, iv. 212, 213. 
Jenks, Joseph, of Lynn, vi. 80. 
Jenks, Stephen, iv. 212, 213. 
Jenks, William, D.D., Member M. H. S., 

i. p. viii. ; ii. p. xvii. ; iii. p. v. ; iv. p. 

xxi. ; v. p. viii. ; vi. p. viii. ; vii. p. viii. ; 

Librarian, i. p. xx. ; on the Committee 

of Publication of vol. 1, 3d Series, vol. 
1, 4th Series, i. p. xxi., xxiii. Memoir 
of Lieut.-Gov. Winthrop, ii. 202-214. 
Note by, iv. 462. Notice of the Sieur 
D'Aulnay, of Acadie, 462-470. His death, 
viii. p. xiv. 

Jenkyns, Capt., 1768, iv. 423. 

Jenner, Edward, M.D., LL.D., Cor. Memb. 
M. H. S., i. p. xiv. 

Jenner, John, vii. 185. 

Jenner, Capt. Thomas, viii. 253. 

Jenner, Rev. Thomas, vii. 10, 104, 334, 340, 
341, 344, 350, 354. Letters to John 
Winthrop, 355, 356, 359. Fac-similes of 
his signature and seal, vii. plate 7. Not- 
ice of, 355ra. 

Jennings, Abraham, sells Monhegan, iii. 

Jenny, John, Assistant, iii. 351, 362, 367, 
425. His death, 1644, 425; vi. 161. 

Jephson, Col., his execution, 1663, viii. 

Jephson, Lieut, v. 344. 

Jersey. See New Jersey. 

Jessey, Jacob, viii. 264, 265, 266. 

Jessie, Rev. Henry. See Jacie. 

Jesson, Jacob, v. 93, 94, 97, 126. 

Jessop, Francis, i. 61, 83, 84, 157. 

Jessop, Richard, i. 61, 62. 

Jesuits, vii. 503. Incite the Indians to 
fight, v. 332. Stir up the Indians to insult 
the English, 339. Charged with encourag- 
ing the treachery of the Indians, 362. In 
Canada, vi. 481. Intrigues of the, 149. 
In England, 1659, vii. 503; under Charles 
I. and James I., ix. 83-101. 

Jether, an Indian captive, viii. 231, 232, 233. 

Jetts, Mr., 1660, vii. 240. 

Jewel, vessel, vi. i70n. 

" Jewel House of Art and Nature," by Sir 
H. Piatt, mentioned, vi. 474. 

Jewell, John, Bishop, vi. 406. 

Jewett, Col., of Ashburnham, iii. p. xiii. 

Jewett, Rev. David, i. 34, 40. 

Jewett, Gibbons, iv. 58. 

Jewish children converted in Berlin, viii. 

Jews, vi. 291. In Hungary, vii. 464. 

Jiggells, vi. 94; (Jiglies), , 194. 

Jigogan, ix. 233, 234, 235. 

Joane, promised to Reprive, vi. 232. 

Joanes, Thomas, i. 101. 

Job, Indian spy, v. 1. 

Job, William, vi. 327. 

Jocelyn, Henry, vii. 359-361, 371, 374, 376, 
378, 379. 

Joceyline, Capt, 1759, v. 515. 

John, i. 196, 209, 216, 217, 218. 

John, Old, Indian teacher, v. 133. 

John, Sagamore of Winnesimmet, v. 106; 
vi. 476. His death, 1633, iii. 325. 

John the Baptist, Nature of the locusts eaten 
by, viii. 459. 

John, brig, x. 753. 

John and Dorothy, vessel, i. 96. 

Johnes, Sarah, i. 93. 

Johnson, , Deputy-Treasurer of Vir- 
ginia, ix. 68. 

Johnson, 1683, viii. 637. 

Johnson, , of Paxton, 1757, v. 447. 

Johnson, Alderman, 1619, iii. 37; ix. 35, 63, 

Johnson, Capt, killed, 1760, v. 559, 565. 

Johnson, Col., 1758, v. 464. 




Johnson, Col. of the N. Y. Provincials, 
killed, 1759, v. 502. 

Johnson, Dr., of N. Y., 1721, ii. 166, 167; 
1762, ix. 451. 

Johnson, Gen.. 1759, v. 502. 

Johnson, Goodman, vi. 384, 385. 

Johnson, Lieut. -Col, 1710, v. 321. 

Johnson, Mr., of Connecticut, 1764, x. 520. 

Johnson, Abraham, vi. 22, 25, 26, 28n. 

Johnson, Mrs. Anne (Meadows), vi. 28n. 

Johnson, Lady Arbella, vi. In, 20. Death 
of, 1, 32". 

Johnson, David, x. 535. 

Johnson, Ebenezer, iv. 115. 

Johnson, Capt. Edward, cited, vi. 229n, 

Johnson, Mrs. Elizabeth (Chaderton), vi. 

Johnson, Rev. Francis, pastor of a church at 
Amsterdam, i. 120, 163; iii. 17ra. Black- 
well and, 38. 

Johnson, Henry, ix. 3. 

Johnson, Isaac, ii. 250-252, 266-269; iv. 
294; vi. 39,571,578,579; viii. 518«. Dec- 
laration in regard to the plantation of 
Massachusetts, vi. 52. Bill of exchange 
on Emanuel Downing, 88. Letter to Eman- 
uel Downing, 29; to John Winthrop, 30. 
Will of, April 20, 3 Car. I., 20, 579. Let- 
ter to, from G. B., 32 a ; from Cicely Chad- 
erton, 28; from John Humfrey, 1, 9, 10, 12. 
Fac-simile of his signature, vi. plate 1. 
His death, In. 

Johnson, Rev. Dr. Jacob, iv. 48, 49. 

Johnson, John, of Cambridge, Eng., vi. 27. 

Johnson, John, of Roxbury, Notice of, viii. 

Johnson, Sir John, x. 778. 

Johnson, Peter, vii. 94w, 95rc. 

Johnson, Philip, vi. 23. 

Johnson, Robert, vi. 23, 28. 

Johnson, Samuel, brother of Isaac, vi. 23, 

Johnson, Samuel, D.D., Pres. of King's 
College, N. Y., iv. 450. 

Johnson, Rev. Stephen, i. 50. 

Johnson, Gen. Sir William, v. 393, 394, 
395, 398, 442, 463, 484, 502, 504, 518, 541, 
544, 545, 570, 572; ix. 251, 370, 371, 373, 
375, 377, 434, 440; x. 499, 518, 548, 549, 
574, 603, 725. Expedition of, against Crown 
Point, 1755, v. 392. Joins Indians to his 
army, ix. 270, 278, 300. Extract from a 
letter of, to J. Watts, x. 522. His con- 
duct vindicated, v. 466. His son, 580, 
581, 582. Treaty held by, at Fort Stan- 
wix, x. 606. 

Johnson, William, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., i. 
p. xiii. 

Johnson, snow, ix. 470, 471. 

Johnston, Mr., 1678, viii. 375. 

Johnston, H. V. David, x. 569. 

Johnston, Dr. Nathaniel, i. 86. 

Johonnet, Peter, i. 273. 

Jollie, Rev. Thomas, viii. 317n. Letters to 
Increase Mather, 317, 319, 322, 325. 

Jollie, Rev. Timothy, Ordination of, viii. 
326. Imprisoned, 326n. 

Jolliffe, John, agent of Matthew Cradock, 
vi. 118, 119, 120, 122, 123, 124, 126, 216, 

Jomard, .If. Edme Francois, Hon. Memb. 
M. II. S., v. p. xii. 

Jonas, Ensign, 1759, v. 517. 

Jones, , a seaman, 1654, vi. 287. 

Jones (Jons), Cajrt., Arrival of, in the Dis- 
covery, 1622, iii. 127. 
Jones, Capt, killed, 1759, v. 515. 
Jones, Capt. of the Polly, 1774, iv. 79, 82, 83. 
Jones, Gen., 1776, i. 272. 
Jones (Joans), Master of the Mayflower, iii. 

68; ix. 16n. His conduct towards the 

Pilgrims, iii. 79, 92, 99m, 100. 
Jones, Mr., 1761, ix. 448. 
Jones, Benjamin, iv. 236. 
Jones, Esther, her courage, v. 334. 
Jones, Mrs. Hannah (Eaton), vii. 473, 501; 

viii. 185, 610n, 611n. Letters to Increase 

Mather, 604, 607. Notice of, 604ra. 
Jones, John, baptized, viii. 666n. 
Jones, Commodore John Paul, iv. 509. 
Jones, John Winter, F.S.A., Cor. Memb. 

M. H. S., viii. p. xiii.; ix. p. xvii. 
Jones, Capt. Joseph, iv. 98. 
Jones, Josiah, viii. 666n. 
Jones, Margaret, executed as a witch in 

Boston, vi. 68. 
Jones, Thomas, vi. 318. 
Jones, William, Dep.-Gov. of the colony of 

New Haven, vii. 501n, 518, 525, 553, 567, 

570, 571, 572; viii. 174, 199. 311, 604rc, 

694. His house struck by lightning, 310. 

Letters to Increase Mather, 611, 612. No- 
tice of, 611n. 
Jones, Sir William, 1623, ix. 17. 
Jones, Sir William, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 

i. p. xii. 
Jones River, Proposed academy at, vi. 169. 
Jonquiere's Landing, ix. 297, 310. 
Jonson, Ben, viii. 178. 
Jordan, Dominicus, v. 254. 
Jordan, Elizabeth. See Leete, 3frs. 
Jordan, John, vii. 399. 
Jordan, Rev. Robert, 1640, vii. 339, 364, 

371. Notice of, 364n. 
Jordan, Robert, captured bv the Indians, 

1723, v. 346. 
Jordan, Solomon, v. 351. 
Jordan, Thomas, vii. 558. 
Joseph, Chief of the St. John's Indians, v. 

Joseph, sloop, iv. 164. 

Joshua, a debtor of Gov. Winthrop, vi. 220. 
Joshua, a servant of Gov. Winthrop, vi. 

Joslin, killed by the Indians, v. 385. 
Josselyn, John, cited, vi. 1557*. 
Joy, Michael, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., i. p. 

Joyliffe, John, v. 193. Notice of, 193». 
Juanemo. See Ninigret. 
Judd, Sylvester, Member M. H. S., i. p. xi.; 

ii. p. xvii.; iii. p. v.; iv. p. xxi. His 

death, v. p. ix. 
Judges' commissions in America, ix. 442, 

445, 459, 462 foil. 
Juniata Creek, v. 421. 
Juniatta, ix. 354, 379, 387, 393, 394, 437. 
Junius Americanus, i. e. Dr. Arthur Lee, iv. 

Junundat, ix. 258. 
Juppe, Thomas, vii. 89-96n. 
Jurieu. Peter, viii. 674. 
Jury, Trial by, vi. 382. 
Jurvan, Deputy John, ii. 281. 
Justification by faith, vii. 257-265. 
Justin, Martyr, viii. 11.12*. 
Juxon, William, lip. of London, vi. 461. 




K., B., Verses by, against the Quakers, viii. 
377. " Progress of Sin," by, 377w. 

Kaine, Col, v. 328. 

Kanawa River, x. 725. 

Kaskaskis, The, v. 541. See Kuskusky. 

Kate, a negro girl, i. 29. 

Katharine, Queen, viii. 186, 187. Arrives in 
England, 197. 

Katharine, ship, viii. 9. 

Keach, Benjamin, his work against the 
Quakers, viii. 377/a. 

Kean, Robert, iii. 213. 

Kearsley, Mr., 1769, iv. 445. 

Keayne, Mrs. Ann (Wilson), vi. 568. 

Keayne (Cane), Benjamin, vi. 568. 

Keayne (Cane), Capt. Robert, vi. 568, 572; 
vii. 301, 370. Notice of his MS. notes of 
sermons by Cotton, &c, vi. 313re. 

Kecope Indians, ix. 250, 251. 

Kecoughtan, ix. 106. 

Keene (Upper Ashuelot), N. H, v. 373, 376. 
Indian murder at, 366, 367. Incursion of 
Indians upon, 379. 

Keflar. See Kuffler. 

Keies, Samuel, viii. 358. 

Keith, George, Answer of the ministers of 
Boston to, viii. 672, 673. 

Keith, Rev. James, v. 280. Letter to 
Thomas Hinckley, 6 ; to John Cotton, re- 
lating to the disposal of Philip's son, viii. 

Keith, Sir W., ii. 186. 

Kelby, Mr., 1760, ix. 302. 

Kellard, Thomas, viii. 123w, 179w. 

Kelly, Goodman, 1658, vii. 536. 

Kelly, John, killed by Indians, v. 548. 

Kelsey, Thomas, viii. 215. 

Kempe, John Tabor, ix. 474. Letter of, to 
Gov. Monckton, 469. Memorial of, to 
Gov. Monckton, 480. 

Kemp, Col. Matthew, ix. 174, 182, 186. 

Kemp, Richard, ix. 3, 78, 79, 141, 146-149. 
Letter from, 131 foil. 

Kempton, Mr., 1765, viii. 228. 

Kempton, Mrs. Julian ( Morton), i. 81. 

Kempton, Manasseh, i. 81. 

Kendall, , Dep.-Gov. of Bermuda, ix. 

4, 54. 

Kendall, John, iv. 66. 

Kendall, Samuel, D.D., ii. 132, 133, 136. 

Kenhaway Creek, x. 606. 

Kenmore, , Gov. of Jamaica, x. 589. 

Kennebec Indians, v. 335, 339. Submission 
of the, 336. 

Kennebec Patent, iii. 221, 232, 244, 250, 
251, 290, 316; vii. 91w. Cited, iii. 316. 

Kennebec River, v. 221, 337, 338, 389; vii. 
360. Trade on the, iii. 204, 233, 234, 260, 
261, 274, 275, 291, 317, 353. Quarrel 
with Hocking at the, 317, 341. Confer- 
ence proposed, 321. Agreement respect- 
ing trade at, 366. Defeat of Indians on 
the, v. 341. Hostilities on the, 389. 

Kennebunk, Indian murders at, v. 348. 

Kennedy, Cant., 1721, ii. 166, 167, 179, 188, 

Kennedy, (army) Capt., 1761, v. 577. 

Kennedy, (naval) Capt., 1765, x. 563, 565, 

Kennedy, Lieut., v. 427, 433, 434. Killed, 

Kennedy, Hugh, x. 753. 

Kennedy, Hon. John P., Cor. Memb. M. H. 

S., v. p. xii. ; vi. p. xii.; vii. p. xii. ; viii. 

p. xiii. 
Kennion, x. 596. 

Kenrick, Col, imprisoned, 1661, viii. 180. 
Kensington, Conn., iv. 16». 
Kent, Eng., Rebellion in, 1648, vii. 303, 432. 
Kent County, Del, iv. 32n, 35. 
Kent County, Md., iv. S8n. Letter to John 

Barrett, and reply of the Boston Dona- 
tion Committee, 61. 
Kent Island, Md., ix. 83, 101, 140, 141, 146. 
Kentish, Rev. Mr., viii. 583, 584. 
Keowee, Indian treachery at, v. 550. 

(Kowee) 548. 
Keowee, Little, v. 560. 
Kepler. See Kuffler. 
Keppel, Commodore, afterwards Admiral, 

Augustus, v. 490; ix. 216, 221. 
Kerr, George, ix. 389. 

Ketehtegut, or Tetehgut River, viii. 234, 245. 
Kethley, Walter, viii. 355. 
Kett, Mr., of London, 1679, viii. 347. 
Key, Mrs., of Limerick, 1682, viii. 487, 491. 
Key, Thomas, viii. 487. 
Kick, Abraham, viii. 101, 105, 107, 528. 

Letters to Increase Mather, 596, 598. 

Notice of, 596rc. 
Kick, John, viii. 598, 599. 
Kickquatabut, v. 106. 
Kicquotan, Va., ix. 54. 
Kieft, William, Gov. of New Netherland, vi. 

266, 346. Demands the restoration of a 

Dutch prize, and threatens reprisals, 267. 
Kies, Solomon, v. 359. 
Kilbourne, Deacon, of Westminster, ii. 132. 
Kilbourne, Payne Kenyon, Cor. Memb. M. 

H. S., i. p. xix.; iii. p. vi.; iv. p. xxiii. 

His death, v. p. xi. 
Kilham, Hon. Daniel, Member M. H. S., i. 

p. vi. 

Killingbeck, , ix. 32. 

Killingly, Conn., letter to the Overseers of 

the Poor of Boston, iv. 55. 
Killingsworth, Conn., viii. 626. 
Kilpatrick, Lieut., killed, 1747, v. 387. 
Kilpatrick, John, v. 387. 
Kimball, Obadiah, iv. 257. 

Kindale, , of Dunstable, v. 539. 

Kinderhook, i. 104, 107, 110; v. 421; ix. 

King, , Collector of Perth Amboy, 1737,. 

ix. 203. 
King, Mr., 1637, vi. 94. 
King, Mr., attorney, 1688, viii. 371. 
King, Benjamin, v. 416. 
King, John Glen, Member M. H. S., i. p. x. ; 

ii. p. xvii. ; iii. p. v. 
King, Rufus, LL.D., Cor. Memb. M. H. S.,. 

i. p. xv. 
King, William, Archbishop, b. 1650, viii. 414. 
King, William, 1620, iii. 73. 
King George County, Va., 414. 
Kingfisher, vessel, x. 753, 780. 
King's Chapel, Boston, viii. 518w. 
King's College, N. Y., afterwards Columbia! 

College, ix. 488; x. 500. 
King's Gate, v. 402. 
King's Province, R. L, ii. 288. 
Kingsbury, Ebenezer, iv. 101. 
Kingsbury, H., vi. 452, 453, 454. 
Kingsley, James Luce, LL.D., Cor. Memb.. 

M. H. S., i. p. xvii. 



Kingston, N. 77., letter to the Overseers of 
Boston, iv. 74. Reply of the Committee 
of Donations, 75. Indian hostilities at, v. 
315, 325, 334, 354. Captives taken at, 

Kingston. See North Kingston, South 

Kingstown, ship, v. 330. 

Kirman (Cermen), John, vii. 91. 

Kipling, Brian, vii. 96«. 

Kiptopeke, King of Accomac, ix. 15. 

Kirbv, Francis, vi. 40*, 42, 49, 471, 482, 484, 
487, 495, 497, 507, 511; vii. 224. Letters 
to John Winthrop, 18, 19, 20, 21; to John 
Winthrop, Jr., 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. Fac- 
similes of his signature and seal, vii. plate 
1. Notice of, 13??. 

Kirk, Col., 1685, v. 142, 328. 

Kirk, John Foster, Cor. Memb. M. H. S., 
vii. p. xii. ; viii. p. xi. ; ix. p. xvii. 

Kirk, Thomas, viii. 123??, 179??. 

Kirke, or Kirk, Sir David, Gov. of Nova 
Scotia, v. 319; ix. 97. Successes of, in 
Canada, vi. 572. 

Kirke, John, ix. 97. 

Kirke, Louis, ix. 97. 

Kirkland, John Thornton, D.D., Member 
M. H. S., i. p. vi. ; Librarian, p. xx. ; 
Asst. Librarian, p. xx. ; on the Standing 
Com., p. xx.; on the Committee of Pub- 
lication of vols. 6, 9, 1st Series, i. p. xxi. 

Kiskeminetos, Forks of the, v. 506. 

Kissin, William, ii. 45. 

Kitchell, Robert, Death of, vii. 570. 

Kittanning, Expedition against, 1756, v. 
425, 428, 432. 

Kittery, v. 352. Letter to the Donation 
Committee of Boston, iv. 216. English 
slain at, v. 315, 317. 

Kittoa, v. 580. _ ' 

Kizebenuit, Chief of the Penobscot Indians, 
v. 336. 

Knapp, Elizabeth, Account of the case of, 
by Samuel Willard, viii. 555-570. 

Knapp, Rev. Frederic N., i. 290. 

Knapp, John Coghill, x. 537, 542, 547, 549. 

Knatchbul, Sir Norton, Bart, viii. 459. 

Kneeling at the sacrament, viii. 171. 

Knight, Ensign, wounded, 1761, v. 578. 

Knight, Eliza, iii. 213. 

Knight, John, iii. 213. 

Knight, Robert, letter to Thomas Milward, 
vi. 573. Letter to, from Abraham Shurt, 

Knight, Rev. William, i. 212. 

Knollvs, Hanserd, vi. 103, 106; vii. 179. 

Knott, James, ix. 3. 

Knowles, Capt. Edward, iv. 263. 

Knowles, Francis, i. 212. 

Knowles, Prof. James D., iii. 310?». 

Knowles, Rev. John, i. 16; ii. 117; {Rev. 
John?) viii. 496, 584, 675. 

Knowles, Myles, iii. 213. 

Knowls, Gov., 1747, v. 373. 

Knowlton, Thomas, v. 370. 

Knox's " History of Ceylon," viii. 673. 

Knyphausen, Gen., 1780, x. 804, 808. 

Kohl, J)r. Johaiin Georg, Cor. Memb. M. 
H. S., v. p. xii.; vi. p. xii.; vii. p. xii.; 
viii. p. xiii. ; ix. p. xvii. 

Roller, Mr., wounded, 1760, ix. 257. 

Kollock, Lemuel, of Wrentham, 1774. iv. 11. 

Kollock, Lemuel, M.D., of Savannah, Cor. 
Memb. M. II. S., i. p. xii. 

KoffnToypaQia, by Increase Mather, viii. 49, 

101??, 480. 
Kotter, Christoph, Predictions of, viii. 48. 
Koussinoc. See Augusta. 
Kowee. See Keowee. 
Kuffler, Abraham, vii. (Kepler